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Literature Review on different culture-origin students studying MPA in Australia

Why do international students choose Australia as their destination for higher education?

According to Albyn, (2017), there has been a rapid growth of Australia being chosen by Indian students as a destination for educational purpose. Bret, (2016) stated that recently this country has caught the attention of the third biggest amount of global students in the English-speaking world coming after the United States and the United Kingdom. As per Britin. (2016), Knowledge as an educational destination, some countries choose Australia as the first priority. The study experience and offers provided by Australia is very different. The country offers a special sort of education and the method of learning motivates students to innovate, create and think out of the box. It is easier for graduates from Australia to find better jobs in eminent posts globally. In addition to that, well known international universities accept them cordially for postgraduate education.

Australia is capable of providing more than generally expected. According to ELIOT, (2017), the country is chosen as an education destination by many international students for its favorable, peaceful nature, splendid education system, and ideal lifestyle. At present, Australia is the third most well-known target place for international students among English-speaking countries, after the US and the UK (ELIOT, 2018). According to GEORGE, (2018), journal globally, many global students select to study in Australia for ethnic diversity, friendly relations, and the standard of education. Because of global recognition of the Australian education system, job sectors always seek for Australian school graduates highly. The government controls this system with great care for maintaining the good education standard of Australia (Albyn, 2017). The Australian lifestyle is considered one of the best in the whole world. Cost of living and educational expenses, comparing with other countries, are lesser than countries like the United States and the United Kingdom. International students are getting the opportunity to participate in part-time jobs during receiving an education which helps them to manage their living expenses. 

The opportunity of scholarships helps international students to receive education spending less money. As Hally, (2015) stated that Australian Institutions provide a big range of courses and degrees. As Happy. (2016) stated that, a result, it becomes easier for international students to find their preferable field of education. While selecting a degree program to attend, at first an international student must find out which school provides the best service according to their requirements and interests. They can select from varieties of universities, employment education, and training for the English language. According to necessity, students can easily shift from one stage of qualification and from one institution to another (Albyn, 2017). The focus on scientific research is one of the most attractive features of Australia for international students. The country is at the frontline of the latest technology and innovations. Australia’s mind-blowing technology and resources can be utilized by students studying there. Multinational students can work till 20 hours every week along with studies in Australia. It’s a big chance for the students who need to earn their living expenses during their stay and receiving an education. It is also an opportunity for those who want to have working experience during studies. Here are several significant aspects to remember for the working student in Oz (Albyn, 2017).

Why Australia?

1. Good quality 

According to Jhon. (2018) The Australian method for employment and technical study is now known as one of the best and most unconventional in the world. It celebrates a worldwide recognition for best quality in all fields of study and training. The universities of Australia are greatly known for high quality in many ways. The educational organizations offer real life and career-related training to form confident graduates who gain the experience and knowledge required by employers. This issue has a significant impact on the economy of Australia as it hugely increases the employee skills and helps to increase productivity and efficiency (Jhon. 2018). 

2. Innovation

Australia holds the position to adopt the latest technologies at a quicker speed than most other countries in the world. As Mandal, (2017) said that The country is invading the new era with the highest rates of access to the internet in the whole world. Provisions and offers in teaching, training and research sector are first-class and of high quality, as seen in art laboratories and classrooms, amazing libraries and latest technology.

3. Qualification recognition

Mandal, (2017) stated that managers and officers accept Australian qualifications and major study institutions in many countries in the world. Furthermore, the Australian Qualification Framework (AQF) has been covering most of the courses and training accepted by multinational students in Australia. It is a method of learning which is allowed by the government of Australia (Jhon. 2018). 

4. Assurance of Quality 

According to Pret. (2017), Australia provides the assurance of quality in a structure that is unique and diligent. The multinational and foreign students along with their guardians can appreciate the similar level of service and economic safety or protection. Australia promises to offer good quality of education to its students regardless of the nationality of the students. The government of the country set up an approach called The Australian Quality Training Framework which has made the quality assurance method of education stronger. Australia offers the most diligent safety for international students through ESOS worldwide (Pret, 2017).

5. Culturally Diverse society

Australia owns a very well protected, multicultural, favorable and melodious society (Yun. 2015). The multicultural and social elegance which currently exists in Australia brought by the international students in institutions and society is appreciated by the citizens. The people of Australia take good care of the international students while the students spend time adapting to the environment and lifestyle of the country that is new to them. As per Yun. (2015) opinion from their journal Australia provides safety to the citizens because the crime rate of the country is very low and it has uncompromising gun control laws. There is no chance that any political turbulence will ruin the study plans of any student. Citizens of almost 200 countries have made the transfer to Australia which makes the country culturally very diverse in the world. This cultural diversity of the society of Australia represents how welcome and grandly accepted the international students are by other people of Australian society. The trainers and teachers are very skilled and well experienced in teaching international students (Pret, 2017).

6. Visa red-tapism

According to Yun. (2015), Almost all of us are aware of the egotism of the United States and the United Kingdom visa administrators. Any day, a real visa application may get rejected for some reason understood better by them only. This is slowly becoming favorable of new academic goals. The United States and the United Kingdom visa application process takes a lot of time and money which frustrates the international students. Lately, a report has been published in The Guardian that claims that the United Kingdom visas should cover the troubles experienced by one-third of students who collect visas- 18 in every hundred states that it is a long and hard procedure through the first application was ultimately successful, 8 percent of the students primarily denied but accepted a visa on a second application and 5 percent got one after appealing primary rejection.

8. Job opportunities

Yun. (2015) states that the United Kingdom does not welcome doctors and The United States is interested to have more IT professionals, this is the reason international students are trying to shift to Australia during their education as it provides better job opportunities in several fields according to their interest. It could be farming or aeronautics, economics or actuaries, international students are given permission to work like none other.

9. Possibility of more scholarships

As per Yun. (2015) Comparatively, with The United States or the United Kingdom, Australia is a bit new at appealing foreign students by giving those offers of more and better scholarship chances. Nevertheless, it must be remembered that Australia does not have much population despite being a big country. This has led to having space and scope to provide job offers more than other countries in the world. 

10. More research opportunities

According to Yun. (2015), Australia provides chances for research to qualified individuals who would like to improve their career. The largest gain is the country offering research based on country continent-wise. Choosing this high-quality research scopes are according to intelligence and are very competitive, it proves path record of academic supremacy is required. Although the amount and ratio of student number have lessened, the UK and the US administrators look unwilling to record it even though university officials show the increase in profit. The cycle is gradually converting into a total circle. Many modifications will point towards the future of academic goals for foreign students- the figure at the moment firmly points towards the Australian region (Yun, 2015)

What is the purpose of choosing MPA for higher studies by international students?

According to Bowman, (2016), A Master’s in Public Administration (MPA) is similar to the government and public service of the general line of business. MPA programmes are structured for succeeding leaders in institutions as a part of the government (Tulip, 2017).

  1. Improving leadership and management skills

It is important to improve leadership and management capabilities for developing a career in public service (Bowman, 2016). A Master’s degree in Public Administration will greatly help in this regard. According to Bregg. (2017), the degree is for them who’d like to grow a career in public management, policy-making, and the nonprofit department. It is formed for the individuals wanting to get in management positions regarding these departments and this degree emphasizes leadership responsibilities such as making rules and management of public funding and people (Sos, 2015).

  1. Having a national and international network:

As per Bregg. (2017) knowledge learning Public Administration at the postgraduate level provides a huge chance to form a good network filled with different levels of experience. Students who come to be enrolled in an MPA programme will work for the public sector and they will be granted access to an amazing network of experts with various types of experience in the selected region (Bregg. 2017). Most MPA programmes emphasize on an international level, learning manners of different governments and how economies reply to public matters. Along with that, they are appealing to many foreign students worldwide (Sos, 2015). It gives us a special opportunity to enhance an international network. Practically, every main MPA schools provide the chance to receive education abroad during the programme (Pret, 2017).

  1. It’s easier than thought!

Bright, (2016) states that it may be scary thinking about the postgraduate study but it’s not that threatening. Studying for MPA at most top schools across Europe, many of those schools recommend adjustable course systems and usually even chance to teach online (Bright, 2016).

According to Elin. (2016), Many MPA programmes are really made for students who have little work experience for some years. It is understood by the universities that everyone will not leave their job to study full-time, so they will probably work as well as continue study at the same time. This system is great to apply what one learns into their work in the present position. If necessary, one may get some part-time MPA programmes (Elin. 2016). For example, the Executive MPA at the Hertie School of Governance in Berlin, Germany, is created for experts who are busy and needs just 43 days of attendance in campus, covered up to 4 years.

  1. Chance to become professional in public sector issues

According to Guoter. (2015), journal the postgraduate study time is the time to learn special knowledge, same goes for MPA programmes. At this point, one becomes a professional in this field. Several public sector issues which a student might specialize in are an international improvement, public and health management, nonprofit management, analyzing and forming policy. In case of someone being interested in being professional in forming policy especially, they should think of Master of Public Policy (MPP) degree as a substitute to an MPA. This degree emphasizes the evaluation and application of public policy (Guoter. 2015).

  1. Adaptation in the job market and earning more

As Johnson. (2015) stated that Studying MPA opens up the door to many better job opportunities since the students work on different government jobs, politics, education officials, healthcare, international development, urban planning, etc. regarding government and public service. Playing roles in leadership provides more salary (Pret, 2017). Most of the time, MPA graduates earn 30 – 50% more than other individuals without a Master’s degree.  But studying MPA does not limit oneself to work for the government only. Actually, MPAs are being hired by many private corporations for different roles (Johnson. 2015). For example, news and broadcasting centers like CNN or the BBC offer job to MPA graduates for policy assessment in research for political news. Tech giants such as Google hire MPAs for their global institutional management. Various healthcare organizations like hospitals and medical insurers usually give priority to MPA graduates who are expert in health policy and health management (Johnson. 2015). Obviously, main consulting organizations like McKinsey or EY accept graduates from MPA programmes to their public service sectors. The probabilities of getting a job are endless!

  1. Opportunity to get into an important government position:

According to Matei, (2017), Emphasizing on public sector and policy along with communication and people management, an MPA helps one to play major roles in government. One example of the area of MPA is: Former Secretary-General of the United Nations (UN) Ban Ki-moon learned abroad to study MPA degree and started leading one of the most significant organizations worldwide.  The skills and probably networks offered by the MPA, one will be ready to remake and put a remarkable impact on the local and international community (Matei, 2017).  Among almost 40 universities in Australia, most are public organizations, directed and sponsored by the Australian federal government. Some universities have several campuses, but most are situated in certain cities- mainly focusing on the eastern coast. According to Milan. (2017), if you fulfill their application and enrollment requirements, then you can get admitted to any Australian university. The number of fees to be paid will either is a little higher than or just as same as paid by local students (Milan, 2017). 

What are the goals that the international students want to achieve and how and why do they plan to accomplish the goals?

Long term intention of students to study in Australia:

A long term fundamental success is goal setting. Getting the desired destination is difficult without clarifying about the destination is. Students are focusing on achievement by the help of the goal (Abroad, 2015). That also means their resources allocation, effective time and accessing this motivation at the time when they feel to giving up.  According to Abroad, (2015) in a perspective of academic, Cadet failures and success meaning ensure with the help of improving performance of goals and also goals help to propel them in the small achievement of selection that designing for breaking a  larger purpose. Goal setting and achieving translation feel in success and the student’s confidence as well (Armyan, 2017). That also turned in the lead with confidence and productivity in a greater way.  

Permanent residency intentions to study in Australia  

The permanent residency people in Australia think about study on their own country because they are holding permanent visa. Permanent residence has the power to live, or work anywhere they want to and have power to study besides the study. On the other hand, the cost of the permanent residence while studying in Australia is low compare to the other residence.

Goals Keep Students Moving Forward

According to Armyan, (2017), Calendar or journal goal writing within a specific goal gives the student to working and planning something. In external representation inner desire is writing down a goal of getting a higher grade, supporting skills progress and new mark achievement. The student accomplish is constantly reminded by them (Bret, 2017). At the difficult period determination encourage that setting up ambition and confidence of goal and offer a pride since that time success arrives finally.

Students are floating in a different area in life without goal setting, accomplish achievement, and do their best. A clear sense is created with goal establishment and also the correction in hard working process and something significant accomplishment. For this, the motivation energy is accessing through cadets whom they used in working periods and beginning focuses on the win.

Goals Break Down Insurmountable Mountains

According to Clack, (2016), at first, most young adults dream seems impossible to accomplish. It is very discouraging that the future dreams seem large to achieve. Though setting proper goal it breaks larger and additional scary desires achievement down into step stones. The smaller goal planning is very easy for formation a plan that one accomplishment can prompt another (Clack, 2016). However, research suggests the contentment and motivation level offers great in smaller milestones achievement.

As per Faul. (2017), Short term and long term goal have interconnection towards the student to encourage their work, their energy and time spending given more focus. Thus the smaller goal cans pursuit. Cadet knows about their weakness, skills and their want is accomplished (Faul. 2017).

Goals Hold Students Accountable

Harvard Study, (2018) stated that the cadet actions are accountable for having a goal. Their effort, skill of time management, goal obligate set is an individual action take. Paying little heed is to the impediments that might be set up. That makes student encouraging to critical thinking development, techniques of problem-solving, and overcome any issue understands better (Harvard Study, 2018). 

According to Ilian. (2017), the goals set accountability encouraging student over the success and failures in the past, their improvement in area evaluation. In that capacity, it can urge understudies to create basic reasoning abilities, new critical thinking procedures, and a superior comprehension of how to beat issues techniques realize is helpful for cadets which are not working and that are why they seek alternative one for their achievement (Ilian, 2017).

Goals Make Students Want to Be Better

According to Jhony, (2015), Success increase in setting goals is showing in numerous experiment and correlation rate in every setting. Apart from this adults goal push to articulate about their want of life that they may lives consciously.

Default and natural action set for the student subject without goals that also make them feel comfortable and safe, that also not offer in a growth opportunity (Jhony, 2015). Cadet is discovering themselves and works in the best version with goals. In other sense set goal for student to inner potential giving targets to towards strive. For young adults, this target makes a new situation, context, and new challenge. In growth and development is that also place in the right position.

Goals Prepare Students for Adulthood

According to Kitty, (2016), the success key depends on goal setting that a student can learn the good habit and hard work. The determination and dedication level of respect with the achievement of further goals in life by this. Student academic experience more important not only at setting a goal but that means to continue use in future application job or achieve promotion (Kitty, 2016). The progress measurement through life, leadership skill, critical thinking, and determination is given by goal to the cadets and young adults.  

According to Shim, (2015), If young people are prepared in what happened in after high school, the first things are to help them with their futures. At the birth time, human beings are most dependent species on the planet and their independence level come out slowly over course with many years. The dependence reinforces +adult longer than their health. Other side young people measuring the body that shows about the thought which means very little maturity. Though they learn to build Lincoln Logs®, wood blocks, couch cushions, and LEGO® blocks, not learn how to lives. People depend on others for happiness, direction, purpose, values and also means. About goal setting they learn so little (Shim, 2015). They don’t know about the goal setting if they do have some knowledge turning objectives in something real. 

