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RISK ASSESMENT, MITIGATION, AND CONTINGENCY PLANNING
1. Supply chain map
The supply chain mapping is necessary to consider for the “swift tires” company. As the company mainly manufacture the different components of the bicycle tire, including the foam used in the tubeless tire, it is necessary to construct the supply chain without having a breakdown. The breakdown within the disruptive supply chain may cause a failure in the resourcing and manufacturing process.
Here, the “supply chain mapping” will help to determine the factors upon which the suppliers are dependent. Along with that, it will also require to evaluate the possible location for proceeding further expansion of the manufacturing unit of tires (Lyngso, 2017). It is also possible that disrupt or breakdown in any stage of the supply chain may cause the overall mapping process, which will determine the efficiency of the managing process of manufacturing.
2. Critical path analysis
The “critical path analysis” (CPA), for the swift and sure company, will help to understand the most crucial task that needs to be done for the growth of the company. From the study, it has been assumed that the business model ultimately provides value by manufacturing tires with the foaming system. It also observed that the technology, machine, and foam used in this project are made at a medium scale. Not only that the statistics say that more than 80% of manufactured units are exported to foreign countries. This implies that the future expansion of the business and disrupt the free supply chain process is required to be in a simple form. The CPA is, therefore, the most crucial task that the “Swift tires” company needs to adopt to expand the market (De et al. 2017). The task for the CPA are given below:
Increasing the manufacturing unit for producing the tire foam
Importing or manufacturing the foam at a higher rate
Increase in installation of the machinery required for the manufacturing
Pricing strategy for the project.
Developing a well-organized marketing strategy to enhance the global presence of “Swift tires”
By negotiating the freight cost/custom clearance and Inland Haulage Charges.
Finding more suppliers for tires raw material to help get competitive prices as well as short lead time to help meet uncertain demands.
For the advancement of the company manufacturing of tires, this company Swift Tyres needs to incorporate manufacturing and production strategies that are better than the imports of tires from other manufacturers. This increases the company sales as well because of the company’s unique manufactured products. This implementation of palmed strategies by this company to decrease the bargaining power of suppliers and increasing their production as well as machinery capacity is done by Matt. Along with that, the company may also need to look out on setting the time and budget, as the measure of achieved goal with respect to the time will help to identify the efficiency of the business plan and CPA (Flammer, 2018). The time duration is also needed within the CPA, and the company assigns a specific time duration for all the given tasks.
2.1. Failure mode and effect analysis
The failure of the tire manufacturing company mainly deals with the negative aspect that may impact the growth of the company. The first aspect of the failure mode is to identify the issue included in the plan that may go against the company’s growth. After observing the case study, it can be observed that the company “Swift tires” has already planned to expand its service to foreign countries. Though the uniqueness and usefulness of tubeless tire have largely impacted the tire industry. Due to high value, the company has seen a growth in its market, but a recent study states that the company has failed to maintain the product quality to a foreign country. Therefore, the product quality of the tire may do poor performance in the overseas market.
The second major problem occurring due to the import and export charge of the material is the high price of the product. Along with that, the price of the tire is also not consistent. Due to inconsistent in the import charges and value of the money in a foreign country, the pricing strategy for the company is not simplified yet.
The third factor included in the failure mode is the work environment. From the official source of the company, it has been observed that the behavior towards the workers and employees are not satisfactory (Isaksen, Tödtling & Trippl, 2018). This may harm the organizational structure in the future due to a lack of employee satisfaction.
Supply chain map
Fig 1: “Supply chain mapping”
2.2. Critical path map
Fig 2: Project duration
(Source: Project Libre) I want it in a chart form
Critical path analysis
11/16/19 8:00 AM
2/11/20 5:00 PM
11/16/19 8:00 AM
11/20/19 5:00 PM
Determination of possible solution
11/21/19 8:00 AM
11/27/19 5:00 PM
Installation of manufacturing unit
11/28/19 8:00 AM
12/18/19 5:00 PM
Improving the DPT technology
12/19/19 8:00 AM
1/8/20 5:00 PM
Expansion of distribution network
1/9/20 8:00 AM
1/16/20 5:00 PM
1/17/20 8:00 AM
1/17/20 5:00 PM
Execution of marketing at global level
1/29/20 8:00 AM
2/7/20 5:00 PM
Analysis of the result
2/10/20 8:00 AM
2/11/20 5:00 PM
Fig 2: Project duration
2.3. Risk mitigation table
Target completion date
installation of the machinery for the manufacturing process
Improving the DPT technology to enhance the quality of the tire
Increasing the distribution network
Developing a business model including the proper pricing strategy
Wait for budget
Table 1: Risk mitigation table
(Source: Self- created)
3. Risk mitigation and contingency planning
In this case study, the risk mitigation gives a clear idea regarding the risk exposure or the future risk that may impact the distribution and importation of the raw materials for the tire. The mentioned table of the risk mitigation describes the possible risk exposure that could be prevented within the approximate time duration. From dealing with the installation of the manufacturing unit to develop a pricing strategy, the risk mitigation also expresses the exposure level in the form of the Residual data of CN. [Referred to Appendix 1]
Again the contingency planning reflects the problem that may occur in the execution process (Patrucco, Luzzini, & Ronchi, 2016). Since the company is suffering due to the importation of the raw materials as the charge and quality of the imported material is inconsistent, it is essential to prevent the low pricing strategy.
3.1. Recommended action plan for each risk
The first recommendation of the pricing strategy is that the “Swift tires” company may look to develop a manufacturing unit of the foam instead of importing the materials. This will also solve the issue regarding inconsistent in quality and pricing of the products. [Referred to Appendix 2]
The second recommendation for the company is to focus on expanding the distribution network, as the majority of the business based on foreign countries (Piirainen, Tanner, & Alkærsig, 2017). Along with that, the company also needs to focus on improving the internal structure of the organization. It has been studied that, due to the lack of proper managing systems in the organization, many employees have resigned from the organization. Therefore improving the organizational structure will help to solve the issue regarding employee job satisfaction. Another thing that the company may look to improve is the improvisation in technology. It has been noted that the company has previously suffered due to the low quality of the product. The product quality such as tire quality includes various factors such as inconsistent in the importation; low quality imported foam and more. Therefore, by improving the DPT technology and developing the distribution network, “Swift tires”. The company may improve the overall efficiency and performance.
Fig 4: Recommendation for swift tyres company
(Source: Self- created)
3.2. Residual risk assessment table
L likely hood of occurrence(1-5)
Effect of failure
S Severity of effect s(1-5)
Cause of failure
D Likelihood of Detection(1-5)
CN (Criticality No.)s= L*S*D
The quality issue in the tire
Negative impact on the Brand reputation
Quality of the imported foam and other materials
Import of the raw materials
High pricing and delay in manufacturing
Due to lack of proper supply chain process
Unclear business plan
Loss and unclear revenue model of the business
Inconsistent in price
Lack of Customer loyalty
Due to lack of proper importation of materials
Table 2: Risk assessment table
(Source: Self- created)
PROPOSAL FOR MANAGEMENT OF CUSTOMER MARKET
1. Analysis of manufacturing process
The engineering steps that are followed by a company for the manufacturing of a product is referred to as the manufacturing process (Tang et al. 2017). Several steps and qualitative raw materials are used by the manufacturers to produce the final product with proper designing and specification of material. Rubber is mainly an essential raw material that is used by tire manufacturers to produce tires. Both synthetic, as well as natural rubbers, can be selected and used by the tire manufacturers for the production of tires (Mangan and Lalwani, 2016). Natural rubbers are found in the bark of a tree named Hevea Brasiliensis. Polymers in Crude oil are the origin of synthetic rubber.
This includes a step of collecting raw material that is rubber according to the demand. The liquid form of the rubber that is collected is mixed with certain acids that solidifies the liquid latex of the rubber. Excess water is squeezed out from the resulted rubber by pressing. This results in the formation of rubber sheets. Drying of the rubber sheets is done in the smokehouses that are big enough for big productions in the manufacturing processes of Swift Tyres (Fernie and Sparks, 2018). After the death, the material achieved is pressed into huge bales. The end product now gained is a rubber tire. This is then transported to the tire factories that include “Swift Tyres” as well.
The production of tires is basically by the design that is focused on during the manufacturing process. Different designs are required for the designing of tires for different vehicles.
