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Investigating sustainability practices of food wastage management in Dominos

Abstract

In this research study, investigate suitable practice in food wastage management for Dominion’s Pizza Davies Corner store located in Clarkin Rood, Hamilton. The store has been licensed to sell and offer food services to the customers. The main aim of this research study is to create awareness on the importance of reducing food wastage and suggesting mechanisms that the store can implement in order to reduce their food waste.  The store is facing challenges in managing the store food waste.

The research study also discusses Dominions external analysis through Political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental analysis. It also includes SWOT analysis identifies the overall strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to the business. 

The resources used are the secondary articles, literature review and academic journals.

Reduction in food wastage has a positive impact on economy, environment and the society. Businesses such as restaurants need to come up with ways on how they can reduce food wastage.

Table of Contents

Contents

Investigating sustainability practices of food wastage management in Dominos 1

Abstract 1

Introduction 4

Research Aim 9

LITERATURE REVIEW 9

Research problem 9

Food waste management 9

Food waste generation 10

Food waste management initiatives 10

Preventive measures 11

Inventory preventive measures 11

Operation preventive measures 11

Innovation and technology in food management 15

Technology 15

Innovation 15

Reuse, recycle and food wastage reduction 16

Food waste recycle 16

Reduction and Recycling measures 17

Food and Safety 17

Impact of contaminated food 17

Legal requirements 18

Food waste 18

Food insecurity 18

Impacts of food waste 19

Methods 19

Data collection method and design 19

Limitations 20

Ethics 20

Research result 20

Total cost of avoidable and unavoidable food waste 20

Food waste and its impact 21

Source of store food waste 21

Use of technology to reduce food waste 21

Research analysis 22

Conclusion and recommendation 22

Appendices 23

Appendix A: Ethics Approval Form 23

Appendix D: Interview Questions for Manager 27

Appendix E: Interview Questions for Employee 27

Appendix F: Interview Transcript (Manager) 27

Appendix F: Interview Transcript (employee) 28

References 29

Investigating sustainability practices of food wastage management in Dominos 

Dominos Davies Corner store 

Introduction  

It is a food service store that is located in Clarkin Road, Davis Corner, Clarkin Road, Fairfield, and Hamilton.  Its headquarters are in Queensland, Australia. It is a store that provides food services to customers. Dominos main product is pizza. It was opened in 2003. It operates as a fast food restaurant. 

The store aim is to continually be changing tastes according to their consumer demand for natural, Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) and preservative free food.

 They have a wide range of products such as pizza, drinks, dessert, and food for vegetarians and goods for kids. Customers make their orders online through the website or through the store app where the orders are delivered or picked by the customer. Their customers can track they’re through Domino’s Live Pizza Tracker. They use E-bike to deliver orders to their customers. 

The store direct competitors include Hell pizza and Pizza Bites. Their indirect competitors are McDonald and KFC where customers prefer burger rather than pizza. 

Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner website contains information about nutrition, allergens and additives. This educate customers on what is health and provide more information about their menu

The store is one of the leading food technology space. It was the first to develop a drone delivery, ordering application, voice assistants and artificial intelligence (AI).  Their goals are to continue enhancing and innovating their products, meeting customer demand, and adopt to new technology. 

The store mainly focuses on delivering hence, its eating joint is very squized. The store targets on customers who prefer food being delivered to them rather than going to the store to purchase. 

Their menu prices are pocket friendly whereby almost everyone can afford regardless of their class. 

SWOT analysis for Dominos

SWOT analysis known for aiding businesses to develop strategic plans that can be used by managers to perform a situational analysis of the organization. It is a useful technique that helps to understand the present Strengths (S), Weakness (W), Opportunities (O) & Threats (T) that a business is facing in its current business environment.

The main purpose of Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store SWOT matrix is to establish the strategies that the store can employ and exploit external opportunities, counter threats, and build on & protect Domino’s Pizza strengths, and do away with its weaknesses.

Strength 

Dominos products are 96 per cent free from artificial preservatives, colors, Genetic Modified Organism (GMO) and flavors. They are committed to make their menu 100 per cent and ensure that the taste of their pruducts is not compromised.  

Dominos is a registered Food Safety Program and their certificate is reviewed and and certified yearling. Their suppliers and ingredients are also certified. 

Customers make their orders and within 22 minutes thet get their orders at the comfort of their home. This has been made possible by use of E-bike that improve the store efficiency and delivery time. Furthermore, the store has a tracker that allows customers to track their orders.

Their staffs are friendly and professional and their customer service is excellent. This is because the employees are well trained on how to handle customers. This improves customer satisfaction and make them make their orders in Dominos Davies Corner store than the competitors. 