Follow a Plan – Set Goals

SNHU, (2016), In LEGO® blocks building put random bricks together that take shapes is much fun. That also true life. The seemingly random occurrences are building best of life. As erratic as this may appear, the developer of an astonishing life quite often begins in view of something when they begin assembling things (SNHU, 2016). The building instruction is followed by them to build a career and also opportunity, joy, and relationship. If children are learning about the importance of starting plan variable visual descriptions in intend building than they are more effective. When there is a clear picture in their head about their want and do and also have then the amazing life building is far better than the uncontrollable circumstances (Theater, 2017).

The research Gap: 

Under this literature review the research gap of the researcher is to face problem at the time of finding theoretical solutions and quantitative data. Another research gap that the literature review is being facing given below-

  • Time management
  • Resource to analyze the data
  • Lack of data to elaborate the study


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Table of contents

Introduction 4

Part A: Gathering knowledge about Torres Strait Islander people 4

Question 1: One significant issue of Awabakal people 4

Question 2: Description of Terra Nullius and marking out its effect on Torres Strait Islander people 4

Question 3 (a): Major findings of the report presented by Australian Human Rights Commission in 1997 5

Question 3 (b): Explaining social, political, economic impact of the findings on Aboriginal people 5

Question 4: Describing the event of 13th February 2008 6

Gauging the impacts of this event on Aboriginal groups 6

Question 5: Brief explanation of the barriers faced by Aboriginal people while placing their children in early childcare 7

Question 6 (a): Listing three factors behind the ill health and common diseases of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander people 8

Question 6 (b): Discussing one of the above factors and its impact on the decision-making process 9

Question 7: Racial discrimination: A concept and legislation related to the same in Australia 9

Question 8: ‘Cultural safety’ and its concept 9

Question 9: 5 practices to be used in early childhood care for maintaining cultural safety 10

Question 10: Scenario 11

(a) Local services available 11

b) The process of sharing information 11

c) Practices that can be used to support effective partnerships with aboriginal people 11

d) Information to be gathered from Daniel and assist with Zac’s transition 12

e) Area/Standard/Element from the National Quality Standard to show how this orientation of the procedure would meet quality standards 12

Part B: Cultural competence 12

Question 1: Concept of culture 12

Question 2: The area of developing cultural values, beliefs, and biases 13

Question 3: Skills, attributes to be considered while reflecting on own cultural competence 13

Question 4: Suggesting three ways to develop your own cultural competence 70 13

Part C: Experiences to support cultural identity 13

Creating an environment to support the children’s cross-cultural understandings 13

Supporting the implementation of inclusive learning experience 14

Supporting the children in developing confidence and strength in their personal and Cultural Identity 14

Conclusion 14

References 15

Appendix 1: Barriers or facilitators faced by aboriginal people for early child care services 18


The concept of cultural safety dates back to the 1980s which were developed for enhancing the stances to empower Aboriginal people and develop meaningful pathways for their self-determinism. The debate of cultural safety revolves around the short term, cost-effective and quick fix approaches for indigenous issues. In order to dive deep into the perspective of health and education of indigenous people, a concept of cultural safety cannot be ignored and has been a core focus of this study.

The study focuses on the deep aspects of the problems faced by indigenous people and possible recommendations to address those. Further, the study has delved into case studies and has suggested possible recommendations.

Part A: Gathering knowledge about Torres Strait Islander people

Question 1: One significant issue of Awabakal people

Awabakal people have a significant and historical issue over the land claims, which sustained till the present times. Awabakal people and the other natives of Australia is having a significant conflict over the area of Maitland of Hornsby. The claim which dates back to a decade, if approved can be drastic for the nation as any developmental process can be conducted in that area with the permission of Awabakal groups (Anaya, 2015). As per the reports of ABC news, Wonarua and Worimi tribe also claims this piece of land as one of their previous hunting grounds, for which they would also lodge their claim over this land. Individual groups would need to prove their background or descendant to gain control over the land (McGlade, 2017).

Question 2: Description of Terra Nullius and marking out its effect on Torres Strait Islander people

The Terra Nullius marked its foothold in the year 1788, for which Australia was treated as a colony of settlement. Following the concept of Terra Nullius, the land or territory of Australia was taken away by the Britishers as the land belonged to no one (Terra Nullius). This led to drastic effects on the aboriginal people, one of which is the loss of identities and home. Many people were eradicated from their houses by the Britishers, which led to family detachments. Even many people today from the group of Aboriginal people do not have any idea about their belonging; several children are left homeless and detached from their families till now (Treloar et al. 2014).

Question 3 (a): Major findings of the report presented by Australian Human Rights Commission in 1997

“Bringing them home” is the report based on the national inquiry for the separation of children from their families and focuses on the active recommendations for them. One of the key recommendations provided in this report was to pass an issue of reporting including an apology for treating family detachments. As per the reports, one in every three children was detached from their families and was placed in institutions, churches and fosters homes, for which they were at risk of physical abuse. Welfare officials failed in their duty to protect children from abuse. Moreover, indigenous children were 6 times more likely to be removed from child welfare lessons and 21 times more likely to be removed from juvenile detention reasons. About 54 recommendations have been developed by this report, the most highlighted is the issue of reparation report (as per the reports of, 1997).  

Question 3 (b): Explaining social, political, economic impact of the findings on Aboriginal people

Just after the passage of this report, there were traumatic reactions from people, especially aboriginal groups. As per the Article 31 of this report, rights of self-determinism have been provided to the indigenous people, which also mention that they have rights to govern their local matters. Moreover, children detached for their families named as the “Stolen Generation”, who would have the right to determine their own activities. Aboriginal people would also be able to access over every service as per their choice (Hall & Fenelon, 2015). Political spectrum of the nation has chosen the stances of dignity, hope, and respect to maintain a relationship with the aboriginal people. A socioeconomic crisis was also recognized in the report, which showed that children from the stolen generation received a proper education and thus a program namely “Move ahead” has been launched for educating them and monetary compensation has been provided (Razack, 2015). However, as per the reports of ABC news, even after such rigorous proposals made in the “Bring them home” report about anti-racism activities, Australia tends to continue the practices of racism even now and the rate of experiencing racial behavior went up from 31% to 45% (Wood, 2016).

Figure 1: Rise of racial behavior even after rights of self-determinism

(Source: Wood, 2016)

Question 4: Describing the event of 13th February 2008

On 13th February 2008, the nation was moved with the tears of Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, which is historically remembered as the “apology day for the stolen generations”. After the delivered reports of “Bringing them home”, finally the Prime Minister said “Sorry” to the lost and deprived people. The day is still celebrated as the “National apology day” in Australia (, 2017).

Gauging the impacts of this event on Aboriginal groups

Hearing finally an apology for the policy implemented on social media was an utter satisfactory state for the aboriginals. The apology followed a proposal for closing the gap between aboriginal and non-aboriginal people of Australia and develops welfare policies for them. This led to the development of mutual respect among all the people considering aboriginal people as the prior concern (Treloar et al. 2014, p.370).  

However, as per the reports of The Guardian, the factual reality does not reflect the proposed changes in the “apology day”. As of 2017, 81.4% of indigenous expenditures were actually used for mainstream purposes. It also has been outlined that among 339 recommendations by the Royal Commission, only 10 recommendations have been used till now from 1991 (, 2017).

Figure 2: Developmental procedures proposed vs. the number of processes used till now

(Source:, 2017)

Question 5: Brief explanation of the barriers faced by Aboriginal people while placing their children in early childcare

Some of the significant barriers faced by early childhood care for participating in early childhood care are the location of care centers, cost of access; culture and communication (refer to appendix 1).


Most of the services were present in the mainstream areas consisting mainstream people, where the potential barrier was the access to the care center via transport mediums. Due to cost and accessibility, aboriginal families refrained from taking early childhood care services (Barnhardt, 2014).


According to Barnhardt (2014), due to poor economic conditions of aboriginal people, families faced hardships to opt for early child care services. It has also been ascertained that majority of indigenous people had to the idea of child care funding initiatives or services.

Culture and communication

As stated earlier, most of the early childhood care services were provided by mainstream people, which obviously had a higher chance of cultural clashes. Moreover, mainstream people also faced hardship to educate Aboriginal people due to communication differences, which also acted as a barrier (Parker & Milroy, 2014).

Question 6 (a): Listing three factors behind the ill health and common diseases of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander people

Socioeconomic factors

Less than half of the Aboriginal people have actually attended the higher level education due to the financial crisis. Due to lack of people education, most of the people do not even know about the early diagnosis, which eventually leads to a health crisis. The employment rate of the remote areas was of 43% as of 2016 and the very remote area was as low as 32%, which obviously is a potential reason behind the health crisis of aboriginal people (Smylie & Firestone, 2016).


Remote areas of Australia have a problem, of poor healthcare access and poor behavior towards the people of remote areas. As per the indications of WHO, poor health and ill practices increased with the remoteness of the areas, which signify the barrier clearly. Moreover, longer waiting time in healthcare centers and poor behavior towards the people living in the remote areas also fuel up the position of health crisis among Aboriginals (Bennett, 2015).


An environmental health survey conducted within 2007 to 2008, showed that almost 62% people had limited or no access to fresh foods, which has been strictly advised by National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) for daily diet. Moreover, the saturated fats consumed by the groups to meet their hunger led to the development of Type 2 Diabetes by 3.5% and 5.7% deaths (, 2017).

Question 6 (b): Discussing one of the above factors and its impact on the decision-making process

Remoteness is the most impactful factor for the health crisis of the Aboriginals as even after discounted or costless services, there has been limited considerations for setting healthcare facilities in the very remote areas. Moreover, the news of racist behaviors even in healthcare centers is common, which allegedly provoke indigenous groups to refrain from taking services and influence their decisions. Furthermore, the news report by ABC showed that systemic risk is traumatic and tends to exist strongly in the healthcare centers. Almost 56% deaths occurred in the mental care centers due to ill and torturous treatments towards them, which have strike terror in the minds of Aboriginal people (McGlade, 2017).

Question 7: Racial discrimination: A concept and legislation related to the same in Australia

Racial discrimination is simply the act of discriminatory practices based on race, color, descent and ethnic origin. As per Human rights commission, Australia is home to more than 270 ancestries, which contribute to the diversity of the nation and is also the reason behind immense racist practices within the nation. Racial Discrimination Act 1975 is one of the statutes passed by the Australian parliament to promote equality within the nation and the Section 18C of this legislation makes it unlawful to carry out insulting practices in public and provide a right to common public for making complaints against unlawful practices (, 2017).  

Question 8: ‘Cultural safety’ and its concept

Cultural safety, a term coined by Williams in 1999, was defined as the environment that is spiritual, emotionally and socially safe. The concept of cultural safety also signifies the physically safe environment for common masses where there would be no physical assaults, demeaning activities, and denial of identity. The framework of cultural safety was directed for the benefit of individuals and proper health care services for indigenous people and Maori groups (Bennett, 2015). As per the mentions of Millei & Jones (2014), in case of aboriginal people, it is also the practice of overcoming the cultural imbalances of a nation and frame out effective policies to mitigate cultural issues for developing the continuum of care towards them. The importance of cultural safety in cases of aboriginal groups lies in the areas of a burden of illness of this group. Additionally, Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders, instances of racism and discriminations are very common leading to their health crisis, for which the concept of cultural safety is a necessary concept.  

Question 9: 5 practices to be used in early childhood care for maintaining cultural safety

Five practices to be used by early childhood care for cultural safety

Cultural safety is an environment where the children feel safe because of the environment devoid of assault and challenge. Cultural safety promotes mutual respect, learning, and cooperation among the children so, that they can live a healthy life at the later stage. Five practices that are used in early childhood for cultural safety are discussed below:

Communication and cooperation; The children must be taught to communicate with their elders softly and gently. On the other hand, the children must be taught to cooperate with the inmates in any situation.

Respect to the culture: From early childhood, the children must be taught to respect each other’s culture in order to preserve the cultural identity.

Maintain dignity: Children must be taught to promote equality for protecting their cultural identity.

Learning techniques: The children must be taught by using the integrated teaching techniques in order to make the teaching more effective to the students.

Continuous care: The children must be given proper care by the family members in order to promote mental, physical and social growth.  

Question 10: Scenario

(a) Local services available

From the portrayals of Razack (2015), it can be mentioned that basic healthcare facilities are available for Wiradjuri people who constitute Aboriginal health unit at Mumbridge Local health unit, which provides services to both patients and their family members during their stay at the healthcare service. Wiradjuri preschool and childcare center is also wearing its name proudly for offering child care services with effective implementation of National Quality Standards (NQS), which can be taken up for Zac and his three siblings. Moreover, the language program offered by local Aboriginal Education Consultative Group (AECG) also is a significant service offered by local authorities under the NQS framework (, 2017).

b) The process of sharing information

A database of education programs can be considered by the healthcare officials, which can be applied to convey the information about healthcare facilities to the aboriginal groups or people residing in a particular area. Engagement of culturally competent educators can be taken into account for mitigating any miscommunication issues and behavioral guidelines from Quality area 6 of NQS must be considered to develop a blissful communication of strategies (Salamon et al. 2016). These processes can also be obtained in case of Daniel and his family.

c) Practices that can be used to support effective partnerships with aboriginal people

Create an engaging first impression

Collaborative relationships with families develop over time but the very first approach towards families determines the strength of partnership in future. Therefore, the way families are welcomed into a service plays a key role to build effective partnerships with them. A respectful approach towards families has been instructed to be followed by Quality area 6 of the National Quality Standard (, 2016).

Value each other’s role in a child’s development

Both parents and carers in child care centers are responsible for the development of a child, for which the role of each party must be valued. This practice can be developed in accordance with the Standard 6.2 of NQS, which says that the role of families in child care must be supported and their values or beliefs must be respected (, 2016).

Create a shared platform for the decision-making process

According to the element 6.1.2 of standard 6.1, individual families must be involved in the decision-making process and their insights may be taken for developing any program for the children (, 2016).

d) Information to be gathered from Daniel and assist with Zac’s transition

According to the guidance of Australian Government, possible information that can be gathered is;

  • A child’s mood or behavior (Here Zac’s information can be taken from Daniel)
  • Display of child’s (Zac’s) work
  • Any special interest of the child (Zac)
  • Skills and dislikes of the child (Zac)

This information would be shared with the management or educators in order to develop competent programs for the child.

e) Area/Standard/Element from the National Quality Standard to show how this orientation of the procedure would meet quality standards

Quality Area 6 of NQS generally talks about the respectful relationships to be developed with aboriginal families, which can be oriented in case of early child care centers (, 2016).

Part B: Cultural competence

Question 1: Concept of culture

Culture is the social behavioral aspects found in human societies. It is simply the way of life which is led by people around different nations. Culture is the central concept of anthropology, which encompasses the phenomenon of social learning in human societies. Some of the expressive aspects of culture are art, dance, rituals, and technologies which distinguish one culture from another (ECA Learning Hub, 2012).

Question 2: The area of developing cultural values, beliefs, and biases

Early childhood care is one of the areas to develop cultural values and beliefs as per the video portrayal. The depictions of this file also showed that if children are mixed up with their cultures from an early stage, they learn better about other traditions and respect them (ECA Learning Hub, 2012).

Question 3: Skills, attributes to be considered while reflecting on own cultural competence

A child must have knowledge of own culture and their background history and must know the importance of the second language was required to reflect on own cultural competence (ECA Learning Hub, 2012).