In the case of Swift Tyres, this tire design that is focused on the bicycle. This tire company manufactured tires by the use of foam. The foam after injecting into the tires results in the manufacturing of tire that has a foam core. The foam was used by Matt instead of water pressure for squeezing the tread pattern of tires.
Possible sources for agility and complexity reduction
There are several possible resources that act for the reduction of agility as well as complexity. Complexity in the business models owned by the Swift Tyres can be made simple by the restructuring of their business models. This can result in the increasing of customer demands as well as sustainable production of the company’s products (Wang et al. 2016). This includes controlling and managing suppliers, operators, technology as well as organizational procedures by the management of Swift Tyres by strategic decisions. The decision-making process involves monitoring the workplace practices of workers in the company to assess their involvement in the company productions. Therefore, Matt needs to change some of the operations based on the short-term goals for the reduction and avoiding of agility as well as complexity (Isaksen, Tödtling & Trippl, 2018). The practices that Matt needs to include consists of:
Focusing on the customers: It is important for the production company to be more focused on the needs and wants of the customers along with their advantage. The preferences of customers from the research on the market can result in a detailed report of the changes that are needed in the procedures. [Referred to Appendix 3] (De et al. 2017)
Planning for long term goals and objectives with short term goals: Short term decisions and goals are always helpful in the completion of longterm goals and objectives in an organization (Stadtler, 2015). The accomplishment of short-term goals for achieving aims, missions, and visions of this tire company is a helpful resource to the agility and complexity in Swift Tyres.
The adaptability of the supply chain: Maintenance of supply chain and its management for sustainable production is necessary for the implication to be reduced. The right balance of the production and the demand from customers are to be managed properly for the reduction in complexity and agility in Swift Tyres. (Stadtler, 2015)
Bottlenecks in the manufacturing process
In the current market size and competition, production companies need to improve their productivity for improved manufacturing. This includes the improvement of quality of productions along with improved raw materials from suppliers. To gain a competitive advantage in the competitive industry, improvement in the quality of products along with the meeting of demand from customers with appropriate quantity is necessary. The chain processes in the Swift Tyres that are responsible for reducing and limiting the capacity of the whole supply chain in the production of Swift Tyres. This problem is to be mitigated as it can lower employee involvement in the company productions (Fan & Stevenson, 2018). The bottleneck that is likely to occur in this tire production company may involve:
Production rate: The production rate that is most likely to occur in a production company is fluctuating production rate. In some cases, it can be possible that the production of a company is low, but the demand of customers is high. This results in the main problem. In some cases, there can be much production by a company, but the customer demand is low. This can lead to a huge wastage of production as well as loss. Material requirements and a low-quality supply chain can act as the increasing of the bottleneck in the manufacturing process as well. (Fan & Stevenson, 2018)
2. Proposals for management of customer market demand uncertainty analysis
This is a phase that is faced by many companies in their production and manufacturing processes. This is a phase when the business organizations are not certain about the demand for their product in the future years. This is due to the decreasing and increasing the demand for the same product over a certain period (Nie et al. 2017). This results in the fluctuation of demand and demand uncertainty. For the context of the supply chain of the same product, this tire company is uncertain about the demand for its products after some time. The uncertainty of their sales in the future years results in these steps by Swift Tyres. However, this can be managed as well. The management of customer markets can be resulted in the management of production according to customer demands and preferences. This can change and influence the positive reactions of customers by strategic supply chain management. This includes approaches and strategies to increase flexibility in the demand of the supply chain (Nie et al. 2017). The approaches include:
Safety stock: This is the most effective and efficient strategy that can be incorporated by a business company in terms of its productions. This results in the reduction of problems during the huge demand of customers regarding their products. (Fan & Stevenson, 2018)
Backup for suppliers: This is also an important step that can be used by production companies by arranging and managing backup for suppliers. This also is working with multiple suppliers to increase their input and output as well (Vaidya and Campbell, 2016).
Safety of workers: The safety of workers is also an important step that is to be maintained by every business entity for the safety of their employees. In the manufacturing of tires, several processes are included that can result in the accident of employees. In Swift Tyres, Maintenance of these points is necessary for the better involvement of employees in the company production.
Design processes: The design that is required for the preferable vehicles are to be included in the production of tires. This results in the production of the most demanded tire and can reduce the demand uncertainty as well. (Nie et al. 2017)
Preference of customers to be valued: Preferences of customers according to the vehicle is necessary. Besides, the customers must be able to pay for the exclusive price range that will be included in the rate of the buying of tires for customers. This is a strategic step to decrease the demand uncertainty. (pdfs.semanticscholar.org, 2015)
2.2. Sources of uncertainty in terms of demand and supply
The case study of the tire company illustrates the issue regarding the supply chain and distribution of the product. It has been seen that the company mainly focuses on importing and exporting raw materials and products. The major issue of importing products is the inconsistency in the quality of the products such as foam. The recent case study describes that the company has suffered due to a quality issue (Walsh & Dodds, 2017). Not only that the foam quality, but the durability of the tire is also a major concern that needs to be fixed as soon as possible. Along with that, the durability of the tire needs to be consistent in all the countries. From the study, the sources are defined as poor distribution and the lack of a proper supply chain. The supply chain within the organization is found poor as more than 80% of the products are imported, which increases the overall pricing. The company could fix the issue by installing the manufacturing unit in the same country. This will also help to enhance the product durability and quality. Another uncertainty of the company is found as the lack of a “supply chain management” system. It has been observed that the supply chain system, including the resourcing sources and manufacturing unit, lacks consistency and productivity. As a result, the company fail to maintain the overall standard of the product
3.Strategy for managing demand and uncertainty formulation
Strategic planning processes are required for the management of the demand uncertainty that can be faced by the manufacturing companies in their business productions. Fore such uncertainties, several approaches that include traditional and professional approaches are important. Predictions of the market of the future by detailed market research helps make strategic plans for the elimination and management of demand uncertainty. Well, certain strategic steps are included by Matt for the reduction of uncertainty of demands in Swift Tyres
The strategic techniques include:
Detailed market research: This is a step that is required by manufacturing companies to get an outline as well as an overview of the intended product among the customers in the current market. This research is based on national as well as international market sizes.
Competitor analysis for strategic cost and capacity: An analysis of the competitors, their productions, their production companies, as well as their unique specifications are necessary to make strategic plans (Bakar et al. 2016). This can result in the strategic advancement and gaining of competitive advantage among the industry rivals.
Value chain analysis: The internal activities of this business firm are to be analyzed well by Matt to reflect a good influence on the production of this company. This recognizes the essential activities that are worked on by the company and employees to gain an advantage in cost and differentiation. (Walsh & Dodds, 2017)
The framework of five forces: Competition in the business owned by Matt that can affect the improvement of Swift Tyres are important. This also acts as a planned strategy to eliminate the demand uncertainties that can be faced by this company (Christopher, 2016).
3.1. Describe changes in processes both inside the company and along the supply chain
For gaining competitive advantage, the production of tire manufacturing companies is to be maintained and advanced as well. This is an important step that is required for the improvement of company productions. The production of tires by the Swift Tyres, therefore, involved manufacturing by themselves only using Foam core instead of water pressure. Using qualitative supply chains are also important for the improvement of company productions (Pan and So, 2016). The application of Six-sigma is also an important step that can be incorporated by Matt to gain a competitive advantage. This included the involvement and incorporation of the five phases of six sigma in the manufacturing process of tires by Swift Tyres (nrcresearchpress.com, 2019).
The phases named as the DMAIC are described below.
Define: Defining of the short term and longterm goals
Measure: Measuring of the attributes that are based on performance
Analyze: Identification and analyzing the possible ways that are necessary for accomplishing the goals, missions, and objectives.
Improve: Alternative ways and strategies are planned for the improvement of manufacturing processes by Swift Tyres. (spendmatters.com, 2019).
Control: Maintenance of the success of Swift Tyres by incorporating the steps as changes in company processes.
3.2. Describe implementation steps
Implementation of Six Sigma requires planned strategies that are to be incorporated in the introduction of the new and improved changes in the company productions.
Project: The most important as well as essential steps to implement Six Sigma in the production of Swift Tyres are the steps of starting with a planned project. (Richards and Grinsted 2016)
Training:The employees of the organization that are going to be involved with the new and improved changes in the company procedures and manufacturing needs to be knowledgeable. This requires training from trained personnel.