Weaknesses 

Consumers’ eating habit is changing and has an impact on Dominos sales and revenue. Consumers are continuously becoming aware of how important their health is, they are taking more caution on what they order. They are more keen on what they consume and since the store menu has a lot of wheat, it needs to consider an addition of healthy menu such as salad in their menu. 

The store is facing a challenge of new entrant. There is less hindrance for new entrant in food service industry, therefore, the store loose the market share in the niche categories. Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner needs to develop an internal feedback system that will be used by sales team in the field in order to respond to this challenge. 

The store employees low skilled employees who are likely not satisfied with the store work especially when the working environment is more demanding. Their only solution to this is to quit and look for a job. This has been for challenging to the store since the rate of employees turnover is high. Its rivals employees professional and high skilled staff who are satisfied with their work and as result their production is high. 

Sometimes, customers feels like enjoying their meal out door but the store has a small eating joint that is so squized and can only fit a few number of their customers. The reason why the eating joint is squized is because their main focus is on take awares. This is a threat since customers will look for a store that has a comfortable eating joint. 

ng joint. 

Opportunities

Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner can introduce a health conscious menu that has a new flavor additives and low in fat. This will help to boost the store sales and revenue in future since the demand for healthy food is increasing. 

New technology creates an opportunity for Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner. Investing in new technology will help the store to differentiate different pricing strategy in the current and new market. This will help the store to increase customer retention rate with the great service and attract new customers. 

Increase in customer spending creates and opportunity for the store to increase their sales and revenue. Customers will spend more in the store regularly. This also helps the store to capture new customers hence increase in market share. 

The store has an opportunity to invest on Big Data Analytic which will help them to capture their customers’ details. They will be able to understand their customers better 

Threats

Change in consumers eating behavior creates a threat to Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store. The government and the Non Governmental Organization (NGO) are mainly focusing on health awareness. People are able to access information on what is health and what is not. Therefore, this affects their decision on what to consume which has affected the store negatively. 

Their is an increase in the cost of store raw materials which has forced it to spend more. This has impacted negatively on the cash flow of the store. Competition has also made the store to spend more in order to remain competitive and retain the market share. 

The store faces competition both directly and indirectly. It faces local and national competition from Domino’s Pizza Hamilton, Domino’s Pizza Hillcrest. KFC and McDonald have indirect competition where customers prefer to consume burgers instead of pizzas. 

PESTLE analysis 

PESTLE stands for Political, Economic, Social-Culture, Technology, Legal and Environmental factors. PESTLE analysis presents information on the business operation challenges that are faced by Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store in the extensive macro environment apart from competitive forces. 

Adjustment in the macro environment factors can impact Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store directly or its rivals. It can also boost the store competitive advantage and the overall profit. 

Political factors

This aspect of PESTLE analysis deals with how government and its policies have effects on remote and macro-environment of Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store. 

The government has ordered the citizens to avoid going to public places and stay home. This order was as a result of Corona Virus outbreak. This will reduce the number of customers who consumes the store product. It will later lead to close of the store. 

There is also a restriction order of closing the country boarders to foreigners. Other countries are not giving visas. This has reduced the number of tourist who is the potential customers for the store which is a threat. 

Evolving public health policies is a threat and an opportunity to Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store. The government requires foodservice providers to produce products that are less unhealthy. The store will need to use more resources than usual. However, the store has an opportunity to adjust their production of healthy food. It can do away with artificial preservatives, colors and flavors 100 per cent in all of their products and still remain the same taste. 

There is an increase in the minimum wage of employees that is required by the government. The store has to spend more to pay the employees, thus the store returns and profit will be affected. 

Economical factors

This facet of the PESTLE analysis analyzes how economic conditions and trends on the remote or macro-environment affects business operation of Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store. Change in economy has direct or indirect influence on business performance.

Currently the country and global economy has been affected by corona virus pandemic. The country economy is in recession stage and it will continue to be worse until the virus is succumbed. This has affected customers’ purchasing power which has led to decrease in sales. 

Consumer purchasing power has also been affected by the current outbreak of the virus. People are purchasing most basic and more important products rather than purchasing pizza from the store. This reduces the store sales and can also lead to increase in food waste. 

Social-Culture factors 

This PESTLE analysis helps to identify the social conditions that aid or confine Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store operation. The social trends have an impact on consumer behavior. It also affects the remote and macro-environment of the restaurant in terms of revenue.

Changes in lifestyle trend where the customers want a healthy lifestyle. Social factors create a great opportunity for the store business development. It has an opportunity to change its products so that they can satisfy their customers’ preferences. It also has an opportunity of producing healthy products such as salads. This also imposes a threat to the store since they can lose customers to their competitors depending on the product they sell. 

Technological factors 

This analyzes how technologies and related trends have impacts on Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store remotely and macro-environment. The restaurant needs to adapt to the new technology for its own survival in the competitive environment. 