Question 4: Suggesting three ways to develop your own cultural competence 70

According to the EYLF curriculum of Belonging, becoming and being cultural competence can be developed by;

  • Knowing primarily about own culture
  • Respecting the identity of others by communicating with them or getting mixed with them on a regular basis
  • Information on personal tradition or culture must be shared with the educators to develop a sense of belonging (ECA Learning Hub, 2012)

Part C: Experiences to support cultural identity

Creating an environment to support the children’s cross-cultural understandings

As David is a Sudanese boy and enjoys music very much, a learning program can be created with a musical environment. For an instance, Wiradjuri Centre utilizes the song of Paul Kelly and Kev Carmody to provide an insight of racial inequality as well as its impact on the children. This would not only provide a comfortable position for Daniel but also provide cultural understanding to other children (, 2017).

Supporting the implementation of inclusive learning experience

This program can be effectively implemented with the help of NQS standards and EYLF curriculum (, 2017)

Supporting the children in developing confidence and strength in their personal and Cultural Identity

As David’s strength lies in the music and drumming, his cultural competence, as well as confidence, can be developed by making him participate in music classes in accordance to his own language (taking views from Smylie & Firestone, 2016)


Aboriginal people and their rights tend to be a persisting issue for a long time even after rigorous policies, promises, and initiatives. From the study, it can be mentioned that a vulnerable event in the lives of aboriginal people more than a decade ago for Terra Nullius struck terror into their hearts. Children were detached from their families and lost their identity, for which they are still referred to as “Stolen Generations”. Even after an apology from the Prime Minister in 2008, the situation did not alter and tend to be the same. As of recent scenario, Australian Government has developed a curriculum named EYLF considering the norm of Being, Belonging and Becoming, which can be applied in the early child care centres.



Hall, T. D., & Fenelon, J. V. (2015). Indigenous peoples and globalization: Resistance and revitalization. Abingdon: Routledge.

Razack, S. (2015). Dying from improvement: Inquests and inquiries into Indigenous deaths in custody. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.


Anaya, S. J. (2015). Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in the Situation of Maori People in New Zealand. Ariz. J. Int’l & Comp. L., 32(2), 1-90.

Barnhardt, R. (2014). Creating a place for indigenous knowledge in education. Place-based education in the global age: Local diversity, 113(3), 90-167.

Bennett, B. (2015). “Stop deploying your white privilege on me!” Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander engagement with the Australian Association of Social Workers. Australian Social Work68(1), 19-31.

Bennett, B. (2015). “Stop deploying your white privilege on me!” Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander engagement with the Australian Association of Social Workers. Australian Social Work68(1), 19-31.

Bowen, A., Duncan, V., Peacock, S., Bowen, R., Schwartz, L., Campbell, D., & Muhajarine, N. (2014). Mood and anxiety problems in perinatal Indigenous women in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States: A critical review of the literature. Transcultural psychiatry51(1), 93-111.

Millei, Z., & Jones, A. (2014). The Australian early childhood curriculum and a cosmopolitan imaginary. International Journal of Early Childhood46(1), 63-79.

Parker, R., & Milroy, H. (2014). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mental health: an overview. Working together: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mental health and wellbeing principles and practice2, 25-38.

Salamon, A., Sumsion, J., Press, F., & Harrison, L. (2016). Implicit theories and naïve beliefs: Using the theory of practice architectures to deconstruct the practices of early childhood educators. Journal of Early Childhood Research14(4), 431-443.

Smylie, J., & Firestone, M. (2016). The health of indigenous peoples. D. Raphael (3rd ed.) Social determinants of health: Canadian perspective, 434-469.

Sumsion, J., Grieshaber, S., McArdle, F., & Shield, P. (2014). The’state of play’in Australia: Early childhood educators and play-based learning. Australasian journal of early childhood39(3), 4-18.

Treloar, C., Gray, R., Brener, L., Jackson, C., Saunders, V., Johnson, P., … & Newman, C. (2014). “I can’t do this, it’s too much”: building social inclusion in cancer diagnosis and treatment experiences of Aboriginal people, their carers and health workers. International journal of public health, 59(2), 373-379.

Zamarayeva, Y. S., Kistova, A. V., Pimenova, N. N., Reznikova, K. V., & Seredkina, N. N. (2015). Taymyr reindeer herding as a branch of the economy and a fundamental social identification practice for indigenous peoples of the Siberian Arctic. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences6(3 S5), 225.

Websites (2016). Retrieved on: 25th October, 2017, from: (2017). Retrieved on: 24th December 2017, from:

ECA Learning Hub. (2012). TAPS_Cultural competency Part 1 of 3. Retrieved on: 24th December 2017, from: (1997). Bringing them home. (2017). A quick guide to Australian discrimination laws. Retrieved on: 26th September, 2017, from: (2017). Face the facts: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. Retrieved on: 25th September, 2017, from: (2017). Australian governments have failed Indigenous peoples, says Oxfam. Retrieved on: 26th September, 2017, from: (2017). Significant dates and events for Aboriginal peoples. Retrieved on: 25th September, 2017, from:

News websites

McGlade, H. (2017). Australia is still fighting racism and it’s time we faced up to it. ABC News. Retrieved on: 25th September, 2017, from:

Wood, P. (2016). Australia becoming ‘a more racist country’, survey finds. Retrieved on: 28th September, 2017, from:

Appendix 1: Barriers or facilitators faced by aboriginal people for early child care services

(Source:, 2017)

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Report on volunteer tourism- Answer

Report on volunteer tourism
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Executive summary Volunteer tourism represents an emerging tourism sector for those who want to make a difference while on vacation as well as ensuring that local communities benefit both environmentally and economically. This report focuses on promoting conservation strategy to Australian volunteer tourists. Report focuses over marketing strategies such as volunteer tourism, segmentation, targeting and positioning. Work also defines development of segmentation, targeting and positioning (STP) plan targeting the Australian tourist market which the Orangutan Foundation could use to know to which Australian tourists to promote its conservation strategy. Work is extracted from various academic materials books and journals before writing this report. Table of contents Contents                                                                                 page no Introduction——————————————————— 4 Literature review————————————————— 4 Volunteer tourism————————————————– 4 Segmentation——————————————————– 6 Targeting and positioning—————————————- 6 STP plan for the Australian tourist market—————— 7 Conclusion———————————————————– 8 References———————————————————– 8 Introduction Tourism is world’s most fertile industry because of its fast growth. Volunteer tourism is a new tourism phenomenon has starting its impact towards the tourism world. Volunteer tourism is like an expansion of volunteering. Volunteer tourism intends to the tourists who organize to provide voluntary service during vacations. It includes the motivation of volunteering and, involves desires or incentives of travel. The definition of volunteer tourism becomes ambiguous as a large number of individuals are willing to spend time during vacation on volunteering. There is a framework of volunteer tourism developed to classify volunteer tourists into different classes. It divided volunteer tourists such as-shallow, intermediate and deep class based on duration of trips, required skills, degree of involvement, contribution to the host communities and focus of the experience. Literature review Volunteer tourism Tourism through years has a serious impact in human sector.  Tourism continue to develop into many sub-sectors such as- Pilgrimage, Health, Winter and Niche tourism and all comes under these sectors. Vast development of tourism industry lead to latest type of Tourism called volunteer tourism, where conservation scientists and recruiting agencies develop research projects and volunteers provide funding and labor. Volunteer tourism forms widely diverse ways and requires detailed analytical research on it. Volunteer tourism is interesting tourism sector that attract many new tourist. Volunteer tourism is a new phenomenon after the go green activity, charity events and support on sustainable tourism as ideal tourism. It is difficult to scale growth of this industry as there is hardly any statistic about volunteer tourism but much news through newspaper, articles, and journals proved to be useful. Tourism is a big and growing business. It is an industry full of surprises and unexpectedly booming. Today it is world’s largest industries employing approximately 200 million people worldwide and increasing massively. Niche tourism can be described as a tourism that is sustainable and more capable in delivering high-spending tourist because it is offering meaningful holiday experiences that needs and wants met at the end. Volunteer tourism is part of niche tourism that supports the sustainable tourism. Volunteer tourism is a recent phenomenon, volunteerism. People travelling overseas in order of helping others long before the 1980s.Volunteering defined as un-coerced help offered either formally or informally at most, token pay done for the benefit of both the people and the volunteer. Volunteer tourism is a form of tourism that makes use of holiday-makers who volunteer to fund and work on conservation projects around the world and aims to provide sustainable travel.  Segmentation plan for volunteer tourism Segmentation plan is very important before segmenting a market for the desired product of service .the factors that are important for the consumers and marketers should be identified and according to these factors segmentation process should be carried out. There are two major factors on which segmentation can be done in Australian volunteer tourism markets and the factors are- motivation, socio-demographic profile and customer type. We should work as per above three parameter in order to segment the entire market. In order to segment the entire market for volunteer tourism in Australia towards the tourism as: A- Younger volunteers Younger volunteer going for a visit due to the reason of travel experience as these people would be having very low experience of tourist visits.  young volunteer would be attracted towards tourism for the reason of conservation activities prior to this experience.  major motivations for this segment of consumers would be to have fun through international trips, interact with new people, help the researchers, develop skills & abilities . This segment of consumers would prefer to go along with their friends and family and a group tourism package will be required for this group of consumers. From marketers point of view there are both advantages and disadvantages of tapping this segment of consumer. Travel agency should be consider to make final decision on targeting this segment. The young segment market for the volunteer tourism is growing fast due to ample amount of scope for the future growth B- Mature volunteers This segment of consumers would be with age range 50+ and mature people so there would be experience based tourism for these consumers. There experience mainly based on the likeminded people travelling with them. They have an experience to travel with their families. The experience level for these consumers can be quantified. These consumers having prior involvement into conservation activities such associated with some particular organization working towards conservation. Motivation factors for this consumer segment would involve learning about wildlife, making contribution to society, developing bonding with their children and to have fun. There are set of advantages and disadvantages attached with this consumer segment which help in taking decision to capture this segment. This consumer segment is of high stability and not much fluctuation for the matured consumers segment.  This segment is a source of continuous sustainable income for the organization. There would be lot of repeat consumers in this consumer segment. These consumers would be highly committed towards the principle of conservation, volunteering and travel activities. These factors make this segment consumer an ideal customer profile for the present business segment. There would be low growth in this segment of consumers and spending pattern of the consumers would be low. Duration and type of activities performed would be restricted in these tourism trips keeping in mind restrictions imposed due to higher age of the potential tourists. Targeting and positioning Targeting is the second step to develop suitable customer base which would be catered by the organization so as to promote their products & services in the organizational context. In order to make decision regarding organization, it is important that organizational vision, objectives should be evaluated and these should be in close conformity with the market segmentation by the organization Designing strategies to cater both the consumer groups should differentiate two consumer segments and designing of product & services should be done accordingly with the differentiated features of the two market segments present in the organization. Designed tour packages for the two segments should be evaluated for fulfilling consumers need. The primary consumer segment would be young volunteers due to fast growth and increasing number of young being attracted towards the volunteer tourism activities. This would provide high growth opportunities along with expectations for long term association of these consumers depending upon the kind of experience these consumers obtained from their first visit to the volunteer tourism. In order to target the young volunteer tourism consumers the entire service package would be designed in such a way that consumers can get a very good experience from the visit so that they are also willing to come for the next time. The second consumer segment present in the market is of the mature volunteer tourists. Unique strategies are to be designed the travel package by keeping in mind requirement for these set of consumers. These consumers would be willing to go on trip to create a good experience for their self actualization needs. In order to target this segment of consumers it is important that tour package should be designed such that they fulfill needs of mature consumers by meeting their objectives for visit such as to develop bonding with their families and to interact with other people travelling along with them sharing common interest. During visit it should be taken care that tourist can have opportunities to interact with each other and contribute towards society by benefiting local communities by economic or conservation means. Positioning of the tourism offered by organization would be important to attract consumers and develop a brand personality which would become the long term asset for the organization. Positioning for services offered by organization consist of three basic elements- attributes of business/destination, emotive expression and brand personality. Key attributes related with the volunteer tourism would include factors such as charm of giving back to society and making difference, opportunity to interact with likeminded people and to have a fun filled experience so as to make most of the holidays. Both young as well as matured volunteer would be looking for fun experience from this tour while giving back to society would also be the motive of both the segments Emotive expression attached with the volunteer tourism phenomenon would include the feeling of delighted, contribution to society, sharing common thoughts & experience and developing strong bonding with their children. Young volunteer would feel a new experience to go on tour for local community benefits. Overall both young volunteer as well as matured volunteer would be having the feeling of fun filled trip having a new experience by going to such a volunteer trip. Brand to the present tour package would include proud, affable and spirited so that consumers having the feeling of payback to the society for contribution made by them to local community people to extend economic and conservation help. STP plan for the Australian tourist market The STP analysis of Australian tourism market is:
Geographic Segmentation
Ø  CountryAustralia
Ø  RegionIndonesian Borneo
Ø  Age
Ø  Gender
Ø  Occupational Status15-70
Ø  ReligionBoth male & female
Psychographic SegmentationAll individuals of all the classes
Social ClassAll
Men and women who are ready to go for tourism
 Young and matured people
Target Group
 Target GroupThe group is on two bases-the young who are keen to have fun and enthusiasm for new places and other matured who are having feeling of giving goodness to society and viewing conservative sites.
Positioning Statement“recognition of habitat and its richness of biodiversity and crucial for local communities, who are as dependant on the forest”
Conclusion Tourism in Australia has huge resources and opportunities available to assist tourism industry target leisure, business events and niche markets. Tourism in Australia has segmented its market into segments. Segmentation, targeting and positioning are the key factors for services or products in tourism Australia to be successful. Segmentation defines the company’s opportunities, but target marketing is about marketing manager makes money for Tourism Company. Turning the opportunities into real markets is the main focus. Thus tourism Australia has to figure out the best way to position itself for volunteer tourism competitive advantage. References
  • Ashley, C., Roe, D. and Goodwin, H. (2001). Pro-poor tourism strategies: making tourism work for the poor. A
  • Brown, S., and Lehto, X. (2005). Travelling with a purpose: understanding the motives and benefits of volunteer
  • Caissie, L.T. and Hallpenny, E. (2008). Volunteering for nature: leisure, motivation and benefits associated with a biodiversity conservation volunteer program, World Leisure Journal, Vol. 45 (2), pp. 38-50.
  • Coghlan, A. (2006). Volunteer tourism as an emerging trend or an expansion of ecotourism?A look at potential clients’ perceptions of volunteer tourism organizations, International Journal of Non-profit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, Vol. 11, (3), pp. 225-237.
  • Cnaan, R.A., and Handy, F. (2005). Towards understanding episodic volunteering, WetenschappelijkTijdschriftvoorOnderzoeknaarVrijwilligerswerk, 2 (1), pp. 29-35.
  • Ellis, C (2003). Participatory environmental research in tourism: a global view, Tourism Recreation Re-search, 28 (3), pp. 45-55.
  • Henderson, K.A. (1981). Motivation and perceptions of volunteerism as a leisure activity, Journal of Leisure Re-search, 13 (3), pp. 208-218.
  • Lyons, K.D. and Wearing, S. (2008). All for a good cause? The blurred boundaries of volunteering and tourism,Cited in Lyons, K.D. and Wearing, S, pp. 147-154.
  • McMillon, B., Cutchins, D., Geissinger, A. and Asner, E. (2009). Volunteer vacations, Chicago Review Press, Chicago.
  • Sing, T.V. (2002). Altruistic tourism: another shade of sustainable tourism: the case of Kanda community tourism (Zagreb), 50 (4), pp. 361-370.
  • Singh, T.V. (2004). New horizons in tourism: strange experiences and stranger practices, Cabi, London.
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A welfare state is the combination of welfare, capitalism and democracy. The Australian welfare state, having one of the highest economy in the world, focuses a lot on the social policies and social welfare their citizens. Since the last three decades, there have been significant shifts in the social policies and social welfare both worldwide as well as within Australia. These policy changes are going to be changed further due to vast economic changes worldwide. This study helps to demonstrate the social policy domains and the impact of these policy changes by the Australian welfare state, on the relevant populations of the society.