Teaming up:Teaming up of all the employees along with a skilled and highly qualitative team leader is the next step towards this strategic step of this company. This ensures high employee engagement in the manufacturing of tires according to the new policies. (Tradeready.ca, 2019)
Planning:The whole planning and applying the strategies requires good and qualitative leaders as well as company management.
Executing:Executing the project that is planned by the management for the initiation of the necessary changes is an important step of the whole implementation process.
Evaluating:Evaluation of the whole incorporation by this company raised the last and essential step that requires evaluation of all the parameters as well as criteria. (Richards and Grinsted 2013)
3.3. Improved supply chain
Fig 5: WBS
(Source: Project Libre) make it more clear ,the words are hidden in the chart.make it more readable
The presented analysis map for the swift and sure company illustrates the critical task that needs to be either improved or changed for the betterment of the growth. The critical map shows the first critical task as problem identification. From the case study, many problems and issues have been notified, which needs to be solved with a better-planned business strategy. Along with that, the critical map also described the need for improving the manufacturing rate. Due to the highly dependent business model, it is important to improve the manufacturing rate by installing more manufacturing units.
This will prevent the company from delivering inconsistent product quality. At the same time, the product cost will also be controlled as the import of foam used in the tire will be manufactured within the country. The updated critical path helps to deliver an improved and better quality of the tire (Piirainen, Tanner & Alkærsig, 2017)
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Richards, G. and Grinsted, S., 2013. The Logistics and Supply Chain Toolkit: over 90 tools for transport, warehousing and inventory management. Kogan Page Publishers.
Bakar, N.A., Peszynski, K., Azizan, N., Sundram, K. and Pandiyan, V., 2016. Abridgment of Traditional Procurement and E-Procurement: Definitions, Tools and Benefits. Journal of Emerging Economies & Islamic Research, 4(1). Retrieved from: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/148367306.pdf
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Flammer, C. (2018). Competing for government procurement contracts: The role of corporate social responsibility. Strategic Management Journal, 39(5), 1299-1324. Retrieved from: http://sites.bu.edu/cflammer/files/2018/09/Flammer_SMJ2018_inclAppendix.pdf [Retrieved on 3.11.2019]
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Kim, M., Suresh, N. C., & Kocabasoglu-Hillmer, C. (2015). A contextual analysis of the impact of strategic sourcing and E-procurement on performance. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 30(1), 1-16. Retrieved from: http://apps.olin.wustl.edu/faculty/zhang/Zhang-Journal/delegation. pdf [Retrieved on 3.11.2019]
Nie, X., Boyacı, T., Gümüş, M., Ray, S. and Zhang, D., 2017. Joint procurement and demand-side bidding strategies under price volatility. Annals of Operations Research, 257(1-2), pp.121-165. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/328e/9d1bb74c6dece2679e6eb890ba681fec1bae.pdf
Pan, W. and So, K.C., 2016. Component procurement strategies in decentralized assembly systems under supply uncertainty. IIE Transactions, 48(3), pp.267-282. Retrieved from: https://cloudfront.escholarship.org/dist/prd/content/qt5f79n4wj/qt5f79n4wj.pdf
Patrucco, A. S., Luzzini, D., & Ronchi, S. (2016). Evaluating the effectiveness of public procurement performance management systems in local governments. Local Government Studies, 42(5), 739-761. Retrieved from: https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/51177825/PUBLISHED_Evaluating_the_Effectiveness_of_Public_Procurement_Performance_Management_Systems_in_Local_Governments.pdf? [Retrieved on 3.11.2019]
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Biology is a complicated subject that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution. Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis.
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What is Biology?
Biology is the science of life. Its name is derived from the Greek words “bios” (life) and “logos” (study). Biologists study the structure, function, growth, origin, evolution and distribution of living organisms. Biology is the study of life and all living organisms and it clarifies our knowledge of various life forms. Moreover, it is a branch of natural sciences that studies and understands living organisms along with their evolution, function, behavior, interaction, growth, structure, and origin. Biology as a subject that includes several fields within itself such as physiology, anatomy, morphology and physiology for additional study. Cells are the fundamental unit of life. We consume food which is converted into energy. This energy acts as a crucial element for our growth and survival. The outcome of evolution theory explains that we have transmitted attributes from our ancestors. All the important concepts of heredity like Genetics, for instance, are fundamental and prove the existence of humans on earth. This is what makes the study of biology relevant to humans.
Main theories of Modern Biology
The cell theory:
Cell is discovered by the Biologist Robert Hook. The cell is the basic unit of life that arises from the already existing form. The cell theory involves an explanation of how cells work and function. This theory was a combined effort of three famous scientists Matthias Schleiden, Rudolph Virchow, and Theodor Schwann. The traditional concept of cell theory focuses on the basic information about the cell, whereas, the modern concept elaborates it by explaining the importance of DNA a cell and its energy flow system. In general, cell theory defines the structure, function, and working of various cells in a living body.
Evolution by Natural Selection:
The main concept of Evolution theory is based on the belief that species are produced in a large number. But they are further filtered based on their ability to survive environmental consequences and carry heritable traits, helping them for survival.
Homeostasis was introduced by cannon which means “internal body condition remains constant even if there is a change in the external environment”. The study involved in this theory includes an in-depth study of the endocrine system and the nervous system of the brain. It consists of electrolyte, pressure, pH balance etc.
Gene theory involves answering the questions regarding the transfer of traits from one generation to the other. This theory states that gamete is the reason behind the transmission of characteristics. The theory concludes that Gene theory is proved as a unit of inheritance. There have been several changes in gene theory as the time passed. Many researchers showed interest and worked on genes, chromosomes, and DNA.
Topics that we cover in Biology
Study of Cell Biology will help you acquire knowledge regarding the structure, function, and composition of a cell. Cells are also important to conduct a study on various diseases, immune system, transplantation of organs of the body and much more. Cell movement, Cell cycle, Cell signaling, Cell culture are some important topics in this field of Biology.
It means the study of internal organs of a living body. This field of study is important to understand the composition, importance, and functioning of any specific organ. Therefore, when plants anatomy is studied, it is referred to as plant anatomy. Similarly, the study of animals is termed as animal anatomy.
Genetics involves the study of heredity, gen and variations in an organism. It is a detailed study of genetic disorders, transmission of the trait, DNA, and study on Chromosomes which are important components of this field of biology. Today, this field of Biology includes a vast range of topics such as Molecular genetics, engineering, Epigenetic and more.
Molecular Biology provides information regarding how different systems of a body interact at the molecular level. Consequently, molecular biology is related to many other fields of science which includes Genetics, Cell biology and many more. Some important topics studied in this field are Membrane Biology, Biomolecules, and Gene expression.
Biochemistry involves the study regarding structure and functions of biomolecules that form the elements of the living cell and understands how different biological processes in living beings. In order to understand how cellular structures of a living cell is made and works, you must understand the complex biomolecules like peptides, proteins, carbohydrates, amino acids, fructose, glucose, DNA and RNA including DNA sequencing and DNA cloning, nucleic acids, generation of free radicals, antioxidants. Gaining knowledge on the structure and functioning of these biomolecules helps you understand cell functions like cell signaling, bioinformatics, neurology and neurochemistry, heredity, genomics, and life processes like nutrition, RNA transcription, metabolism etc.
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Chemistry is a sub-discipline of science that deals with the study of matter and the substances that compose it. It also deals with the properties of these substances and the reactions undergone by them to form new substances. Chemistry primarily focuses on atoms, ions, and molecules which, in turn, make up elements and compounds. These chemical species tend to interact with each other through chemical bonds. It is important to note that the interactions between matter and energy are also studied in the field of chemistry. Chemistry is a broad field in Science that includes major and minor chemical details. Chemistry provides the knowledge of synthesis, composition, the energy of elements, and dynamics. It displays a combination of the molecules for forming a different or similar product. Your assignment may cover questions from any of these disciplines. We have professional writers to solve all these equations and formulae.
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Chemistry and its different fields
Chemical elements can bond together to form chemical compounds, which are substances made up of multiple elements, like carbon dioxide which is made of one carbon atom connected to two oxygen atoms, or multiple atoms of a single element, like oxygen gas. These chemical compounds can then bond with other compounds or elements to form countless other substances and materials.