The rate of technology diffusion can either be a threat or an opportunity to the store. Slow speed diffusion of technology gives the store time to adapt to the new technology while fast speed technology al diffusion gives limited time for the store to adopt, cope and be profitable. 

The large number of the population has access to Smartphone and Internet therefore, they are able to order online and track their delivery. This is an opportunity for the store since the number of potential customers is increasing almost every day. 

Use of technology can help the store to reduce food waste by tracking where the food waste is being generated and calculating the cost that the store incurs when food is wasted. 

Environmental factors 

This factor explores how Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store has been affected by trends in natural environment and effects on the business remote and macro-environment. 

Climate change is a threat to the store since it determines the availability and supply of the store agricultural materials. It also affects the supply chain of the store. This creates a threat to the store since it will spend more to purchase their raw materials for their product. 

Environmental sustainability is a major concern globally. Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store needs to research and invest on how they can reduce, reuse and recycle food waste. 

Legal factors 

This facet of PESTLE analyzes the impact of laws and regulation on Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store. Amendments in legal systems and new laws impose new requirements by the restaurant. 

Increase in legal minimum wages impose a threat to the store since they will spend more to pay their employees thus, it reduce the store profit. 

Competition laws are a threat and an opportunity for the store. The store has an opportunity to develop competing strategies and on the other hand its competitors impose a threat of winning their customers. 

Health and safety law requires the store to sell healthy products that are safe for human consumption. The store also need to label their products such details include expiry date, product ingredients. 

Research Aim

  1. To investigate suitable practice in food wastage management in Dominos. 
  2. To find the effective measures on food wastage reduction at Dominion.
  3. To identify innovative and technology to be employed in food management practices of waste food by Dominos 
  4. To identify impacts of food wastage by Dominion
  5. To identify how to reduce, reuse and recycle food waste by Dominos. 
  6. To identify ways of keeping food safe by Dominos 

LITERATURE REVIEW

There is a continuous increase of food wastage globally from all areas of food supply chain. In developing countries, food wastage mostly occurs on the end of food supply chain while in developed countries, food wastage is a problem in consumer plate waste. Food wastage is categorized into three. Avoidable food waste for food that was edible at some point, potentially avoidable food waste and unavoidable food (Leo, Nina & Matthew 2017)

Almost a third of food produced globally for human consumption go to waste which is almost 1.3 billion tonnes yearly. The food production resource is demanding. The food waste has an indirect associated by a wide range of environmental effects such like water and air pollution, soil erosion, and greenhouse gas emissions (Gustavsson et al., 2011). Food waste occurs in food production, storage, transportation and management of food waste (Mourad, 2016).

Food waste is an urgent issue that need to be focused since it has a negative impact on the environment and social economy. The restaurant needs to educate their staffs on ways to prevent this issues. Measures needs to be developed in order to curb food waste. 

Research problem

Food wastage is an environmental, economical and social problem. Management of food wastage has been a global issue for many years which has affected both developed and undeveloped countries. In the past few years, there were various measures that were proposed and implemented addressing food wastage issues. There is need for more research that ir required to be performed in order to identify potential measure that can be put in place in order to solve food waste issues as suggested by recent researchers. The available resources on food waste measure are not enough based on the environmental and social-economy performance (Goossens et al. 2019).

Food wastage is a cross cutting issue that involves various stakeholders in the food chain. Various literature reviews put their focus on how individuals can change their attitude and behavior.

Food wastage problem cannot be entirely being solved but it can be reduced (Webder & Khademian 2008). This issue requires engagement of various players in different activities and at a different level. 

Food waste management

Food wastage shows that the food production and consumption system is not suitable. Various researchers have not found a consistent definition for food wastage. This research study defines food wastage as stated by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) being the quantity of food wasted within the food supply chain. Food is defined as a product  that is consumable by human being (Gustavsson et al, 2011).

There are several ways which can results to food wastage such as Poor supply chain management, contamination of stored food by pests, inappropriate cooking methods, Presence of contaminants such as dirt or mould, malfunctioning appliances (such as refrigerators) and Consumer behavior.

Storing food in uncontaminated environment such as free from sunlight, water chemicals will help to manage food waste.  

Food waste generation

There are several ways where food can be lost or wasted in food value chains, such as during purchase and storage, when preparing food, when and after serving which is known as plate waste (Betz et al., 2015). Many researchers have not agreed on various categories of food wastage. (Silvennoinen et al. 2015) classify food waste as initially edible or initially inedible such as peeling of vegetables bones and coffee grounds. (Beretta et al. 2013), categorize food wastage as avoidable, partially avoidable and unavoidable. Eriksson et al. (2017) differentiate source decline during production and administration or management of unwanted food waste.  Food wastage occurs at every stage of the global food value chain, from agricultural production to final consumption). 