Definition of the population group Unemployed people There are certain population in the society who are unable to support their family or themselves due to lack of employment. Since Australia became colonised, there has been two economic downfalls, the first one in the late 19th century and another in the early 20th century. During these times, people faced a lot of economic crisis. There was a scarcity of jobs and people had to stand in long queues in order to get a job even for a day. There was income insufficiency for purchasing the basic needs like food and clothes. Its main consequence was poverty and high rates of resources. During and post the second world war, there was economic stability and a time full of employment. It was the golden era of the Australian welfare state. Since the 1970s, there was growing incidents of poverty, despite having an established economic system, particularly due to recession. Many Australians do not even have knowledge of the hardships two million other Australians face due to income poverty. Australian government set up the Henderson commission of enquiry into poverty. The inquiry gave certain findings, which served the principle for the policy of the Whitlam government. The Henderson commission laid down a poverty line. Inequality is the measure of wealth and poverty. In the context of Australia, poverty is measured: income from all sources like salaries, pensions, taxes, etc; availability and affordability of the services provided; assets, etc. There has been a noticeable increase in the inequality in Australia, with increase in both poverty and wealth. Between 1973-1976, the risk of poverty increased among the unemployed people from 17% to 74% (King cited in ACOSS,2003, p. 10). Outline of the social policy domains In a democratic country, policies are determined by agents selected by its people and implemented in public offices. Australia is run according to the British Westminster system of governance consisting of parliament, judiciary and government agencies. The institutions of the state have authority to make policies. Policies are the instrument of governance that directs resource allocation. The prime ministers and his cabinet of ministers have the main leadership role in establishing these policies. Central government agencies are the coordinating authority. The cabinet is responsible for making policies at the macro-level. Government departments are there to turn these policies into action. The state gets its fund by taxation and has the authority of resource allocation. Then there are regulating authorities who regulate the policies.  The state has distribution policies to distribute the financial resources. Social policies are the subsets of public policies through which the government maintains social orders and welfares. It is the mechanism of resource allocation which are influenced by social values and are implemented for providing social welfare of the population. Jamrozik’s (2009, p. 1) described social policies as the allocation of human resources and materials maintaining certain theories in order to provide social, economic and political stability to the population. The Australian income support policy gives access to employment and social wage for its people. The Australian welfare state is often referred to as wage earners’ welfare state. The political system, including trade unions and industrial relation systems play an important role in this aspect. Social policies aimed to produce a social and moral workforce consisting of hard working population. They allocated land to freed convicts, spreading a sense of social mobility. In the beginning of the federation of Australia, labour was considered as the main economic and social wellbeing. There was a demand for employment for all and adequate wages. In 1907, the Hervestor judgement established the policy of basic or minimum wage for all. This policy was set to the level of being sufficient for a man to support his wife and three children. The living wage system gave the foundation of the industrial Arbitration system., till 1960s. Commonwealth age pension was introduced as a residual pension, being available only for selected sections of the society. In 1912, maternity allowance was introduced. Currently ‘baby bonus’ is given to single mothers for supporting childbirth expenses. In 1939 the National Insurance Act was introduced. The period of the second world war is considered as the golden era for the Australian welfare state. The objective to obtain full employment was promoted by implementing certain protective taxes on imported goods and increasing social wage. In 1941, widow’s pension system was started, which was exempted from the wages system. Other than the income support, policies to support people to return to work were started, like the Commonwealth Employment Service. In 1945, Pharmaceutical, Hospital and Tuberculosis benefits were introduced. There were other initiatives like voluntary private health insurance designed by medical professionals; support for science laboratories, especially in private school; and the Child Care Act,1972. Impact of the social policy domains Government plays the most essential role in creating a stable economic and social condition. Social policy domains include employment, income support, healthcare, family and child welfare and similar others. The major focus of social policy is social diversity or the differences in different sections of the population. These include equality, social justice and social responsibilities. Thus we can see social policies have different impact on different population, gender, age, demographic location, caste etc. In a democratic country, social policies differ according to different political systems and are undoubtedly controversial. The welfare state is having two important functions in a country, one among which is the facilitating function. It enables the market to operate and its people to function in order to participate in the production and consumption of the country’s resources. The social policy helps to give economic stability in the form of income stability and proper access to basic survival services. It gives targeted pensions and services and access to services like healthcare, transport, housing and development and similar other aspects. The main objective of the income support policy was to reward the people for their service in the country’s economy, both when working as well as when unable to work, such that they can sustain themselves and their dependents. there are two presumptions  in this regard. Firstly, the citizens would perform much better when assured that they get the basic requirements like food, clothing, education and health. Secondly, their security would benefit towards the prosper of the society and the country. This would erase all the social insecurities, inequalities as well as decrease individual risks, and poverty. T. H. Marshall proposed that the development in citizen’s rights would encompass social, legal and political rights. Australian welfare accepted that it is better to have relative poverty in order to reduce absolute poverty. If the citizens are facing economic crisis, they would not be willing to take the risk of investing in the country’s economy. Therefore, it is better to provide basic needs like education and healthcare in order to maintain a proper standard of living such that the citizens participate in the country’s economy. The state implements economic policies, taxation as well as managing the interest rates. The state also compensates those who are affected by the negative effect of the capital, by avoiding structural unemployment and also work injury, inability to work or old age. With changes in time, the state has evolved as the provider of health care, childcare, old age care and many more services. This has resulted in the participation of more and more women of the society who were earlier not allowed to leave household work and participate for the economy. In addition to these, the society is moving from the industrial to technical basics, thus there is a need for a more healthy and skilful workforce. It is well known that business organisations would not establish institutions to teach their workforce but they would help the government to get more skilled and literate workforce. Potential future issues face by the group under current policies Extensive changes have been introduced to the Australian welfare state since the 1980’s. Australia can be divided into a two-tier society consisting of the haves and the have-nots. The haves are those who are enjoying all the diversified productivity, and ever-growing range of products and services. The have-nots are the excluded ones who are restricted from getting the services under certain laws and agencies of the country. Raper, 2000, p. 140) described this inequality of wealth. Top 20% of the income holders earn 50% of the total income of Australia, while the bottom 20% earns only 5% of the income. Among the list of developed countries Australia dropped from seventh to 15th position according to UN Human Development Index. This makes Australia to be one of the most unequal countries (Australia is second to the United States in terms of inequality). The social vulnerability is due to lack of participation in the social economy. Taxation is the source of social provisions; while government has reduced the cost of welfare by reducing the rate of taxation system, they must put extra effort to encourage the citizens in social participation by increasing the privileges and market initiatives. The amount of interest by the state and public agencies in social spending is extremely low when compared to other OECD countries. However, recently it is slowly increasing. Thus, the increase in social spending is described as more by the state when compared to the government spending as a whole. This growth has been most rapid in the field of healthcare and social security and welfare, which increased by 37% and 54.4% respectively, while the total outlays increased by 15.3%. The Australian government introduced 10% Goods and Services Tax (GST) and reduced income tax rates on the higher income groups. This created a bigger impact on the lower income group. The state has an array of legal tax avoidance choices, which increased the neo-liberal economic reform for example the taxation is divided between spouses to reduce liability of the higher earner. The neo-liberal policy in context of the social and economic conditions will undoubtedly have winners and losers. According to findings the rate of poverty is highest among single aged people, then sole parents, and aged couples. Poverty is lowest in the population of non- aged coupled with or without children.


Australia’s Reconstructed welfare state has emerged subsequently but is not exhausted. Positive and negative aspects of freedom are important in a liberal democratic country. Therefore, it is important to give that freedom to the people such that they are encouraged to take part in the country’s economy. There are people in the country who can develop only with the help of other individual and services. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the common people to help others in need of the freedom and also know the way this system that they are a part of, operates optimally.


Bridgman, P., & Davis, G. (2000). Identifying Issues, and Policy Analysis. The Australian Policy Handbook (2nd Edition), cap4. Carson, E., & Kerr, L. (2017). Australian social policy and the human services. Cambridge University Press. Fenna, A. (2004). Australian public policy. Pearson Longman. Hugman, R. (1998). Social welfare and social value: The role of caring professions. Macmillan International Higher Education. Nitz, T., & Brown, A. L. (2001). SEA must learn how policy making works. Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management3(03), 329-342. Stilwell, F., & Troy, P. (2000). Multilevel governance and urban development in Australia. Urban Studies37(5-6), 909-930.
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Interdisciplinary Professional Ethics- Answer

Interdisciplinary Professional Ethics Student’s Name: Student’s ID: Contents Introduction. 3 Ethical Decision Making. 4 Conclusion. 9


The case is appropriately captioned “Men will be men”. No matter how impaired a male, there is a natural attraction or curiosity towards pornography and it is not a blame to men rather a verified information to take into account. The case is based on an agency that provides disability support service to the patients for recovering the vulnerability of impairment. The story is about two siblings suffering from intellectual disability and need regular care as they are quite adult now and practice basic need on behalf of their parents. The female (Marissa) patient is found to be more willing to settle down in the future by her own whereas the male patient (Marco) tends to live in the present along fantasy thought with. So there raise complex situation that is questioning ethical issue risking professionalism as well.

Ethical Decision Making

In the given case the main actor is Sadie who is a speech pathologist directly interact with the patients to provide clinical service necessary. She also liable to direct support worker to respond the patients need understanding their nature. Sadie is tended to conduct specialized testing to best set the therapy for each patient separately. Vocal and cognitive communication impairment is the area of Sadie to deal with. At this time she gets two siblings Marissa and Marco to provide clinical support with the help of Edith and Blaire two of assistants work on roaster basis. For both Marissa and Marco, Sadie has developed a work plan respectively. For Marissa, she developed an art plan along with her and get involved with artwork with the motive of setting challenges and goals for the coming six months with a personality brief on Marissa’s need. The brief will help the supporter to know what tasks to practice with Marissa one by one to get the key objective done. The planning is made with the consent of Marissa. So there is a gap between her need and wish. Sadie outlined all the tasks to perform for the betterment of Marissa and achieve the goal of preparing macaroni meal and cheese, go for horse riding and movie with friends without any support worker. Another plan that was about to develop for future practice and betterment remained unfinished due to the unwillingness of Marco. Marco is more concerned about the present and prefers to do daily works. He expressed his desire to do short of peculiar activities as such going strip club and eating macaroni meal throughout the year. He is comparatively sharp in communicating and making plans than his sister Marissa. Without any care, he supposed to draw an unusual drawing and casual wish like a psychologically sound guy. Marco is found to be flexible in working with Sadie and all his desires she used to take positively apart from the last incident what made her thinking about ethical damage from a professional perspective. Marco was in the indecent website with a much awkward video which is quite surprising as he is not intellectually stable. Sadie became numbed and shared the situation one of her support worker Edith who was not in a situation to accept such practice during working hours and warning about the other staff in this regard. Edith was so seriously thinking about the intensity of such situation and was asking for setting limitations to properly deal with health and safety issue for early recovery of Marco. Sadie feels the dilemma of professionalism and ethical damage in case of Marco’s condition. As Edith is an elder support worker so Sadie put her concern on this issue to take on the appropriate decision. She studied on ethical dimension to get an insight of handling such situation. Above all it is her profession and ensuring ethics is a must respecting the agency policy. According to Kallman and Grillo, (2016), there are a few ethical dimensions that organizations are bound to assure, as such:
  • Health and safety employees are liable to promote and strives to protect the rights and health safety of patients.
  • Their responsibility is to establish, maintain and improve the healthy environment for early recovery.
  • Appropriate delegation of tasks is the prior concern for the workers and experts assigned to each patient.
Going through all these issues Sadie found a conflicting situation between Marco’s activities and health care policies. So she thought of digging deep and figured out the source and influence behind such actions. Sadie talked with Blair in this regard. Blair is the youngest worker in this field and was thought to be a good supporter for Marco to understand him as a male and support him well playing his father role. But when he was asked about the incident he was quite okay with is and justified the trait spontaneously. Sadie was shocked observing his boldness. She finds Blair quite open with Marco and Marco feels good being with him and doing health activities. Sadie has now strong suspicion on Blair to encourage Marco in surfing and learning about such sites. He was o stubborn to work for Marco with or without her consent even if in spare time. And he was quite comfortable to meet in clubs, talking nasty and play nonscheduled games with the client. So Sadie decided to take steps against him highlighting these two strong acts. Before that Edith informed the higher authority about Blair being worried about Marissa’s wellbeing. So an advocate named Cilla came to Sadie to know more about the situation and what steps are about to be taken in this regard. Sadie a smart pathologist did a study on this incident to gather information and measures to make complying with the organization’s policies. As she is the main of two supporters so she can not blame rather justify their individual position in dealing with Cilla. Sadie opined that after knowing the vulnerability of both Marissa and Marco’s intellectual condition, the appropriate working plan has been sorted out and in case of Marissa this is easy to articulate the plan accordingly but Marco is not supportive enough in execution. Thinking about the emotional state of Marco it is far negative for Marco’s disability as he has no stable knowledge about the effect of surfing porn online and going strip club where is not well enough to control himself. Kallman and Grillo, (2016) added that intellectual impairment is a condition where patients do not have the common sense of what is right and wrong and thinking capacity does not support often time. But according to ethical dimension health workers are bound to protect the right of patients as a human being and this sounds complex in the given scenario. Because if Marco is supported with his desire while treatment is going on and can not block his interest, in the long run, he might not come round at the estimated time or with probable outcome. On the other hand, Blair took this as simple from nonprofessionalism perspective which is right in a sense too. Sadie researched for the best way of dealing with such an incident wisely. So she decided to set boundaries in the working period both for the worker and the client to properly execute the planning. With this thought Marco smartness conflicts. As he is too sharp in thinking so it might not be easy to refrain him from doing according to his interest. So there need to prepare effective measures for keeping him away from such approaches. She even went to his friends to know more about his likings and activities. This helped her to plan a working schedule to keep Marco busy with productive activities and challenge his intellectuality he blessed with Here the writer presented another situation similar to this situation to get the information about best dealing options. In a care home, there are male dementia patients who were fascinated for alcohol and it was on regular basis and the frequency was so vast that he did even scream to take wine for 4 to 5 time per day. As he could not remember his words and activities so he supposed to insist very often time. The client was asking for his early recovery and proper treatment as his condition was deteriorating day by day. So the care home worker decided to make him remind of his past life memorizing those days, places and funs he did in his prior age to remove his concentration from alcohol. The health worker had to sit with experts for a meeting to find out the options in dealing with his condition and exploring the past life he spends through multiple conversations with his family members, peers, and friends. They had to be much cordial to recover that patient from his harmful habit. It was not easy for them to cooperate with a dementia patient they informed but their determination was strong and there was no alternative rather the elimination of such a habit to treat him properly. There was a lot of overtime in his case the worker had to do just to find out the emotional change and track the time of happening. From the case, Sadie picked up the most important factor is determination and organizational commitment each worker possess. So she started to consult with their mother an aged lady to get her opinion and support for her son specially and decided to approve some work restrictions in the working time and track them with closed circuit camera. She did not fire Blair rather punished him for his deeds. Sadie suggested Blair be friendly with Marco and bring out information about his other interest, places and the persons Marco loves to be with. And his mother was asked to be with him in some time to convert his attention from pornography and there set a time for mother and son where they supposed to cook together, walk together, shopping together. Sadie observed the change in Marco and his preferences day by day. She took the best decision without sacrificing professionalism and ethical aspects. Marco now found to be more productive and interested in doing outside activities like her sister and utilize his talent in good activities like painting, hunting and making the garden beautiful. These are the prior events that Sadie has experimented before sitting with the advocate Cilla. Because she is the representative of her health care agency and whatever she will say or opine will reflect the efficiency of the organization. What has to do to select the right approach to decision making. She selected the Utilitarian approach is making a decision which refers to do the best for maximum people and less harm along with in minor quantity. What she has done is punish Blair he deserved and figured out the options for Marco and his betterment. And to make a decision on practical mode Sadie followed several steps. These are:
  • Recognition of ethical issue
  • Get the facts
  • Evaluate alternative actions
  • Make a decision and test it
  • Act and reflect on the outcome.
As a pathologist and human being, Sadie did her best and successfully handle all the asking from the advocate end. She rushed to her root to discuss the situation first to know the policies and practice in such an exceptional case to accomplished. The agency had some say and put her on the direction and encouraged her to explore the case with confidential information too which was much needed that time deal with Marco’s condition. And she found it beneficial for Marissa as well. So would say with confidence that the agency intends to be more helpful to control such incident and monitor activity by respecting professionalism.  Sadie by modifying her team ethical practice has decided to explore the case to get the solution that fitted best for Marco.