Physical chemistry uses concepts from physics to understand how chemistry works. For example, figuring out how atoms move and interact with each other, or why some liquids, including water, turn into vapor at high temperatures. Physical chemists try to understand these phenomena at a very small scale on the level of atoms and molecules to derive conclusions about how chemical reactions work and what gives specific materials their own unique properties. Physical Chemistry is a main branch of science that offers a couple of things with physics. Under physical chemistry, students need to manage the molecules, atoms, latent heat, chemical reactions, and the concept of energy. It is deeply mathematical and requires students to use a lot of formula to solve the problem.
Biochemistry uses chemistry techniques to understand how biological systems work at a chemical level. Biochemistry scientists have been able to map out the human genome, understand what different proteins do in the body and develop cures for many diseases. Biochemistry is the part of science that investigates the chemical rules within and associated with living organisms. It is a laboratory-based science that takes together biology and chemistry. By using chemical knowledge and techniques, biochemists can understand and solve biological problems.
Organic chemistry deals with chemical compounds that contain carbon, an element considered essential to life. Organic chemists study the composition, structure, properties and reactions of such compounds, which along with carbon, contain other non-carbon elements such as hydrogen, sulfur and silicon. Organic Chemistry is where you learn about the piece of natural materials. It is the most important branch, and the essential concentration is around Carbon particles. Organic Chemistry is constrained to the investigation of Hydrocarbons, the mixes made up of the Carbon and Hydrogen. In the evaluations identified with Organic chemistry, you are required to comprehend the substance equations and structures of the natural mixes.
Inorganicchemistry studies the chemical compounds in inorganic, or non-living things such as minerals and metals. Traditionally, inorganic chemistry considers compounds that do not contain carbon. Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds. This field covers all chemical compounds except the myriad of organic compounds, which are organic chemistry subjects.
Analyticalchemistry involves the analysis of chemicals, and includes qualitative methods like looking at color changes, as well as quantitative methods like examining the exact wavelengths of light that a chemical absorbed to result in that color change. Analytical chemistry is the science of obtaining, processing, and communicating information about the composition and structure of matter. In other words, it is the art and science of determining what matter is and how much of it exists.
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In this research study, investigate suitable practice in food wastage management for Dominion’s Pizza Davies Corner store located in Clarkin Rood, Hamilton. The store has been licensed to sell and offer food services to the customers. The main aim of this research study is to create awareness on the importance of reducing food wastage and suggesting mechanisms that the store can implement in order to reduce their food waste. The store is facing challenges in managing the store food waste.
The research study also discusses Dominions external analysis through Political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental analysis. It also includes SWOT analysis identifies the overall strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to the business.
The resources used are the secondary articles, literature review and academic journals.
Reduction in food wastage has a positive impact on economy, environment and the society. Businesses such as restaurants need to come up with ways on how they can reduce food wastage.
Investigating sustainability practices of food wastage management in Dominos
Dominos Davies Corner store
It is a food service store that is located in Clarkin Road, Davis Corner, Clarkin Road, Fairfield, and Hamilton. Its headquarters are in Queensland, Australia. It is a store that provides food services to customers. Dominos main product is pizza. It was opened in 2003. It operates as a fast food restaurant.
The store aim is to continually be changing tastes according to their consumer demand for natural, Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) and preservative free food.
They have a wide range of products such as pizza, drinks, dessert, and food for vegetarians and goods for kids. Customers make their orders online through the website or through the store app where the orders are delivered or picked by the customer. Their customers can track they’re through Domino’s Live Pizza Tracker. They use E-bike to deliver orders to their customers.
The store direct competitors include Hell pizza and Pizza Bites. Their indirect competitors are McDonald and KFC where customers prefer burger rather than pizza.
Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner website contains information about nutrition, allergens and additives. This educate customers on what is health and provide more information about their menu
The store is one of the leading food technology space. It was the first to develop a drone delivery, ordering application, voice assistants and artificial intelligence (AI). Their goals are to continue enhancing and innovating their products, meeting customer demand, and adopt to new technology.
The store mainly focuses on delivering hence, its eating joint is very squized. The store targets on customers who prefer food being delivered to them rather than going to the store to purchase.
Their menu prices are pocket friendly whereby almost everyone can afford regardless of their class.
SWOT analysis for Dominos
SWOT analysis known for aiding businesses to develop strategic plans that can be used by managers to perform a situational analysis of the organization. It is a useful technique that helps to understand the present Strengths (S), Weakness (W), Opportunities (O) & Threats (T) that a business is facing in its current business environment.
The main purpose of Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store SWOT matrix is to establish the strategies that the store can employ and exploit external opportunities, counter threats, and build on & protect Domino’s Pizza strengths, and do away with its weaknesses.
Dominos products are 96 per cent free from artificial preservatives, colors, Genetic Modified Organism (GMO) and flavors. They are committed to make their menu 100 per cent and ensure that the taste of their pruducts is not compromised.
Dominos is a registered Food Safety Program and their certificate is reviewed and and certified yearling. Their suppliers and ingredients are also certified.
Customers make their orders and within 22 minutes thet get their orders at the comfort of their home. This has been made possible by use of E-bike that improve the store efficiency and delivery time. Furthermore, the store has a tracker that allows customers to track their orders.
Their staffs are friendly and professional and their customer service is excellent. This is because the employees are well trained on how to handle customers. This improves customer satisfaction and make them make their orders in Dominos Davies Corner store than the competitors.
Consumers’ eating habit is changing and has an impact on Dominos sales and revenue. Consumers are continuously becoming aware of how important their health is, they are taking more caution on what they order. They are more keen on what they consume and since the store menu has a lot of wheat, it needs to consider an addition of healthy menu such as salad in their menu.
The store is facing a challenge of new entrant. There is less hindrance for new entrant in food service industry, therefore, the store loose the market share in the niche categories. Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner needs to develop an internal feedback system that will be used by sales team in the field in order to respond to this challenge.
The store employees low skilled employees who are likely not satisfied with the store work especially when the working environment is more demanding. Their only solution to this is to quit and look for a job. This has been for challenging to the store since the rate of employees turnover is high. Its rivals employees professional and high skilled staff who are satisfied with their work and as result their production is high.
Sometimes, customers feels like enjoying their meal out door but the store has a small eating joint that is so squized and can only fit a few number of their customers. The reason why the eating joint is squized is because their main focus is on take awares. This is a threat since customers will look for a store that has a comfortable eating joint.
Domino’s Pizza Davies Cornercan introduce a health conscious menu that has a new flavor additives and low in fat. This will help to boost the store sales and revenue in future since the demand for healthy food is increasing.
New technology creates an opportunity for Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner. Investing in new technology will help the store to differentiate different pricing strategy in the current and new market. This will help the store to increase customer retention rate with the great service and attract new customers.
Increase in customer spending creates and opportunity for the store to increase their sales and revenue. Customers will spend more in the store regularly. This also helps the store to capture new customers hence increase in market share.
The store has an opportunity to invest on Big Data Analytic which will help them to capture their customers’ details. They will be able to understand their customers better
Change in consumers eating behavior creates a threat to Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store. The government and the Non Governmental Organization (NGO) are mainly focusing on health awareness. People are able to access information on what is health and what is not. Therefore, this affects their decision on what to consume which has affected the store negatively.
Their is an increase in the cost of store raw materials which has forced it to spend more. This has impacted negatively on the cash flow of the store. Competition has also made the store to spend more in order to remain competitive and retain the market share.
The store faces competition both directly and indirectly. It faces local and national competition from Domino’s Pizza Hamilton, Domino’s Pizza Hillcrest. KFC and McDonald have indirect competition where customers prefer to consume burgers instead of pizzas.
PESTLE stands for Political, Economic, Social-Culture, Technology, Legal and Environmental factors. PESTLE analysis presents information on the business operation challenges that are faced by Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store in the extensive macro environment apart from competitive forces.
Adjustment in the macro environment factors can impact Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store directly or its rivals. It can also boost the store competitive advantage and the overall profit.
This aspect of PESTLE analysis deals with how government and its policies have effects on remote and macro-environment of Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store.
The government has ordered the citizens to avoid going to public places and stay home. This order was as a result of Corona Virus outbreak. This will reduce the number of customers who consumes the store product. It will later lead to close of the store.
There is also a restriction order of closing the country boarders to foreigners. Other countries are not giving visas. This has reduced the number of tourist who is the potential customers for the store which is a threat.
Evolving public health policies is a threat and an opportunity to Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store. The government requires foodservice providers to produce products that are less unhealthy. The store will need to use more resources than usual. However, the store has an opportunity to adjust their production of healthy food. It can do away with artificial preservatives, colors and flavors 100 per cent in all of their products and still remain the same taste.
There is an increase in the minimum wage of employees that is required by the government. The store has to spend more to pay the employees, thus the store returns and profit will be affected.
This facet of the PESTLE analysis analyzes how economic conditions and trends on the remote or macro-environment affects business operation of Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store. Change in economy has direct or indirect influence on business performance.
Currently the country and global economy has been affected by corona virus pandemic. The country economy is in recession stage and it will continue to be worse until the virus is succumbed. This has affected customers’ purchasing power which has led to decrease in sales.
Consumer purchasing power has also been affected by the current outbreak of the virus. People are purchasing most basic and more important products rather than purchasing pizza from the store. This reduces the store sales and can also lead to increase in food waste.
This PESTLE analysis helps to identify the social conditions that aid or confine Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store operation. The social trends have an impact on consumer behavior. It also affects the remote and macro-environment of the restaurant in terms of revenue.
Changes in lifestyle trend where the customers want a healthy lifestyle. Social factors create a great opportunity for the store business development. It has an opportunity to change its products so that they can satisfy their customers’ preferences. It also has an opportunity of producing healthy products such as salads. This also imposes a threat to the store since they can lose customers to their competitors depending on the product they sell.
This analyzes how technologies and related trends have impacts on Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store remotely and macro-environment. The restaurant needs to adapt to the new technology for its own survival in the competitive environment.
The rate of technology diffusion can either be a threat or an opportunity to the store. Slow speed diffusion of technology gives the store time to adapt to the new technology while fast speed technology al diffusion gives limited time for the store to adopt, cope and be profitable.
The large number of the population has access to Smartphone and Internet therefore, they are able to order online and track their delivery. This is an opportunity for the store since the number of potential customers is increasing almost every day.
Use of technology can help the store to reduce food waste by tracking where the food waste is being generated and calculating the cost that the store incurs when food is wasted.
This factor explores how Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store has been affected by trends in natural environment and effects on the business remote and macro-environment.
Climate change is a threat to the store since it determines the availability and supply of the store agricultural materials. It also affects the supply chain of the store. This creates a threat to the store since it will spend more to purchase their raw materials for their product.
Environmental sustainability is a major concern globally. Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store needs to research and invest on how they can reduce, reuse and recycle food waste.
This facet of PESTLE analyzes the impact of laws and regulation on Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store. Amendments in legal systems and new laws impose new requirements by the restaurant.
Increase in legal minimum wages impose a threat to the store since they will spend more to pay their employees thus, it reduce the store profit.
Competition laws are a threat and an opportunity for the store. The store has an opportunity to develop competing strategies and on the other hand its competitors impose a threat of winning their customers.
Health and safety law requires the store to sell healthy products that are safe for human consumption. The store also need to label their products such details include expiry date, product ingredients.
To investigate suitable practice in food wastage management in Dominos.
To find the effective measures on food wastage reduction at Dominion.
To identify innovative and technology to be employed in food management practices of waste food by Dominos
To identify impacts of food wastage by Dominion
To identify how to reduce, reuse and recycle food waste by Dominos.
To identify ways of keeping food safe by Dominos
There is a continuous increase of food wastage globally from all areas of food supply chain. In developing countries, food wastage mostly occurs on the end of food supply chain while in developed countries, food wastage is a problem in consumer plate waste. Food wastage is categorized into three. Avoidable food waste for food that was edible at some point, potentially avoidable food waste and unavoidable food (Leo, Nina & Matthew 2017)
Almost a third of food produced globally for human consumption go to waste which is almost 1.3 billion tonnes yearly. The food production resource is demanding. The food waste has an indirect associated by a wide range of environmental effects such like water and air pollution, soil erosion, and greenhouse gas emissions (Gustavsson et al., 2011). Food waste occurs in food production, storage, transportation and management of food waste (Mourad, 2016).
Food waste is an urgent issue that need to be focused since it has a negative impact on the environment and social economy. The restaurant needs to educate their staffs on ways to prevent this issues. Measures needs to be developed in order to curb food waste.
Food wastage is an environmental, economical and social problem. Management of food wastage has been a global issue for many years which has affected both developed and undeveloped countries. In the past few years, there were various measures that were proposed and implemented addressing food wastage issues. There is need for more research that ir required to be performed in order to identify potential measure that can be put in place in order to solve food waste issues as suggested by recent researchers. The available resources on food waste measure are not enough based on the environmental and social-economy performance (Goossens et al. 2019).
Food wastage is a cross cutting issue that involves various stakeholders in the food chain. Various literature reviews put their focus on how individuals can change their attitude and behavior.
Food wastage problem cannot be entirely being solved but it can be reduced (Webder & Khademian 2008). This issue requires engagement of various players in different activities and at a different level.
Food waste management
Food wastage shows that the food production and consumption system is not suitable. Various researchers have not found a consistent definition for food wastage. This research study defines food wastage as stated by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) being the quantity of food wasted within the food supply chain. Food is defined as a product that is consumable by human being (Gustavsson et al, 2011).
There are several ways which can results to food wastage such as Poor supply chain management, contamination of stored food by pests, inappropriate cooking methods, Presence of contaminants such as dirt or mould, malfunctioning appliances (such as refrigerators) and Consumer behavior.
Storing food in uncontaminated environment such as free from sunlight, water chemicals will help to manage food waste.
Food waste generation
There are several ways where food can be lost or wasted in food value chains, such as during purchase and storage, when preparing food, when and after serving which is known as plate waste (Betz et al., 2015). Many researchers have not agreed on various categories of food wastage. (Silvennoinen et al. 2015) classify food waste as initially edible or initially inedible such as peeling of vegetables bones and coffee grounds. (Beretta et al. 2013), categorize food wastage as avoidable, partially avoidable and unavoidable. Eriksson et al. (2017) differentiate source decline during production and administration or management of unwanted food waste. Food wastage occurs at every stage of the global food value chain, from agricultural production to final consumption).
Food wastage is perceived as a preventable challenge which drove the United Nations to come up with a goal number 12.3 that is included in the 17 Sustainable Development Goals which are to be achieved by 2030. The reason for this goal is to reduce food waste that is produced by retailers and consumers and also reduce food waste in the food supply chain.
at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses” (UN, 2017). These goals are achievable since there have been some feasible evidences (Beretta et al. 2013).
Food waste management initiatives
Food waste avoidance will be firmly interlinked with the management and consumption practices. The researchers have only explire the importance of food waste measurement in the food supply chain. This will help to capture the exact dimension of the food wastage problem, determine various sources of food waste and to define an effective measure to monitor reduction over time (Beretta et al., 2013; Betz et al., 2015; Papargyropoulou et al., 2016; Silvennoinen et al., 2015). Further research needs to be conducted in order to identify an effective managerial resolutions for food waste alleviation in food service sector .
Provide customers with plastic containers so that they can take their food home. Even though the portion size is reduced it is not the genuine solution because people will always leave food on their plate regardless the portion size (Pers. Com., Monzón, 2017).
Whatsoever the cause or the source of food wastes has been given great attention by cafes and restaurants. The main goal is to prevent it from happening (Tuppen, 2014). Some strategic and actions has already been set up to reduce food waste. Such actions include increasing employees awareness, more focus has been put by restaurants and café on the amount of food waste and the source of that wastage.
Inventory preventive measures
Evaluation of supply chain by the restaurant on the product quality, timely delivery, the ability to support required volume, consistency of the products and price can help to prevent food waste (Tan et al., 2002).
Restaurants can reduce untracked items in inventory by employing activity-based costing methods that will enable them to track the amount of inputs each dish requires (Vaughn et al., 2010).
The use of technology can help to improve inventory control in restaurants and cafes for every food inventory product. They need to incorporate handling and temperature control requirements, shelf life and expiry dates. Inventory control helps to reduce over-ordering thus minimize food waste (Charlebois, 2015).