Marissa and Marco’s case are way much exceptional and potential to arise in near future with other clients. And this type combination of personality and professionalism is hard to see to deal with cold blood. Sadie played her role at her best as a pathology, decision maker, superior of her supporter and as a human. Verily the disability needs a cordial hand and utmost attention to make a beloved person come round soon. And communication and experiment cannot be substituted with any other approach. All is need determination and critical management capacity to beat such situation.
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Table of Contents
Introduction 3
1. The system of liberal democracy in Australia 3
2. Merits and demerits of the system for the citizen’s wellbeing 4
3. Freedom and rights of liberal democracy 5
Conclusion 6
Reference list 7

Every country in the world practices various kinds of democratic systems. The liberal democratic system is one of the most effective democratic systems, as it allows freedom of expression. Australia practices liberal democratic system for ensuring a smooth democratic system in the country. The democratic system of Australia offers a stable government for the wellbeing of the citizen. There are certain limitations that liberal democratic system provides. The multi-tier system of the country is causing problems such as accountability and transparency on the part of a government.
1. The system of liberal democracy in Australia
Democracy is considered as a system in the government that allows people of the country to choose their ruler through election. In a system of democracy, the people of the nation decide the representative and form a governing body. The liberal democracy includes equality before law, pluralism, human rights and civil rights. As recommended by Foa & Mounk (2017), to make a democracy success, it is crucial to include civil society in the system of liberal democracy. The meaning of liberal is a willingness of somebody to respect an opposite view. Thus, in order to implement a liberal democracy in Australia, the people of the country must respect n liberty of the people. The citizen of the state should have basic senses of respecting opposite views. As Australia is representative of liberal democracy, the political system there carries out the task of governing the country. The values of Australian country include Freedom in process of election and freedom of being elected. The democratic system of the country guarantees that everybody has a right to vote without any fear and manipulation and every citizen has equality in voting right. The system further ensures that every citizen of the country can take part in election process can stand in election. The other basic rights of this democracy include freedom of religious beliefs, expression and speech.
As suggested by Diamond (2015), Australian liberal democracy makes sure that there is liberty of political participation and also freedom in assembling. The author further stressed the fact that maintaining law and order is basic principle of the democracy. In Australia, the government has made increased focus on maintaining rules and order in the country. The basic principles of the Australian democracy are that the elected government is responsible for the well-being of the citizen of the country. According to Raffass (2016), the Australian democracy is similar to Westminster system of the government. The parliament of the country consists of two elected chambers. The one chamber is house of the representative and the other one is senate. The upper house or the Senate has total 76 senators and the lower house has 150 members. The liberal democratic system of Australia consists of two political parties and there are also many minor parties. The major political parties of the country are liberal party and labor party (Prato, 2016). In case, any major political party cannot get the majority, they form coalition for forming government. The state, parliament and commonwealth are elected by people of the country. General elections in the country are conducted every three years in the country. House of the representative members is chosen after every three years. On the other hand, senators of the house are elected for every six-year term.
2. Merits and demerits of the system for the citizen’s wellbeing
The advantage of the Australian parliamentary system included fixed-term for representation of people of the country. The political system of the country offers political certainty for a period of time. According to Bowler et al., (2017), if there are frequent changes in the government, it would create a political uncertainty in the country. If a country faces political uncertainty within certain time, it will lead to economic uncertainty in the country. Thus, it is crucial to ensure that political system of the country remains stable. The Australian liberal democracy ensures that it has a stable political system for a certain period of time. If the government of country stays in power for a long time, it will be helpful for the government to implement policies for certain period of times. The parliament of the country makes sure that planning ensures a smooth operation of country’s rules and order. As recommended by Norris (2017), the Australian democratic system allows the small political parties to take part in the election process and also help them in making effective campaign. The principle benefits of the fixed-term of government are opportunity for an existing political system from gaining political advantage by implementing people-friendly policies. The rate of legitimate electoral votes also can be increased by introduction of the fixed-term system for political parties.
The disadvantages of the Australian political system include expensive and longer election campaign for political parties. As the political system of Australia is based on two parties, the minor political parties sometimes cannot make ineffective representation and hegemony of two political systems usually exists. Three-tier political system of Australia leads to contradictory or overlapping of policies of the government policies. It further creates duplication of the government policies in the country. The liberal democracy of the country also creates competition and rivalry among political parties and can be harmful for people of the country. As recommended by Taub (2016), liberalism democratic system might harm democratic system of the country, as multiple-tiers in the structure of government could decrease transparency and accountability of the government system. The complicated system of the government tends to pass the accountability and every authority refuses to take responsibilities and accountabilities for any misdeed on the part of government. It may appear that liberal democratic system in Australia might not be totally appropriate, but there are no alternative present to the liberalism democracy of Australia. One of the major disadvantages of the liberal democratic system is influence of mob.
The Australian citizen would tend to vote for a party that is supported by majority. In liberal democracy, the domination of majoritavrianian is one of the most negative aspects. Sometimes majority opinions might not be good for country, but citizen of the country is with view of harmful opinion. The representative democracy in Australia is represented by elected leaders. Thus, decisions are taken by leaders only and citizen has no voice in this decision-making policies. As a result, policies of the government sometimes do not represent grievances and issues of citizen. People in the power may indulge in corrupt practices and can exploit resources of country. At the time of authority, the political leadership might make undue political advantages.
3. Freedom and rights of liberal democracy
The liberal democracy of Australia allows citizen to express their opinion without fear and hesitation. Every citizen has right to the vote irrespective of gender, property ownership or race. Australian constitution is the supreme authority and it is the final law of Australia. The constitution ensures that relations among states remain in very good position. Every citizen of Australia can protest against any decision of the government. People of the country have right to go and live anywhere in the country. According to Stoker & Hay (2017), every people in the country are equal to the rule of law and people are not treated on the basis of religion, caste or language.
Capital punishment in Australia has been banned and people are jailed for committing crime. The Australian constitution offers full right to citizen of country, although there is certain limitation on freedom of expression. The limitations include content of the parliament, defamation and racial vilification (Henry, 2015). The Australian government has signed a lot of a lot of conventions and treaties in regard to human rights in the country. In order to minimise discrimination against people disabled citizen of the country, the legislators of the country has brought a number of laws. The disabled persons have been given a lot of relaxation in terms of education, employment and accommodations. Section 80 of the Australian constitution ensures the right of trial for offenses that are intractable (Melleuish, 2015). The voting right of the citizen is guaranteed by section 41 of the constitution. Section 117 makes prohibition of discrimination based on residence of states. The liberal democracy of Australia offers freedom in political communication on various political matters. Court of the country gives impartial and independent judgement. Legislature of Australia is not influenced by executives or the government.
It can be finally concluded that liberal democratic system is most suitable for ruling any country in the world. Liberal democratic system in Australia ensures equality and basic rights for citizen of the country. The upper house is senate and lower house is house of the representative. Although the political system of Australia is vibrant, there is certain limitation such as multi-tier system can be obstacles for well-being of the country. The limitations include corruption and lack of accountability. Right and freedom of the political system of the country ensures that people are not treated on the basis of race, caste or religion. Political system of the country is stable and it has two houses of parliament.

Reference list
Bowler, S., Denemark, D., Donovan, T., & McDonnell, D. (2017). Right‐wing populist party supporters: Dissatisfied but not direct democrats. European Journal of Political Research, 56(1), 70-91. Retrieved from Retrieved on 18th July 2018
Diamond, L. (2015). Facing up to the democratic recession. Journal of Democracy, 26(1), 141-155. Retrieved from Retrieved on 14th July 2018
Foa, R. S., & Mounk, Y. (2017). The signs of deconsolidation. Journal of Democracy, 28(1), 5-15. Retrieved from Retrieved on 12th July 2018
Henry, N. (2015). From reconciliation to transitional justice: The contours of redress politics in established democracies. International Journal of Transitional Justice, 9(2), 199-218. Retrieved from Retrieved on 28th July 2018
Melleuish, G. (2015). DEMOCRACY, UTILITARIANISM AND THE IDEAL OF LIBERAL EDUCATION IN AUSTRALIA. Knowledge Cultures, 3(3). Retrieved from Retrieved on th July 2018
Norris, P. (2017). Is Western democracy backsliding? Diagnosing the risks. Retrieved from Retrieved on 20th July 2018
Prato, G. B. (2016). Introduction–Beyond Multiculturalism: Anthropology at the intersections between the local, the national and the global. In Beyond Multiculturalism (pp. 13-32). Routledge. Retrieved from Retrieved on 23th July 2018
Raffass, T. (2016). Work enforcement in liberal democracies. Journal of Social Policy, 45(3), 417-434. Retrieved from Retrieved on 16th July 2018
Stoker, G., & Hay, C. (2017). Understanding and challenging populist negativity towards politics: The perspectives of British citizens. Retrieved from Retrieved on 27th July 2018
Taub, A. (2016). How Stable Are Democracies?‘Warning Signs Are Flashing Red’. New York Times, 29. Retrieved from Retrieved on 24th July 2018

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Social Work Theory for Practice-Answer

There are many definitions of the term cultural competence. Davidhizar et al, (1998) defines it as the process of developing awareness about one’s own thoughts, feelings and the environment without allowing influence from the background of others. Another definition of cultural competence is the ability to have adequate understanding and knowledge of client’s culture. Yet another definition describes it as the process of recognizing, accepting and respecting cultural differences. These definitions are universal and provide definitions of cultural competence in all dimensions of life. In the context of social work, cultural competence is defined as the ability of social workers to carry out their duties in a manner consistent with the expectations of cultural groups they serve. Goldberg (2000) asserts that cultural competence is not an ultimate goal that organizations should strive to achieve but rather it is a continuous process that should progressively grow over time. Experiences during practice should enable social workers to identify strengths and vulnerabilities that will enable them to develop into culturally competent professionals.
Despite integration of comprehensive cultural studies into the academic curriculum, a gap still exists in the response to the problem and needs of the ever-growing culturally diverse community. The mainstream educational values, policy statements and practices have not effectively guided social professional activities, program techniques and approaches. For many years, the social work profession has taken pride in the recognition of its alliance with culture, gender, and racial matters and the fact that practitioners in the field do interact with diverse groups in the society. However, many scholars including Matsunaga et al, (2003) have criticized the mainstream knowledge and notions about cultural competence stating that they do not correlate with actual performance of social workers. Similarly, Tocher and Larson (1998) argue that accreditation and curriculum standards in social work education only reflect aspects of humanitarian ideologies while they tend to overlook how to work with cultures different from our own. As a result, no clear evidence of positive results can be attributed to these programs. Studies of social diversity and justice in education institutions are rather unfocused and uneven as it does not teach the actual practice of a social justice framework.
It is therefore, clear that social workers are not adequately equipped with cultural competence skills after graduation from Masters of Social Work Program (MSW). It has prompted managers in social work service to find other avenues of equipping their workers with the skills in order to practice what they actually profess. In order to explain the scope of the matter, researchers have conducted many studies across the globe. Additionally, public service managers are striving to ensure continuous cultural competence training for their staff regardless of their academic knowledge in cultural awareness.

Theories of Social work practice
Problem-Solving Theory
In a problem solving theory of social work practice “a difficulty occurs at the time a living thing has an ambition however does not identify how this objective is to be attained. Every time one cannot go off from the specified circumstances to the preferred circumstances merely by act, after that there is option to philosophy… Such thoughts have the undertaking of formulating several actions that possibly will arbitrate among the existing along with the preferred conditions.” (Cole, G.D.H., 1920. Social theory, New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co)
In relation to this description, a problem occurs when this is not obvious to the person whose acts are to be obtained to accomplish a number of preferred objectives. The act to remedy this difficulty is acknowledged as problem-solving. It initiates from a specified circumstances where the difficulty or condition of the circumstances needs extra information to work in the direction of their resolution.

The wide-ranging hypothetical approach is that problem-solving theory is reliant on a specified problem-solving state of affairs. The subsequent principle is that information is a procedure, which specifies proceedings to be executed in definite circumstances. The third principle problem solving theory is the difference among feeble and well-built techniques for solving difficulties. Consequently, a specialist is anticipated to use the procedures to discover the resolution for the specified difficulty or circumstances by using a forward way of thinking or annotations. On the other hand, problem solving can be engaged in by using comprehensive information for deductive analysis, to evaluate the strengths of the theory or objectives alongside the details specified. It is a diffident analysis approach. The theory of problem solving explains procedures for enlarging specialist schemes in cognitive psychology that outlines the foundation for other researches in definite fields. So, in the case of Lucy where his child is ill and her husband is not living with her. As a social worker I will apply problem solving theory in the case of Lucy because problem occurs when this is not obvious to Lucy who acts are to be obtained to accomplish a number of preferred objectives.