Operation preventive measures
Other strategies include menu engineering, tracking of food wastage, activity-based costing, plate size reduction, customer fining, leftovers donation, delivery examination to make sure that the product is not contaminated, damaged packaging and avoid over trimming during preparation (Pirani & Arafat, 2014)
Betz et al. (2015) identified some measures that can be implemented to reduce food wastage. The researcher categorized them according to stages that they were generated. This includes storage and purchase, preparation and cooking, serving or delivery and consumers. Prevention and food waste reduction measure n storage and purchase include storage management optimization like periodic control of expiry date. On preparation and cooking, over production should be avoided, reuse leftovers, control preparation losses and train employees on how they can reduce food waste and fast cool down the food in order to prevent micro organisms growth.
Legislation plays a major role in the achieving a successful food waste management. Practices obtained from laws and regulation such as introduction of requirements like reporting on food waste and standardization for food waste calculation, indicating the expiry on packaged food (Pirani & Arafat, 2014).
cause of food wastage
There is lack of top management or employee awareness on food waste measures, no support or training.
Enhance support by increasing resources, train employees and create awareness.
There is minimum measuring and food wastage monitoring
Perform regular food waste audits for better understating of quantity and source of avoidable food waste. Inform the employees the result and the progress.
There is minimal perception of financial benefit. Many restaurants are focusing on food wastage instead of prevention
Record the cost of food wastage in the kitchen daily. The management should understand the full cost of avoidance food waste through preventative percipient. The management can use audit data to calculate full cost of avoidance food waste, disposal costs and use that information to estimate the proportion of wasted food.
food waste preparation through inexperience and failure to reuse
Determine areas where kitchen waste can be reduced internally.
lack of measuring the required quantity when cooking
Understand legal requirements regarding external distribution or food waste donation to people or animals.
poor forecasting or planning
Implement forecasting and planning procedure.
Limited technical use such as poor refrigeration.
Perform regular maintenance check on equipments such as cleaning, changing coil on refrigerator and ensure that they are properly sealed.
Excess portion sizes
Ensure that the portion sizes are suitable. This can be achieved by inspecting the customer plate waste or talking to them. Provide different range of portion size.
Inform and educate customers to take what they can finish and how food wastage has a negative impact on ecosystem and society. Charge customers who with plate waste.
lack of customer awareness
Customer ordering too much.
There is minimal perception of financial incentive by customers.
The total cost of pre and post-consumption food waste on cafe or restaurant produces might be as a result of top management and employee attitudes towards sustainability and food waste prevention. Most restaurants food waste management fails due to unrecognized full cost pricing when it comes to the total costs of food waste to their business. The prevention of food wastage requires top management and employees to be committed and work together to prevent food wastage.
Food wastage Measuring and monitoring plays a vital role towards food waste prevention (European Commission, 2011b; Gunders, 2012; LeanPath, undated; Nordic Council of Ministers, 2012). Separation and measurement of food waste can impact employees or customers positively by being aware of the quality of food waste that they generate and aggregate their effort to reduce food waste (European Commission, 2011b).
When the source of food waste is identified, helps cafe and restaurant to determine the action points which they can implement to reduce both pre- and post-consumer waste such as making the guests aware about the amount of food waste produced each day and involving staff in reduction measures (Pre-waste, 2012).
Innovation and technology in food management
Advancement in technology and innovations has improved and reduced the cost of food waste management. It is a gradual improvement concerning the current mechanism and distinguished act that are linked with waste minimization (Beise & Rennings, 2005).
Use of technology and innovations helps to focus on reduction of food wastage by either developing new processes and operational improvements or advancement in current technology. For example, Wang et al. (2013) development of green restaurant management standards which includes green foods, green environment and equipment and green management and social responsibility. These initiatives vary in the degree of newness to the adopting firm and, for the most part, require a low degree of new knowledge (Dewar and Dutton, 1986). Some researchers found that application of the Internet of Things (IOT) and network technology helps to improve food waste management in terms of collection, transportation or delivery. These require sophisticated management systems and which involves high level technical skills (Wen et al., 2017).
The use of technology along the whole food value chain from farming to placing food on the plate has an extensive probability of reducing the food wastage. Artificial intelligence (AI) technologies like computer vision, machine learning and data analysis have the key to enhance the food value chain from the farm to trucks to stores and restaurants in an attempt of reducing food waste.
Some restaurants are using Smart Scale to Reduce Food Waste. It helps them to accurately measure the certain amount they product they will require. This technology helps to enhance food traceability process, helps to decrease amount of food that go to waste, and efficiency in transportation and management of food product is raised. This has a direct impact on economic and environmental sustainability issues.
Increamental innovation helps to utilize the current business processes and technology. Thus, it is relatively less complex than profound innovation. Radical innovations helps to identify various techniques that can be used in food waste management. They display a clear departures from current practices (Carrillo et al., 2010). Basic innovations in food management needs a better understanding and commitment , takes more time, and requires a lot of resources. It also associated with greater risks for market uptake and on the other hand they can lead to great significant contributions to environmental sustainability. Nevertheless , there are scarce radical innovations that can be endorsed unless a business has an internal know how resources about the complex and expert in innovation, how to interpret and absorb them (Souto, 2015).
In the past, food waste was not part of managers’ practices until now where they are involved. The management of food waste needs to be creative, all parties should be aware and invent new mechanisms (Chou et al., 2012).
Winnow builds artificial intelligence tools that assist kitchen employees to run more profitable and sustainable kitchens. The AI has recently launched a tool known as Winnow Vision that is designed to automatically track food waste in the kitchens. This technology uses computer vision which is in form of artificial intelligence that helps kitchen employees to identify waste, cut costs and save time.
Camera installation with a set of smart scales plus machine learning technology like the one in autonomous vehicles, Winnow Vision helps to recognize different foods that are being thrown away compute the financial and environmental cost of wasted food in restaurant kitchens (Williams, 2019).
Investing in technology helps restaurant to prevent kitchen food waste and prevent from happening. It is also helps to accurately forecast the future demand and get prepared. Tenzo application is one of the technologies that are used in forecasting.
Tenzo mobile application aids restaurant managers or the owner to forecast demand like how many people to staff and when or the amount of food to be ordered. It also helps them to identify those staffs that are performing better, in regard with up-selling or resulting to positive social media mentions, or to identify areas that are performing best or what menu item needs to be de-listed (Steve, 2017).
Through machine learning, Tanzo helps to predict future sale of a restaurant, therefore, it helps to reduce food waste.
Reuse, recycle and food wastage reduction
Food waste recycle
Restaurants can implement the popular program of Reduce, Reuse, Recycle for waste management this includes the management of food waste, plastics, glass, and paper/ paper Boards (National Institute of Environmental Health Services, 2013). Waste reduction at the source is the main part of reduce, reuse and recycle. Reduction should always start fro, procurement department by purchasing what is required. Procurement is a very important factor to restaurant environmental sustainability.
Recycling of food wastage is efficient and effective than disposal. This process helps to divert waste from the landfill or elsewhere in the solid waste stream and ensure ongoing value when the item is converted into something useful, such as a soil amendment with composting.
Food waste can be used to generate energy for example it is used to generate biogas that is used as a fuel in some cars (Patterson et al. 2011)
Recycling is a program that has a positive impact on food waste management (Wilson, Velis & Cheeseman, 2006) recycling in a restaurant is divided into two categories, a program with a full time recycling manager who oversees the recycling operation and the one that adds responsibilities of recycling to the employees (Lounsbury, 2011).
Snarr & Pezza (2000) Restaurants can avoid food waste by creating reduction consumption by reusing and recycling by donating food. Food waste can be recycled as animal feeds or used to make compost or renewable energy.
There are Ecological benefits of separating food waste collection. Separated collection of food waste is the best option for the environment, since waste should be recognized as a new resource within our world of resource scarcity (Stahel, 2016). Additionally, the processing of food waste results in lower CO2 emissions (Andersen et al., 2011). Sadly, there are few restaurants that choose ecology over economy (OVAM, 2011).
Reduction and Recycling measures
Separate food waste collection in restaurant helps to save time and money. The cost of disposal is relatively high than recycling (Hogg et al., 2016)
Correct food waste collection and recycling has a range of potential benefits (Mills & Andrew, 2014). It helps to divert biodegradable waste from landfill, reduce waste disposal costs since the landfill costs is high, reduce environmental impacts which is accompanied by landfill (toxicity in leachate, landfill gas emissions, etc.), Decrease greenhouse gas emissions by removing the putrescent content from landfill sites, helps to Improve recycling rates.
The most effective way in management of food waste is to reduce the source of food waste. The system needs to be designed that can help to inhibit, reduce and avoid food waste in the first place.
This creates an opportunity for the business to save food, increase profit and the same time impact positively towards the environment.
Through reuse, restaurants find a secondary ways to create a value from an item that was considered as a wasted. There are possible ways the restaurant can reuse waste food such as reallocating the leftovers elsewhere on the menu. Restaurants need to be careful and should comply strictly with food safety guidelines. They can also donate waste food to program that will distribute to the needy.
Food and Safety
Impact of contaminated food
Food safety is vital in public health matters to avert or curb food-borne illnesses. In response to the increase in the number of food-borne illnesses, most of government across the globe is intensifying their efforts to improve food safety. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) contaminated food results to 1.5 billion cases of diarrhea in children annually which increase premature deaths. This affects both developed and developing countries.
Poor nutrition and decline in food consumption is as a result of age-related decline in immune system functioning which gets weak in toddlers and old age which reduce the ability to fight food borne pathogens, resulting in food borne illnesses (Buzby 2002).
Contaminated foods are not safe for human consumption and when consumed it develops symptoms of illness, which usually do not appear for at least one day after ingestion of the contaminated food, usually include diarrhea but vary according to the type of organism ingested (Nester et al. 1998; Jones 1992; de Vries 1997).
In order to enhance food safety in food service industry, it is important for restaurants to comply with the modernization act of food safety in which the main elements include preventive controls and hygienic design of equipment (Piotter, 2018). The hygienic design of equipment is crucial for the success of this program and in processing the different food items in a safe manner.
The packaging of restaurants products should not contaminate the food. The basics in this regard are inspect able, cleanable, chemical cleaning as well as sanitizing solutions, corrosion-resistant, non-toxic and nonporous.
Food is one of the basic needs to human while food waste is one of the major issues that are currently faced by humanity globally. Food waste is also an economic and environmental problem (Purabi et al. 2016). Hence, it is an environmental, socio-economic issue.
Every year, about 1.3 billion tons of food are termed as lost or wasted globally (FAO, 2013), this represent a considerable share of the overall food produced (Lundqvist et al. 2008; Parfitt et al. 2010).
The rate of food wastage is considered to be high in developed countries Buzby & Hyman (2012), on the contrary , 842 million people in poor countries has been estimated to experience chronic hunger (FAO, 2013). This develop a question whether food wastage need to be decreased along food supply chains (Curtis et al. 2016; Martinez-Sanchez et al. 2016; Muriana, 2017; Wilewska-Bien et al. 2016).
Customers eating behavior and requirements have transformed. Increase in working hours and days, change in demographic and economic change has resulted to growth in catering services. This increases the rate of food wastage either by the providers or consumers Joanna et al. (2020). Sustainable Development Goals number 12 which was agreed by United Nations General Assembly, pertain sustainability consumption and production patterns. The goal is to decrease global food waste by retailers and consumers per capita and reduce food waste that is generated in supply chain.
Impacts of food waste
In New Zealand, food wastage is one of the main environmental issues that are currently being addressed by individual, industry and government. About 24,372 tonnes of food get to waste yearly in New Zealand cafes and restaurants. 61 percent of this food waste is avoidable but the rest is unavoidable (Chisnall 2018). 60 per cent of waste food is a preparation waste such wastes are created when cooking such as vegetable peelings, food cooked in correctly, poor storage and unsold food and 33 per cent is plate waste which customers did not consume and finally, 7 per cent is food spoilage that goes bad before consumption Jones (2018).
Food waste and losses in the supply chain has a negative impact on the resources usage such as freshwater and cropland and where an additional billion people could be fed if crop losses were halved (Kummu et al., 2012).
This involved the methods that was used to collect data from the respondents. The primary data was obtained from the manager and an employee at Dominion. A manager and an employee were chosen as sample participants for this research since they are well informed about the store operation and the measures and action they take to reduce food waste. This helps the researcher to gather relevant and correct data required. Therefore, a qualitative method was used for this research. The manager was chosen because he is well informed about the internal and external operation. The employee was chosen since they have knowledge on the amount of waste food per day and the cause.
Data collection method and design
Interviews was the data collection techniques that was used.
Interviews as a method of collecting data will also be used. This method will specifically be used for collecting information on the suitable practice of food wastage management in Dominions. The reason for use of interviews is that they are easy to administer since the questions are prepared in advance. They also allow a great deal of information to be gathered in a short period of time. Interviews also eliminate many sources of bias common to other instruments like observations. In addition, interviews help seek clarification through probing. The questions that will be asked will be confidential between the researcher and the respondents.
The waste food data are recorded and kept by senior authorities. The store policy information on dispensation is strict and only senior or authorized personnel had access to it. The respondents are only willing to give out the information that is not being kept secret. The researcher explained that the research is meant strictly for academic purposes and not for any other purpose. Lack of cooperation from respondents during data collection is another challenge which will be encountered. The respondents might hesitate to discuss due to fear of management. However, the researcher assured them that the information is for academic purpose only and there is no victimization. Therefore, they will be persuaded to participate in the study.
The participants participated in this research willingly, they were not forced to be interviewed or fill in the questionnaire. They were not forced to answer questions; they did not want to answer a particular question the researcher asked them the next question. The participants were assured that the details they share with the researcher will be confidential and will not be shared with anyone else. This includes their names, contacts, job description.
Total cost of avoidable and unavoidable food waste
After the interview and collection of the questioners, the researcher found out that Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store avoidable food waste cost is relatively high and the avoidable food waste is relatively low. The manager stated that the employees are not aware or trained on how they can reduce avoidable food waste and the measures that are required have not yet been introduced in the store.
The manager stated that most of avoidable food waste is caused when preparing food. Employees do not measure the required amount. The employees also indicated that they have not been provided with equipment that would help them to measure the exact amount required.
The estimated cost for avoidable waste food is about AUD 9,000 per week while that for unavoidable waste food is about 2,000 per week. This has affected the store revenue or profit.
The store manager indicated that food waste was being measured, but further analyses or attempts to understand the implications were not made. The manager and the employees do not have knowledge on how measure food waste, which illustrates just how prevalent and problematic the knowledge gaps exist between the food business services and the policy makers.
Furthermore, the methods for measuring food waste were solely visual and highly inaccurate. Visual measuring should not be considered an efficient method because accurate information and cannot be gathered, especially from trash bags that are not transparent.
This practice may allow restaurateurs to claim that only small amounts of food waste are being produced.
Food waste and its impact
According to the participants’ point of view, they stated that food waste has a negative impact towards the environment, economy and society. The manager stated that their budget is high and sometimes the resources do not go for long as anticipated. He also stated that they sometimes throw away left over and some people in the street sleep hungry.
Throwing away food has an internal and external impact. The store profit is reduced which affects the whole economy since they will be taxed less than what they could have taxes when they makes maximum profit.
Source of store food waste
The store manager recognize that the food waste is caused by different activities such as left over from customers, over preparation by the employees, the portion plate size is not suitable, poor storage or lack of proper skills when preparing the menu.
The employees also stated that the agricultural resources are over purchased and they end up getting spoiled.
The employees stated that they lack knowledge on how they can help to reduce food waste in the store. They indicated that they need training and resources in order to reduce the amount of food that go to waste.
The manager and the employees indicated that they are not aware of the other disposable options for their food waste. The government should provide information to businesses on different ways to expose their food waste and reduce restrictions and requirements for donating food.
Use of technology to reduce food waste
The participants indicated that they do not have a technology that helps them to track the food waste or assist them to reduce the food waste. They said that is the store could invest in technology it will make it easier for them to reduce food wastage.
They also indicated that the store does not use reduce, reuse and recycle food waste.
This research indicates that the manager and employees are not aware of their food waste. Food waste audits to the store needs to be implemented in order to estimate the food waste across all areas from supply chain to consumption. The store manager uses Visual estimations which provide inaccurate. The manager needs to keep in mind that reduction in food waste has economic gains.