Use problem solving theory in case of Lucy
1. Identifying the problem
First of all, we will identity the problem of Lucy which is that her husband is not living with her. Also, the child of Lucy is ill and there is no one which can take care of Lucy.
2. Describing the problem
After identifying the problem we will clearly describe the problem
3. Developing possible solutions
In the third step, we will develop possible solutions of the Lucy’s case by using the problem solving theory. We will classify the problems in two categories (ill-defined and well-defined) from which suitable explanations are to be prepared. In the case of Lucy, that do not have clear objectives are ill defined and those which have clear objectives are well defined.
4. Choosing an best solution
We will choose the best solution by dealing with logics and semantics. The best possible solution in the case of Lucy is that she needs a person which can care her and his child. Therefore, she needs to marry
5. Executing the solution
We will execute the problem of Lucy by finding a suitable person for and arranging her marriage.
The Theory of Psychoanalytic method
This Theory of Psychoanalytic method counters the practice of outer affect by proposing that individual actions are an indication of behaviors which take place throughout and subsequent to the proceedings they are engaged in. Howl and James (2008) varied from Freud’s hypothesis for analysis in the logic that they were of the view that many people could show alike actions with no psychiatric difficulties. Consequently, psychoanalysis is not fundamentally regarding the physiological affect however it is slightly connected with incentive from connections. The instigators give emphasis to new techniques for scrutinizing and understanding actions in the background of civilization and character by prearranged research tools. They suppose that the psychoanalytic arrangement has definite relations with mingling series which bring about individual associations with the surroundings, civilization and traits. It involves that psychoanalysis approaches accentuate on the function of the certified affianced in the study of individual performances and understanding of the same. The abilities at ease with infer important information regarding the character is resulting from routine procedures. Similarly, an involvement is intrinsic in the performances as well as proceedings of the individual under learning.
On the other hand, Jim Swan (1980) and Ian Jeff (1992) have completely changed the theoretical structure of psychoanalysis hypothesis and understanding. They give emphasis to on the authenticity of social build and their influence on both the person as well as the specialized. They offer the sight that resolution for dilemmas in psychoanalytic are reliant on the educational life generally. This is relied on objective information resulting from social accords and person proceedings are the description of the proceeds. Consequently, psychoanalysis is the research of the speech of the human performs and understanding of the same to symbolize probable accounts of the long-ago or current life of the person. Transactions among the psychoanalyst and the customer are built by subject knowledge, human society, and portions of division etc. As a result,
(a) It is focused in a prime manner with talking and their corresponding;
(b) Subjective knowledge, objective authenticity, and natures are all buildings enlivened in language;
(c) These current telling might be informed in additional words and do not correspond to genuine world proceedings;
(d) Unitary selves are transferred by the concept that we tell functional narratives regarding “numerous selves” with the intention to carry out our dealings; and
These subsequent theoretical structures of the psychoanalytic theory not only pretense confronts for social work practices however also present fresh aspects for examining difficult personal social issues. The function of the social employee in the psychoanalytic background is disconnect from the person and the surroundings, as she must watch impartially to understand individual actions in the psychiatric background in addition to in the circumstance of the surroundings wherein the individual live in. consequently, the specialized is separated and does not actually take part in the difficulties countenanced by the persons. It is inclined to detach the psychoanalyst from the person that sometimes delays problem declaration. Though, objective inspections in analysis allow the social work specialized to give emphasis to on interventions techniques. As interventions are not place in models or researches or procedures from information base, the social worker has a lot scope in expanding inventive interventions which convene preferred social objectives at the personal and from the wider societal circumstances.
Simultaneously, there are definite boundaries to the premise of psychoanalytic. There is over prominence of the personal and not as much of consideration of interference for the wide social background. As persons reside the civilization – act together, manage and have relations with other persons inside the surroundings – this is usual to suppose that any difficulties or concerns which they countenance must be determined in the framework of the society they reside. This is not usual to suppose that the difficulty is intrinsic inside the atmosphere as well as the intervention method must be for the person only. From this point of view, this theory is restricted.
Consequently, the psychoanalytic theory does not actually cope with the strengths approach that fundamentally put emphasis on resource development. Even though psychoanalysis accentuates on problem declarations, it is restricted to the concerns faced by persons – not from a shared or large-scale. So, it can be adopted in the case of Lucy where the individual interest is preferred. I would prefer this theory in the case of Lucy to assist and co-operate with her in order to resolve her concerns and problems. As the individual actions of Lucy to save the life of her child as well as other problems she is facing I will apply Psychoanalytic method theory in that case.
Development on the customer and ethical issues
As a specialized of social work, the person is accountable for the development of the customer. The difficulties or concerns my customer countenances possibly will be from the micro, mezzo as well as macro surroundings and consequently need various approaches in the direction of interventions. Hence, I would keep the psychoanalytic approach for small intrusions so that I would know how to examine the psychological in addition to physiological problems, and eventually work out interferences which deal with the basis of problem. alternatively, if the nature of the difficulty that my customer is experiencing trunks from the beginning and needs an extensive viewpoint in assessment, subsequently I would take on the problem-solving strategy to deal with the difficulty, initially from the macro stage after that slight it below to the micro level afterward determine it consequently. The approaches vary for the reason that, as a social work practitioner, I have to use flexible gear to assess the development of my customer. It can only be probable if I utilize a grouping of theories and approaches to present me suppleness in addition to energy in my profession.
The solitary moral and ethical issue I have concerning the relevance of such theories would conceivably be the range as well as boundaries every cause for social work carries out. The problem-solving theory which is argued previously accentuates in excess of on the procedures that sometimes possibly will consequence in compromised interventions. Alternatively, the psychoanalytic approach is extremely slight and imperfect in their range in tackling individual viewpoints and be inclined to overlook the wider circumstances. In determining individual difficulties, maybe I would overlook to integrate the superior representation and, by this means, unintentionally damage the society rather than assisting it all together in the course of my social work practice.
Strengths and weaknesses of theories of Social work practice in the given case study
The strengths of psychoanalytic theory in the case of Lucy are as follows:
The main strength of psychoanalytic theory is that provides serene the chance to discuss issues with a specialized, that could assist ease indications of psychological sickness of Lucy. In spite of this, the majority of psychoanalytic theories are hard to determine and frequently overstress the comatose brain, gender, violence and infancy. Psychoanalytic theory was formulated by Sigmund Freud as a source of raising an awareness of the internal mechanism of the human brain. This theory is concentrated with the research and examine of the identification, personality as well as psyche. The identification denotes the excellence of being comatose and includes all which is available at birth, counting the characters. The personality is accountable for calculating the commands of the identification and the natures and provides as a connection among the identification and the exterior world. The psyche signifies the effect of others, as well as the effect of ethnic, communal and enlightening society.

Strengths and weaknesses of problem solving are as follows:

Social problem-solving includes numerous aptitudes and services that bring about adaptive consequences for numerous dissimilar inhabitants. Generally, operative problem-solving abilities can have numerous assistances. These abilities can upsurge situational managing and decrease expressive suffering. Study has exposed that one’s problem alignment is exactly linked to levels of mental pressure and modification. Obviously, the conflicting usually leads to undesirable consequences.

Problem-solving investigates are hard for people who are sensing astounded or frightened. Some amount of confidence is essential by an individual, illustrative or ethnic member.

Problem-solving wants a person to be clear, as well as includes time, information and operation charges.

Problem-solving operates on expectations that persons distinguish what is “upright” for us; and in what way to realize those “upright” objectives and requirements. These norms are obviously untruthful for some people maximum; as well as for all people some of the time.
Problem-solving still needs sensibly correct) information or suppositions regarding “moralities”, the numerous methods of “control”, and “market charges”. Intelligent decisions need several knowledge of replacements or contingency consequences.

Some hard or budget-cognizant customer’s famine one stop shopping – procedure/admiration/message, information and assistance.

Theory Key Concepts
Systems Theory • People are not isolated individuals but operate as part of wider networks or “systems”
• Systems may be informal (e.g. family or friends), formal (e.g. clubs, support groups) or public (schools, hospitals)
• Difficulties may arise if there is a lack of fit between the person and the systems they operate within.
• Systems can be employed to support the service user to achieve change.
Ecological Approach • Germain and Gitterman – “Life model” (1980 / 1996) -people are interdependent with each other and their environment – each influences the other over time.
• People move through their own unique life course and may encounter “stressors” – some of which may make them feel they cannot cope.
• People employ coping mechanisms and draw on resources in the environment, social networks and inner resources.
Task Centred Approach • Brief work within explicit time limits
• Collaborative approach between worker and service user – based on a contract.
• Systematic work
• Includes some behavioural ideas but mainly a cognitive approach
• Usual to take action to get what you want
• Action guided by beliefs about self and world
• Time-limits help motivate service users
• People may “get stuck” if they have to deal with a certain issue over and over
• Problems defined as “unsatisfied wants”

Crisis Intervention • Brief intervention – deals with immediate issues rather than longer term problems
• Based on ego-psychology and cognitive-behavioural models – serious events have an impact on the way people think about themselves and their emotional reactions
• Assumes we live in “steady state” – able to cope with change
• Crises upset the steady state and provide opportunity to improve skills / risk of failure
• Period of disorganised thinking / behaving
• Crises can reawaken unresolved issues from the past but offer a chance to correct non-adjustment to past events.

Cognitive-behavioural approach / Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy • Rather than being an “insight based therapy” it uses techniques from behaviourism, social learning theory and cognitive theory.
• Based on the assumption that our thoughts, beliefs, images and attitudes influence our behaviour and if these are changed, our behaviour will change.
• “Self-talk” reinforces irrational thinking.
• Involves identifying and reframing unhelpful beliefs. Worker teaches service user to challenge own beliefs.
• Can involve modifying behaviour using a system of rewards.
• Use of ABC system – activating event – belief – consequence and Ellis (1962) extends to DEF – Dispute beliefs, replace beliefs with Effective rational belief, describe the Feelings which will be the result.
Motivational Interviewing • Applied form of CBT, developed by Miller and Rollnick (1991, 2002) defined as “a person-centred directive method for enhancing an intrinsic motivation to change by exploring and resolving ambivalence.”
• Worker adopts an empathic and non-confrontational approach but worker is directive.
• Worker is alert to language person uses and looks for language of change.
• Worker provides education / information about situation the service user is in (e.g. effects of smoking / drinking alcohol / taking drugs etc)
• Worker encourages service user to list benefits and costs of lifestyle and alternative lifestyles
• Explore barriers to goals
• Reframe past events – focus on more positive aspects.
• Supported by an understanding of the cycle of change (Prochaska and DiClemente 1986) [Pre-contemplation / contemplation / decision / active changes / maintenance / lapse.

Identifying and understanding all the exceeding conditions, my opinion is that every one of the theories has their individual value and purpose in anticipated perform. This is hard to prefer one in excess of the other, as social work specialized understand no social concerns or difficulty matching with another. Every difficulty is exceptional and needs exceptional declarations. As creatures are full of life, their difficulties are vibrant too, involving variety in decisions and intervention techniques. Although, from a wider viewpoint, I would have a preference on psychoanalytic theory over the problem-solving theory because it would normally be utilized for the individual issues not for the wider perspective therefore in the given case study of Lucy this theory can be used. Alternatively, for simple crisis I would have a preference to utilize the problem solving approach.

Adams, S. (1990). “An observation from medication” In on the way to an amalgamated Theory of Problem Solving: ISBN 545-35345435
Berlin, S. (2001) Social Work procedure Social Casework: A Problem-Solving Process, The academia of UK Press
Chris, F. S. (1987). Analysis and communal Science Jeff, Alaska. pp. 54
Fredrick, A. D., Heinz, G.W. & David, Z.A. (2000) Methods & strategy for Social Work carry out.
Steven, H. (1990). Psychological fitness Work in the group of people: hypothesis and Practice in communal Work Nursing. Falter journalist’s pp. 42.
William F. and Bash (2009) various theories and practices of social work in the context of individuals: ISBN 543253

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Table of Contents
Introduction 2
1.0 Concept of ethical issue 2
1.1 Reframe the ethical questions 2
1.2 Literature practice 3
Importance of ethical standards 3
Environmental Ethics 4
2.0 Background of professional discipline in order to give the response of ethical question 4
3.0 Professional and personal responses 5
4.0 Position of a person by determining ethical theories and ethical principles 6
5.0 Articulation of own professional and personal position with ethical challenges 7
Conclusion 8
Reference list 9
Appendices 11

The development of an ethical program and position is required to measure the different reaction of an individual with respect to ethical principles. A link between moral behaviour and moral values has a relatively long-intrigued of social integration. This paper is aimed to discuss in details about the ethical position of two individual by which disability support program can improve a relationship along with the client’s family. Furthermore, this paper is also focused on analysing professional as well as personal positions in order to analyse potential ethical challenges of professional discipline if environmental practices in a reflective manner.
1.0 Concept of an ethical issue
Ethical issue can be considered as a branch of the philosophy which involves defending, systemising as well as recommending a concept of wrong and right conduct. Moreover, ethical issue seeks to the resolve of ethical questions concerning of human morality by understanding vice and virtue and so on. As commented by Kelly and Byrne (2018), moral and ethical issues are precisely associated with daily lives from the perspective of both professional and personal point of view. On the other hand, I would like to evaluate that individual moral values are significantly associated with an ethical principle, rights, aesthetics values, desires and so on. Pease et al. (2017) have been narrated that in order to classify the learning disability, the ethical position and principle is played a crucial role for each and every individual. In other words, for determining of an ethical issue, it is majorly required to understand that disability support program can be considered as a social construction. Nonetheless, Epstein (2018) has been asserted that this type of social, ethical construction is an appropriate idea which seems to be a natural as well as visible to every individual.
On the other hand, an ethical issue of disability support program is fundamentally affiliated with dignity, rights of an individual to confidentiality, self determination and privacy. Therefore, from that perspective, I can observe that most of the psychologist is being aware of as well as respect for every individual culture, role differences. It includes gender identity, ethnicity, age, race, and religion, national origin, disability, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status and much more (Kelly and Byrne 2018).
1.1 Reframe the ethical questions
• Can a disability support program improve a relationship along with their client’s family?
• Are the environmental ethics affected to ethical principles in order to provide sustainable working condition?
• What should be the challenges of professional environmental practices in order to build a healthy relationship?
• Is the social norm influenced by this disability support program to promote an ethical and quality lifestyle?
1.2 Literature practice
A concept of ethical positional approach is the most critical assessment for improvement of individual lifestyle. Mietola et al. (2016) have been mentioned that in order to provide an appropriate and suitable working environment, there must have a requirement to implement an accelerated development association. It is expressively initiated to train their people for performing a relatively more integrated function within intermediate care. Therefore, based on this development program, I could be realised that support workers are significantly improved in social as well as healthcare services, skills, knowledge, job satisfaction and so on. So that, by implementing this improvement method, there must have a viable career pathway in order to support this development program
Importance of ethical standards
By analysing this overall discussion, it is quite clear that ethical principle has been very beneficial for improving the industrial facility more effectively and efficiently. Furthermore, a support program for disabled people is needed to develop overall infrastructure in order to enable a sustained training session as well as foundation degree to their workers. On the contrary, Noval and Stahl (2017) have been stated that organisational leaders are fundamentally responsible for improving ethical standards by which each and every staff and individual will require to adhere to. In addition, as refer to Christopoulos et al. (2017), there are several numbers of ethical standards which includes Utilitarian, rights, Fairness and virtue [refer to appendix 2].
According to this ethical standard, there must have a proper social and environmental ethics which can be dealt with by social practitioners and consequences. So that, by dealing with practitioners, it is quite possible to implement a best and quality ethical approach (Noval and Stahl, 2017).
Human rights
The rights approach is another essential assessment of this ethical standard. It is needed to respect and protect the morals and rights of a disabled individual who can be influenced by an ethical decision. Nonetheless, the environmental and social intent is to be treated with dignity and relatively fairly (Christopoulos et al. 2017).
The ethical fairness should be incorporated to equal treatment to each and every individual and also help to provide person-centred care and services regardless of position.
The virtue approach is required to maintain by these ethical standards which are significantly employed with courage, honesty, tolerance, compassion and so on.