The result that was obtained via interview and questionnaire from the store manager and the employees indicates that the store on facing various challenges in management of food wastage. The manager does have knowledge on how he can measure food waste. According to Evans & Welch (2005), education, exchange of ideas and collaboration with other businesses and other agencies can help to tackle this challenge.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (UNFAO) has recently started a move of save food. It is a worldwide initiative on Food Losses and Waste Reduction. The campaign targets to involve all the actors along the food supply chain, such as policy-makers, to reduce food losses and waste globally (UNFAO website, 2013). This will help the store to gain more knowledge on how to reduce food waste
Conclusion and recommendation
Food wastage has negative impact to the economy, environment, economy and the store revenue. Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store has not put their focus on reducing, reusing and recycling food waste. The management does not offer training or support to the employees on how they can reduce and manage food wastage.
Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store food waste has a negative impact to the store and the society at whole. The store can reduce the food waste cost in order to make maximum profit. The cost of food waste disposal is high than recycling it. Recycling food waste to animal feed will create an income to the business.
The store needs to invest in technology which will ease the process of food wastage management. it will also help to calculate the cost of food wastage and the amount of waste food that the store produce every day.
Manager and employees training will help to curb this issue of food wastage. Training the employees on how to prepare meals with portion sizes that are not too large, create a better communication between staff and management to raise the awareness about food waste and opportunities that can be employed, improve communication with customers in order to develop more sustainable approaches and demand among the guests by exploring the desired menu of choice.
The store needs to introduce equipment that will be used to measure the exact required amount when preparing for their products. This will help to reduce over cooking and as a result the food wastage will reduce.
The store can start using a smaller landfill bins or the reduction of the hauling frequency. This could be a possible solution for reducing the creation of landfills and saving costs for disposal. Intergovernmental goals, such as the Sustainable Development Goals, will help address and tackle food waste and may even force certain stakeholders, such as food retailers, to deal with their leftovers
The employees need to reduce over trimming when preparing meet or vegetables.
Appendix A: Ethics Approval Form
ACADEMIC SUPERVISOR DETAILS
PROGRAMME OF STUDY
RESEARCH PROJECT DETAILS
Research project title
Investigating sustainable practices of food wastage management in Domino’ Pizza Davies Corner store
Research Aim or Question
To identify innovative food management practices to reduce or reuse waste food at DominionTo investigate ways that Dominos can implement in order to reduce food wastageTo identify benefits of food wastage reduction by DominionTo find the effective measures on food wastage reduction at Dominion.
Project background or organizational context (250-300 words)
In Dominion’s Pizza Davies Corner store employees face many challenges in reducing and managing food store food waste. They have limited resources that they can use to manage food waste. The use of technology could have make it easier for them to measure and track daily food waste and the cost that it incur.The employees are not trained on how they can reduce food waste.
Value of the research: The findings from the research study will particularly be useful in providing additional knowledge to Dominion’s Pizza Davies Corner store and other food service providers on the sustainable practices of food wastage management. The findings will also provide a useful reference document to stakeholders in the food service sector. It will also have a positive impact on environment, economic and social.
RESEARCH METHODSTick those that apply.
☒Primary Data Collection ☐Secondary Data Collection
☐Quantitative Methods ☒Qualitative Methods
Explain briefly the reasons for your choice. Primary research was undertaken since there is no other research that has been performed on Dominion’s Pizza Davies corner store. The interview with the manager and the employee main focus was on qualitative data. The manager and the employee have the store information on the store operation and attain the knowledge that is required to complete this research.
DATA COLLECTION METHODSTick the appropriate row.
☒ Interviews ☐ Questionnaires ☐ Focus groups☐ Observation ☐ Other
DATA COLLECTION DETAILSPlease include details of all the data collection methods you will be using in your research.Delete the data collection methods you are not using.
Interviewsthe following methods were used to collect data:Tick the appropriate answer
☐ Convenience ☐ Random ☐ Snowball ☒ Other – Experts
Explain briefly the reasons for your choice.
the research was technical and therefore, it required technical knowledge
Interview: Explain briefly how the sample is to be selectedThe participants were the manager and an employee who reside in Hamliton
Interview: Number of participants (sample size)Tick the appropriate answer
☒ 1 – 5 ☐ 6 – 10 ☐ 11 – 15 ☐ More than 15
Interview Venue Tick the appropriate answer
☒ The store premises ☐ A neutral venue☐ Electronically (online or phone –please identify) ☐ Other
Informed consent: the participants were given an invitation to participate in the research and were also given an agreement before the primary research commenced.
Withdrawal: the participants were informed their rights and were told that they can withdraw from the research at any time. A written copy for the withdrawal process was provided.
Confidentiality: the participants were assured that that the information they share in the course of the interview will not be shared with anyone else but it will only be for academic use.
Report audience: the research participants were assured that the information they share about the store will not be sent to the top management of the company.
Disposal of data: Participants were advised that all data collected for the research willbe returned to the Centre for Business and Enterprise at Wintec on completion of the research project.
Appendix D: Interview Questions for Manager
Kindly briefly introduce yourself
What is your daily routine?
What is the main challenge do you encounter? Do you know the cause and how can you conquer those challenges?
Do you play any part in food waste management?
What are the store procedures on food wastage management?
Do you separate food waste for reuse or recycling?
Which technology do you use in food waste management?
What part of food wastage management do you wish should be improved?
Appendix E: Interview Questions for Employee
Kindly briefly introduce yourself
What is your daily routine?
What is the main challenge do you encounter? Do you know the cause and how can you conquer those challenges?
Do you play any part in food waste management?
Are you aware of the impacts of implementing suitable practices on food wastage?
What causes food waste?
Appendix F: Interview Transcript (Manager)
Interviewer: Good evening. Thank you for volunteering.
Participant : it is my pleasure.
Interviewer: Briefly introduce yourself.
Participant: My name is Matthew, I am the manager at Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store. I have been managing this store for the last six years.
Interviewer: What is your daily routine?
Participant: I arrive at the store 8.00 am every day except in Sunday. Every morning I have to check the store to make sure that everything is available. I also supervise the staff’s on how they take, prepare and deliver our customers order.
Interviewer: What is the main challenge do you encounter?
Participant: the main challenge I encounter is that the employees do not measure the exact amount they want when preparing our products. This sometimes increases food waste because of cooking more than required. The employees can be or with an equipment that will assist them in measurement.
Interviewer: Do you play any part in food waste management?
Participant: yes, I play part in waste food management.
Interviewer: What are the store procedures on food wastage management?
Participant: we try our best to prevent food waste by preparing our products as per the customer’s order. Food waste is separated from other waste.
Interviewer: do you separate food for reuse or recycle?
Participant: no, we don’t
Interviewer: which technology do you use in food wastage management?
Participant: currently we have not implemented any technology.
Interviewer: What part of food waste management do you wish should be improved?. Participant: I think the part that needs improvement is making use of the technology which will ease food waste management process. Also training needs to be provided in order to gain knowledge on how to reduce food waste.
Appendix F: Interview Transcript (employee)
Interviewer: Good evening. Thank you for participating in this research study.
Participant: It is my pleasure.
Interviewer: Briefly introduce yourself
Participant: My name is John. I work in Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store in the kitchen. I have been working here for 4 years.
Interviewer: What is your daily routine?
Participant: I report to work at 8 am every day except on Saturday. My first task is to start preparing the dough. Every day is different since there are days when there are a lot of orders that are made but some other days the orders are few.
Interviewer: What is the main challenge do you encounter? Do you know the cause and how can you conquer those challenges?
Participant: the main challenge that I encounter is that the store does not have advanced equipment that can help to make exact measurements required in preparation of our products. The management can invest in this mechanism which will help to reduce food waste by preparing what is required.
Interviewer: Do you play any part in food waste management?
Participant: Yes, I play a role in food waste management where I am required to not overcook, trim the vegetables and other materials appropriately, separate food waste from other waste.
Interviewer: Are you aware of the impacts of implementing suitable practices on food wastage?
Participant: All I know is that reduction of food wastage has a positive impact to the store and the environment since the amount disposed in the land will reduce.
Interviewer: What causes food waste?
Participant: one of the causes is over production, over trimming, waste due to expiry, and equipment failure such as fridge. Customers left over
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