Figure 1: Principles of ethical standards
(Source: Created by author)
Environmental Ethics
In order to align with this concept, it is required to understand that environmental ethics can be defined as a discipline in the philosophy which studies moral relationship, value status. According to Fox and Bird (2017), this type of environmental principles is helped to cover the challenges of environmental ethics which are mostly associated with human-centeredness. This prospect is having a significant connection to social ecology, deep ecology to the politics (Linehan and O’Brien, 2017).
2.0 Background of professional discipline in order to give a response to an ethical question
For this assessment, I would like to invite two separate individual, person A and person B from the professional discipline background of environmental practice. Nonetheless, for making an alignment with ethical principles, both of our responders are likely to use some major ethical codes and ethical principles. As suggested by Linehan and O’Brien (2017), ethical codes are initiated to help the professional as well as personal conduct with proper integrity. Furthermore, a code of ethics is also required to outline organisational value and mission that how professionals should be acted to approach problems. Therefore, they focus on those ethical principles which are mainly based on organisational standards and core value.
In order to respond to an above mentioned ethical question, it can be observed that majority of ethical theories are said to be a rule-based principle that focuses on individual responsibility, duties and actions. On the other hand, it can be better described as a right based approach or duty-based ethical approach that is significantly incorporated to justify the moral obligations. However, they have primarily focused on Compliance oriented ethical code; value-based ethical code, code of the ethics amongst professionals (Naidoo et al. 2018).
Compliance oriented, ethical code or principle
This type of compliance code is significantly affiliated to law-related issues including safety and hiring standards. Furthermore, these ethical principles are considered to be a clear-cut regulation and rules in order to monitor individual and personal behaviour (Sulmasy and Mueller 2017).
Value-based code of an ethics
As asserted by Byrum (2017), value-based ethical codes are considered to be core values ethical system. It helps to outline a standard of the response based on environmental practices. On the other hand, it is required to increase a degree of the self-regulation process.
Professional code of ethics
The professional code of ethics is employed to the legal requirement of an organisation which regulated by the security system (refer to appendix 1). Our individuals of environmental practices are majorly focused on ethical standards which involve objectivity, integrity, avoidance of the conflicts to interest, truthfulness and so on (Congress, 2017).

Figure 2: Ethical codes
(Source: Created by author)
3.0 Professional and personal responses
As mentioned by Cousineau et al. (2018), professional as well as personal ethical approaches are required to maintain an appropriate ethical behaviour which further depends on moral codes, rules imposed by the community system. However, according to a response of person A of environment practice, disability support program is very beneficial for their individual as it helps to increase self-esteem, self-confidence by providing then a dignity. On the other hand, as per the points of view person B, it is also helpful to improve their relationship to provides person-centred care facility. However, from the perspective of professional points of view, the environmental ethics are majorly affected to sustainable working condition as well as cultural sustainability. This type of environmental ethics can be considered to be a branch of a philosophy which describes a range of conceptual foundations concerning environmental value. Furthermore, from the personal viewpoints, Person B would like to analyse this issue as surrounded by societal actions, attitude and the policies for protecting as well as sustaining working environment (Sulmasy and Mueller, 2017).
On the other hand, Person A is recommended from his personal view is that in order to provide a healthy and robust relationship, professional environmental practices are confronted with several numbers of challenging factors. It is fundamentally associated to continuously changing the environment, maintain of a quality base health care services and facility. At the same time, it is also confronted with various types of social norms and regulation which is significantly affected by the disability support program (Curtis et al. 2017). However, according to person B of this professional discipline, the prospect of ethical norms and principle should be followed the value-based ethical code and professional ethical principle as it is needed to segregate human rights, self-motivational assessment, dignity and much more.
4.0 Position of a person by determining ethical theories and ethical principles
In order to determine a relevant ethical principle, identification of person’s position is entirely necessary to address. They are majorly committed to protecting their creation by empowering disabled people in a society. Therefore, they commit to urging the international community, civil society for providing appropriate care services to those needy people (Laaser et al. 2017). According to Person A and B, it can be analysed that development support program is precisely related to the improvement of relationship along with their client’s family. From that perspective, they are mostly focused on an individual care pot person-centred care facility by maintaining their dignity, respect, confidentiality and much more. Furthermore, interpretations of the ethical questions are being centred on ethical grounds and principles which help to provide a relative normative judgement. They are responsible for guiding our way of thinking by delivering an essential assessment for the identifying how we must react when any ethical practices arise (Laaser et al. 2017).
Contemporary environmental, ethical approach and traditional ethical model
Majority of the environmental ethicists precisely tried to make a distance from anthropocentrism embedded within a traditional view. According to a professional individual of person A, it can find that the environmental traditional ethical approaches lead to maintain an intrinsic value, a good nation, an appropriate action and much more. Furthermore, in order to align with their responses, they are majorly focused on several types of ethical principles. It includes deontological ethical principle, individualistic approach and much more. In the opinion of Curtis et al. (2017), deontological ethical principle helps to maintain actions or rights in an independent manner. On the other hand, there is a significant distinction in between traditional approach which has been characterised by its own specific feature for development in environmental philosophy. On the other hand, according to their points of view, it is quite clear that there is also having a different concept of the intrinsic value. According to Sulmasy and Mueller (2017), one side of intrinsic value is associated with a state of the affairs that is majorly focused on the Consequentialist thinker. On another side of an intrinsic value of environmental, ethical practice, there are values of the entities. Therefore, by analysing this argumentative discussion, I can be observed that different foci of intrinsic value are helped to provide a fundamental argument in between Consequentialist and deontologists to modify the concept of disability support program (Curtis et al. 2017).
5.0 Articulation of own professional and personal position with ethical challenges
By analysing this overall discussion, it can be observed that disability support program in order to improve interrelationship along with their clients and healthcare provider is confronted a different number of challenging factor. I could have realised that it is highly related to ethical standards and maintaining integrity in ethical principle. An ethical code is significantly helped to deliver guidance which is further referred to support system for the provision of quality based services. Nonetheless, maintaining of high ethical integrity as well as legal standards are needed a commitment from their agencies by which all of the mentions ethical codes and principles are said to be accepted from both professional and personal perspective.
However, in order to articulate an individual position, on ethical conduct leads to maintain several types of environmental and social principle. As commented by Linehan and O’Brien (2017), it is significantly associated to service delivery, human resource management system, conflicts of the interest, professional responsibility and contractual relationship, community relation and much more. Delivery of a quality base health care facility is considered as first responsibility and first priority for achieving individual needs and desires. After that, I have learned that the centre for the disability service seeks their consumer inputs while making the decision regarding the human resource. It helps to analyse their consumer preferences from both personal as well as professional perspective. On the other hand, their staff members have been appointed to such responsibility for managing and eliminate the conflicts of interest. Therefore, it helps to improve their internet connection and relationship as well as communication level. By implementing an effective and efficient communication system, it employs to provide a healthy and significant working condition. At the same time, profession responsibility leads to incorporate to the high standard service system, cohesive panel approach, and positive organisational atmosphere as well. It involved respecting their rights, views by treating them along with fairness, good faith, courtesy without making any discrimination. Therefore, from these points of views, it can be summarised that the environmental and social ethical approach is significantly segregate to value-based ethical code and professional code of ethics.
This paper is premised on a holistic discussion of ethical practices and an ethical norm that helps to improve disability support program by providing a quality-based health care services. By analysing this overall discussion, it is quite obvious that determination of professional as well as personal responses is considered to be the most critical assessment that helps to understand the relevance of ethical discipline code. Therefore, in order to align to this ethical question, this paper is a highlight on the prospect of an ethical issue, ethical principle and professional and personal position by analysing different types of ethical theory. In addition, professional and personal ethics are employed to human actions and human conduct by examining an authoritative norm. On the other hand, the decision-making system base on the ethical perspective is overarching a number of principles that are required to implement in health care services. In this way, this paper is presented a brief discussion in the context of ethical positioning paper.

Reference list
Epstein, M.J., 2018. Making sustainability work: Best practices in managing and measuring corporate social, environmental and economic impacts. Abingdon: Routledge.
Kelly, B. and Byrne, B. eds., 2018. Valuing Disabled Children and Young People: Research, policy, and practice. Abingdon: Routledge.
Pease, B., Vreugdenhil, A. and Stanford, S. eds., 2017. Critical Ethics of Care in Social Work: Transforming the Politics and Practices of Caring. Abingdon: Routledge.
Byrum, K., 2017. The European right to be forgotten: A challenge to the United States Constitution’s First Amendment and to professional public relations ethics. Public Relations Review, 43(1), pp.102-111.
Christopoulos, G.I., Liu, X.X. and Hong, Y.Y., 2017. Toward an understanding of dynamic moral decision making: Model-free and model-based learning. Journal of Business Ethics, 144(4), pp.699-715.
Congress, E.P., 2017. What social workers should know about ethics: Understanding and resolving practice dilemmas. Social Work Ethics, 25(18). p.1909.
Cousineau, L.S., Mock, S.E. and Glover, T.D., 2018. Camper self-concept promotes environmental awareness: A relationship mediated by social inclusion. Journal of Youth Development, 13(1-2), pp.144-160.
Fox, A. and Bird, T., 2017. The challenge to professionals of using social media: teachers in England negotiating personal-professional identities. Education and Information Technologies, 22(2), pp.647-675.
Linehan, C. and O’Brien, E., 2017. From tell-tale signs to irreconcilable struggles: The value of emotion in exploring the ethical dilemmas of human resource professionals. Journal of business ethics, 141(4), pp.763-777.
Mietola, R., Miettinen, S. and Vehmas, S., 2017. Voiceless subjects? Research ethics and persons with profound intellectual disabilities. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 20(3), pp.263-274.
Naidoo, D., Govender, P., Stead, M., Mohangi, U., Zulu, F. and Mbele, M., 2018. Occupational therapy students’ use of social media for professional practice. African Journal of Health Professions Education, 10(2), pp.101-105.
Noval, L.J. and Stahl, G.K., 2017. Accounting for prescriptive and prescriptive morality in the workplace: The double-edged sword effect of mood on managerial ethical decision making. Journal of Business Ethics, 142(3), pp.589-602.
Online articles
Curtis, M.B., Vinson, J.M., Conover, T.L., Lucianetti, L. and Battista, V., 2017. National culture and ethical judgment: A social contract approach to the contrast of ethical decision making by accounting professionals and students from the US and Italy. Journal of International Accounting Research, 16(2), pp.103-120. Available from <> [Accessed on 30th July 2018]
Laaser, U., Schröder-Bäck, P., Eliakimu, E. and Czabanowska, K., 2017. A code of ethical conduct for the public health profession. South Eastern European Journal of Public Health, 9. Available from <> [Accessed on 30th July 2018]
Sulmasy, L.S. and Mueller, P.S., 2017. Ethics and the legalization of physician-assisted suicide: an American College of Physicians position paper. Annals of internal medicine, 167(8), pp.576-578. Available from <> [Accessed on 30th July 2018]

Appendix 1: Professional conduct


Appendix 2: Ethical intention and practices


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Essays on Applied Ethics-Answer

Essays on Applied Ethics

A Critical Discussion of the Moral Status of the Human Foetus by Hursthouse
The term “Moral status of Human Foetus” refers to the humanity of the unborn child. This is one of the most debated issues – can the “unborn human foetus” be considered as “human” and has all the rights similar to a human? An entity has moral status only when its interests as health, goodness, happiness, comfort, security and so on morally matter to some degree for the entity’s own sake (MANNINEN, 2009). An individual human being is valuable in terms of their level of rationality, physical attributes or capacity for any relationship. According to famous moral philosopher Rosalind Hursthouse, a foetus is similar to a human being and it has all the rights similar to a human being especially “right to live” (Thomson, 1971). But if a mother is carrying a deformed foetus and asking for an abortion, is this violating the moral status of the unborn? Or she is helping the sufferer to get relief?
The Critical Discussion
Rosalind Hursthouse stated in her “Conservative View” on “The Moral Status of The Foetus” that human foetus is considered as a full human being or an adult and having similar rights just like an individual entity (Hursthouse, The moral status of the foetus (a), 1987). She also stated that a foetus is morally significant from the moment of conception. But, as per SINNOTT-ARMSTRONG (1997), moral status comes when an entity is rational, social and self-aware. A foetus is just a group of cells and it is fully supported by the mother for surviving. As per Saunders, whatever the condition arrives, the killing of a foetus is immoral (Saunders, 2006). This statement can be justified using this following example.
A mother who is in danger of the pregnancy or the foetus can opt for abortion if she is suffering from a life-threatening disease or deformed. According to Darwinian Ethic, “survival of the fittest”, an individual must have the ability to compete, survive and reproduce (SAUNDERS, 2013). Therefore, Hursthouse’s concept is not justified in this context.
The renowned American moral philosopher, Thomson has stated that it has been a woman’s right to decide whether to terminate her pregnancy or not because the decision of abortion in primary stage is ethical when the pregnant woman is in a life-threatening situation due to the pregnancy. She has also stated that an abortion does not violate the right of a foetus because a foetus can only survive in the mother’s body and get life-supporting functions (Thomson, 1971). Therefore, there is no right of the foetus of its own. A foetus is not a human being worthy of respect because it lacks rationality or capacity for building a relationship, self-awareness (SAUNDERS, 2013). It is also justified killing one human foetus in order to preserve one’s own life. If a woman aborts to save her own life, she is to be justified in aborting because the pregnancy would be harmful to her. It is justified under “self-defence”.
According to the Conservative view of Hursthouse (1987), even a rape victim cannot opt for abortion though it is legally acceptable (Hursthouse, The moral status of the foetus (b), 1987). For an example, a woman is suffering from HIV and carrying a one-month-old foetus which is also detected as virus infected. In such ground, killing this foetus cannot be considered as immoral. If the mother carries on the pregnancy and gives birth to the child, the situation will be more immortal.
Norcross (1990) has claimed that early abortion is wrong because it deprives the foetus of its future. But, it is also true that a foetus does not have “mental life” and it cannot think about its future like a human being (SINNOTT-ARMSTRONG, 1997).
Hursthouse (1987) also believed that contraception also could prevent pregnancy and it kills an embryo sometimes (Hursthouse, The moral status of the foetus (b), 1987). Hence, it also violates moral status of an unborn. But, this fact is absurd in reality. According to her consideration, a human foetus is alike a person and killing a foetus is just like a homicide (Norcross, 1990). For an example, a mentally ill woman is holding a one-week-old baby in one hand and a twelve-day embryo in a test tube in the other hand and she is ready to kill both of them. A nurse comes in and she is able to save only one of them.
Now, the conflict is –the mother will save whom, the baby or the embryo. The baby has her own parents who will cry for them but the embryo is the only hope of a widow whose husband had died (MANNINEN, 2009). Logically, the baby must be saved. But according to Husrthouse theory, the nurse should save the embryo, not the baby.
Each coin has two sides. Similarly, on the contrary, the fact is a foetus has some moral status in the mature stage. It can feel and breathe and so, there are no differences between a premature newborn baby and a seven-month-old foetus (Norcross, 1990). The premature newborn is in the incubator and later, it is in the mother womb. Therefore, both cannot survive independently.
Morality cannot deny reality. Every situation requires a proper judgement on the occasion of satisfying the argument. A written theory or statement cannot lead to a proper path for making a conclusion. “Moral status of Human Foetus” cannot be fully justified on the ground of “conservative view”. The arguments, used for the devaluing of the human foetus, are unpersuasive as well as biassed too. Instead of any doubt regarding the significance of a foetus, the human foetus should be given the priority. Either a foetus should be protected by endorsing the Catholic view “strong make a sacrifice for the weak” or the Darwinian theory of “non-survival of the weaker” should be followed.
Hursthouse, R. (1987). The moral status of the foetus (a). Beginning lives, 31-53.
Hursthouse, R. (1987). The moral status of the foetus (b). Beginning lives, 65-82.
MANNINEN, B. A. (2009). The Metaphysical Foundations of Reproductive Ethics. Journal of Applied Philosophy, 26(2), 190-206.
Norcross, A. (1990). Killing, Abortion, and Contraception: A Reply to Marquis. Journal of Philosophy, 268-277.
Saunders, P. (2006). The moral status of the embryo. nucleus, 17-26.
SAUNDERS, P. (2013, July 3). The Moral Status of the Human Embryo: When is a Person a Person? Retrieved from
Thomson, J. J. (1971). A Defense of Abortion. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 1(1), 47-66.

A Critical Discussion of the theory of Thomson on Abortion
Abortion is a controversial issue in every country. As per Boonin (2003), if a woman wants to terminate her pregnancy, she can’t be allowed to do an abortion. Judith Jarvis Thomson, a well-known American moral philosopher, stated that it is a woman’s right to decide whether to terminate her pregnancy or not. But, it is taken as an unjust to the foetus according to many philosophers (Abbott, 1978). It is taken into account that a foetus is a person and it has right to live. According to Thomson, an abortion does not violate the right of a foetus as a foetus can only be survived by the use of the mother’s body and get life-supporting functions (Thomson, A Defense of Abortion, 1996). Therefore, there is no right of the foetus of its own. This view is going to be discussed critically in this essay.
The Critical Discussion
As per Rasekh (2003), an abortion is performed when the mother’s life is not threatened by the pregnancy. But, it is her own body, so it must be her right to take the decision own. Killing a foetus in the prior stage is not any violation of the right of the foetus. The status of women is changing day by day. Their rights are secured under the country’s constitution provides them equality which means they are equal just like men in the eyes of the law (Thomson, A Defense of Abortion, 1996). In this era, empowerment of women is a burning issue. It helps them to take their own decision and make them independent in terms of thoughts, rights, decision etc. by ignoring all limitations created by the society and family.
A woman is a “Good Samaritan” as she goes beyond her obligations. She knows what is best for her and her family (Abbott, 1978). For an example, a woman is married to a seriously ill person. They have two children and she is also pregnant. But within a week, her husband died of the illness. She continues her pregnancy with the thought of the new life and gives birth to a child. In this case, she ignores all the outcomes and problems in her journey as she is determined and capable of bringing up the child. All she needs to live in a positive atmosphere to fulfil proper needs of the child. So she does not opt for abortion. But, if she seems that it would be difficult to survive with three children without a proper economic condition, she can opt abortion and it should not be unjust. The reality is greater than morality (Beckwith, 2008).
Women are seen in many corporate areas where they are at the top position taking decision for the company. But in many cases, they are forced to remain silent and they accept the decisions which are taken by their family for them. They are also forced to take it for the pressure of the society (Hursthouse R. , 1991). But, in the case of her pregnancy, she should listen to her family, not to her heart. She cannot terminate her pregnancy even if she does not want to carry it. If a woman is not mentally prepared to carry on her pregnancy, she should be given the right to abort the foetus and it must not be seen as an unjust (McDonagh, 1996). According to the law, if a pregnancy is life-threatening to the mother, then it can be terminated and it is justified. But, if a mother is not mentally prepared to carry the foetus, her abortion is justified as unlawful and unjust to the unborn (Rasekh, 2003). All the situations should be justified on account of its practical outcomes, not as moral ones.
The definition of right is the capability to do as per the wiliness of the person following the law (Thomson, A Defense of Abortion, 1996). It is applied by the citizens of a country for their rights of children, etc. Basically, rights are exercised by the most developed living beings of the society. Therefore, the concept of the right of the foetus is not justified as it survives only by the support of its mother except late term abortion (Hursthouse R. , 1991). A foetus is developed after 9 weeks of fertilisation. Then it uses to develop in between 17th – 25th week and in 21st week, it starts its slight movement (Wilhelm, 2015). Therefore, if abortion is done before 21 weeks, it should not be seen as injustice.
In China, the law of “one child policy” prohibits couples having more than one child. There are more than 13 million abortions in a year or 1500 an hour for the existence of this law in China, according to Government researchers (Beckwith, 2008). It also encourages abortions and results into forced abortions and sex selection abortions. Though the one child policy was abolished, but another substitute, the two children policy is there. In such cases, the foetus is killed not only for the mother’s life may be in danger but also, it is against the law having more than two children and it is lawful (McDonagh, 1996).
All human beings are entitled to enjoy their rights to pursue happiness. Sometimes a baby can disrupt a woman’s happiness. Although she wants to terminate abortion, still she carries the burden for nine months. This unwanted child suffers a lot. Most of the cases, the child gets medical and mother care, love, so that the child becomes malnourished and left alone (Hare, 1975). Only a few percentages of children are adopted by suitable parents. Others become a menace to the society.
An abortion must be seen as putting the unwanted child out of the misery. Abortion in early stage would not kill a “person” as the belief of many moral philosophers and so it is not unjust. In short, an abortion allows a woman to hold her constitutional rights as well as it relieve the child out from sufferings. It builds a safer and moral society. Abortion should not be seen as unjust on the ground where there is no life threatening issues for the mother regarding the pregnancy, Therefore, the beliefs of Thomson is justified and should be accepted socially and morally.
Abbott, P. (1978, August). Philosophers and the Abortion Question. Political Theory, 6(3), 313-335. Retrieved March 5, 2016, from
Beckwith, F. J. (2008). Defending Abortion Philosophically: A Review of David Boonin’s. Life and Learning, 225-258.
Boonin, D. (2003). A Defense of Abortion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hare, R. M. (1975). Abortion and The Golden Rule. Phylisophy and Public Affairs, 4(3), 201-222.
Hursthouse, R. (1991). Virtue Theory and Abortion. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 20(3), 223-246.
McDonagh, E. (1996). Breaking the Abortion Deadlock : From Choice to Consent. New York: Oxford.
Rasekh, M. (2003). Battle of Life: A Brief Study of Theories on Abortion. Journal of Reproduction and Infertility, 220-236.
Thomson, J. J. (1996). A Defense of Abortion. Intervention and Reflection: Basic Issues in Medical Ethics, 69-80.
Wilhelm, D. (2015, June 22). On Judith Jarvis Thomson’s “A defence of abortion”. Retrieved from Philosophy Experiments:

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Offer mentoring support-Answer

Offer mentoring support
Scenario: William is your mentoree. He is working on the following goal: To be able to complete the end of the day cleaning checklist, disinfect the toys ( from the baby room) and complete the centre lock up procedure each night
1. In supporting William:
a) What process would you support William so that he can confidently achieve this goal? Explain your process. What will you say and what resources could you use.
Ans: William should follow a proper schedule so that he can confidently achieve this goal
He should follow the following process for baby’s room :
• Turn on some music. Music will help get your spirit boosted when cleaning. If it’s too distracting for you, turn it off.
• Make the beds. Making the beds can make a messy room look clean, and a messy bed can make a clean room look messy.
• Make piles. Sort into piles of garbage, toys, clothes, etc… This will help when organizing the room, by having certain piles for certain things.
• Throw garbage away. After garbage is cleared, you won’t have to run into any wrappers, or broken toys.
• Fold clothes. Fold all the clothes and put them in dressers, or closets. If you find any dirty clothes on the floor or under the bed, wash them. Your child doesn’t want dirty clothes!
• Put toys away. Put your child’s toys away, sort these into piles of barbies, transformers, stuffed animals, car toys, toy food, etc…. This will not only make a place for them, but it will help your child try and understand that everything has a place in their room.
• Disinfect the toys. Clean the toys with water which are non battery operated and clean battery operated toys with a cloth.
• Wipe dust away. Wiping dust away, will prevent any possible allergies. It will also give a nice shine to their room.
• Wipe down windows. Wiping down the windows will give your child a great view of the environment outside. It also wouldn’t hurt if you wiped down the window sill.
• Vacuum, sweep, and mop the room. Cleaning the floor is very important. If your vacuuming, try cleaning every part of the floor you can. If you are mopping, grab a cloth to dry the floor afterwards. If you are sweeping, grab a dustbin to put the dust and dirt in.
• Add a nice smell in your room, if you do not have air fresheners spray some perfume in the room.
He should follow the following process for baby’s room :
• Turn lights out
• Make sure back door is locked.
• Make sure the exhibit area is locked.
• Lock front doors.
• If the front door is already locked but doesn’t shut properly, hold the bar down from the inside and pull the door shut.
• Set alarm. It is only four numbers. You do not need to push any other buttons to activate the alarm. The work room door must be SHUT in order for the alarm to activate. If you can’t remember the activation code, it is in the alarm notebook.
• Make sure GALLERY lights are out and doors locked
b) What personal knowledge and experiences could you share with William so that he feels more confident in achieving his goals?
Ans: I will share my thoughts with William that punctuality and hard work plays a major role in achieving every goal. One should follow the following points in order to feel more confident to achieve goals:
• Planning and preparation: People often feel less confident about new or potentially difficult situations. Perhaps the most important factor in developing confidence is planning and preparation for the unknown.
• Learning, knowledge and training: Learning and research can help us to feel more confident about our ability to handle situations, roles and tasks.
• Positive thought: Positive thought can be a very powerful way of improving confidence.
• Talking to others and following their lead: Generally people are attracted to self confidence-confidence is one of the main characteristics of charisma.
• Experience: As we successfully complete tasks and goals, our confidence that we can complete the same and similar tasks again increases.
• Be assertive: Being assertive means standing up for what you believe in and sticking to your principles.
• Avoid arrogance: Arrogance is detrimental to interpersonal relationships
c) How would you make sure that William retain responsibility for achieving his goal? Explain how?
Ans: I have full trust on William that he will perform his duties well and will make rare visits to check how he is performing his duties. Moreover, if do not get time then I will send some other person on my behalf so that he can prepare a list of his duties and give me the feedback.
d) How would you celebrate the end of your formal relationship with William?
Ans: If William perform his duties well then I will appreciate his work and will give a special reward to him for his good work. Also, I will give him more tasks that require responsibility and will invite him for a formal lunch with me.
e) If William had enjoyed your formal mentoring relationship with you, how could you go about adjusting your relationship to a more formal mentoring role?
Ans: In order to go about adjusting relationship to a more formal mentoring role I would follow the following points:
• Learning new things about yourself: The self-reflection that can result from a mentoring relationship can be a powerful growth experience and provide you with new insights about yourself.
• Making more of your strengths and exploiting your hidden talents: A good mentor will push you to do more with your strengths, and help you discover and exploit hidden talents.
• Contributing to the success of your practice and firm: A mentee who builds a strong practice ultimately contributes to the success of the practice or firm.
• Career satisfaction: You will be more satisfied with your career if you have a successful and profitable law practice.
• Expanding your personal network: Entering into a mentoring relationship adds your mentor to your personal network, and may lead to an introduction to the individuals in the mentor’s network.
• A source of referrals: Your mentor may refer work to you once s/he knows and trusts your abilities.
2. How could you manage if your formal mentoring role with William was breaking down? What might be the signs that the relationship is breaking down? What might you do to help fix the issues?
Ans: If my formal mentoring role with William was breaking down I will discuss the problems he is facing
The signs that the relational ship is breaking down and how to fix them are discussed below:
• Lack of communication: The warning signs that a mentoring relationship is not working are in poor communication. This often happens when too much is done via email and there aren’t enough face-to-face meetings. So, it’s very important that you have scheduled teleconferences, video conferences or in-person meetings because there needs to be a voice. That way we always have a schedule made, which provides a solid infrastructure for the mentoring relationship
• Lack of encouragement: If we are not giving encouragement for his work then also relationship affects. So, in that case if we should encourage them for their work then this will not happen and they will excel in their work.
Scenario: Jennifer is a new staff member at your Centre. She has worked in Child care for 20 years and she has always worked with children in the Kindy room and has a lot of experience with pre- schoolers. She has just won a position in the babies room. You have been asked to mentor her and help her achieve her goals regarding attachment theory and knowledge around primary caregiving practices as you have been team leader of the babies room for the last 5 years. Jennifer has more overall experience than you do in a child care setting and has three small children of her own.
a) List five points of knowledge and skills that you think Jennifer might want to know more about to assist her in her new role in the babies room.
Ans: Five points of knowledge and skills that Jennifer might want to know more about to assist herself in new role in the babies room are:
• to be willing to accept responsibility for the safety and well being of the children in their care
• to work as part of a team
• good communication skills and the ability to relate well to children
• patience, and a keen eye for any potential behavioural concerns
• a good level of physical fitness to be able to lift children and child care equipment.
b) For each of the points you have listed, identify ways that Jennifer could learn more about these areas. Where might see access professional development, training or reading?
Ans: For each of the points listed above, Jennifer could learn more through training or reading. Training will help better than reading. Training is the direct interaction with the trainers and its delivering practical knowledge and skills to someone. While, reading only provides a basic knowledge .
c) How might you share your personal experiences with her that could give her an insight into working with young babies? Document the information you might share?
Ans: According to me one must have the following skills in order to work with young babies are:
• love of children
• strong communication skills
• empathy
• good oral skills
• proper diapering/toileting skills/dressing habits
• basic cleaning
• knowledge of the first language spoken at the child care centre
• basic reading
• basic writing
• teamwork
• problem solving
• decision making
• critical thinking
• planning and organizing
d) Part of your role is to help Jennifer to achieve her goals. What strategies would you use to help Jennifer identify and evaluate her goals?
Ans: Strategies that would help Jennifer identify and evaluate her goals are:
• Develop a Relationship of Trust
• Define Roles and Responsibilities
• Establish Short and Long Term Goals
• Collaborate to Solve Problems
e) How might you encourage Jennifer to make decisions about her course of action?
Ans: First of all appreciate Jennifer if she is taking good decisions and where you find that she is finding difficult in making decisions then guide her so that she finds easy in taking decisions. If she is making any mistake then correct her. You can also provide her training about her course of action.
After 4 months Jennifer is feeling confident, comfortable and happy in her new role.
f) How might you discuss the changes in the mentoring relationship and make adjustments to the relationship?
Ans: We gave her proper guidance, appreciated her work, helped her in making adjustment to new atmosphere and motivated her. Due to this a strong bond is created in the mentoring relationship. A better understanding has arise between us due to which she has become more confident and achieving her goals in a better way.