Food wastage is perceived as a preventable challenge which drove the United Nations to come up with a goal number 12.3 that is included in the 17 Sustainable Development Goals which are to be achieved by 2030. The reason for this goal is to reduce food waste that is produced by retailers and consumers and also reduce food waste in the food supply chain.   

at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses” (UN, 2017).  These goals are achievable since there have been some feasible evidences (Beretta et al. 2013).

Food waste management initiatives

Food waste avoidance will be firmly interlinked with the management and consumption practices. The researchers have only explire the importance of food waste measurement in the food supply chain. This will help to capture the exact dimension of the food wastage problem, determine various sources of food waste and to define an effective measure to monitor reduction over time (Beretta et al., 2013; Betz et al., 2015; Papargyropoulou et al., 2016; Silvennoinen et al., 2015). Further research needs to be conducted in order to identify an effective  managerial resolutions for food waste alleviation in food service sector . 

Provide customers with plastic containers so that they can take their food home. Even though the portion size is reduced it is not the genuine solution because people will always leave food on their plate regardless the portion size (Pers. Com., Monzón, 2017).

Preventive measures 

Whatsoever the cause or the source of food wastes has been given great attention by cafes and restaurants. The main goal is to prevent it from happening (Tuppen, 2014). Some strategic and actions has already been set up to reduce food waste. Such actions include increasing employees awareness, more focus has been put by restaurants and café on the amount of food waste and the source of that wastage.

Inventory preventive measures

Evaluation of supply chain by the restaurant on the product quality, timely delivery, the ability to support required volume, consistency of the products and price can help to prevent food waste (Tan et al., 2002).

Restaurants can reduce untracked items in inventory by employing activity-based costing methods that will enable them to track the amount of inputs each dish requires (Vaughn et al., 2010).

The use of technology can help to improve inventory control in restaurants and cafes for every food inventory product. They need to incorporate handling and temperature control requirements, shelf life and expiry dates. Inventory control helps to reduce over-ordering thus minimize food waste (Charlebois, 2015).

Operation preventive measures

Other strategies include menu engineering, tracking of food wastage, activity-based costing, plate size reduction, customer fining, leftovers donation, delivery examination to make sure that the product is not contaminated, damaged packaging and avoid over trimming during preparation (Pirani & Arafat, 2014)

Betz et al. (2015) identified some measures that can be implemented to reduce food wastage. The researcher categorized them according to stages that they were generated. This includes storage and purchase, preparation and cooking, serving or delivery and consumers. Prevention and food waste reduction measure n storage and purchase include storage management optimization like periodic control of expiry date. On preparation and cooking, over production should be avoided, reuse leftovers, control preparation losses and train employees on how they can reduce food waste and fast cool down the food in order to prevent micro organisms growth.

Legislation plays a major role in the achieving a successful food waste management. Practices obtained from laws and regulation such as introduction of requirements like reporting on food waste and standardization for food waste calculation, indicating the expiry on packaged food (Pirani & Arafat, 2014).

cause of food wastagePossible measures
GeneralThere is lack of top management or employee awareness on food waste measures, no support or training.Enhance support by increasing resources, train employees and create awareness.
There is minimum  measuring and food wastage monitoringPerform regular food waste audits for better understating of quantity and source of avoidable food waste. Inform the employees the result and the progress.
There is minimal perception of financial benefit. Many restaurants are focusing on  food wastage instead of prevention Record the cost of food wastage in the kitchen daily. The management should understand the full cost of avoidance food waste through preventative percipient. The management can use audit data to calculate full cost of avoidance food waste, disposal costs and use that information to estimate the proportion of wasted food.
Pre-consumptionfood waste preparation through inexperience and failure to reuseDetermine areas where kitchen waste can be reduced internally.
lack of measuring the required quantity when cookingUnderstand legal requirements regarding external distribution or food waste donation to people or animals.
poor forecasting or planningImplement forecasting and planning procedure.
Limited technical use such as poor refrigeration.Perform regular maintenance check on equipments such as cleaning, changing coil on refrigerator and ensure that they are properly sealed.
Post-consumptionExcess portion sizesEnsure that the portion sizes are suitable. This can be achieved by inspecting the customer plate waste or talking to them. Provide different range of portion size.
customers’ cultureInform and educate customers to take what they can finish and how food wastage has a negative impact on ecosystem and society. Charge customers who with plate waste. 
lack of customer awareness
Customer ordering too much.
There is minimal perception of financial incentive by customers.

The total cost of pre and post-consumption food waste on cafe or restaurant produces might be as a result of top management and employee attitudes towards sustainability and food waste prevention. Most restaurants food waste management fails due to unrecognized full cost pricing when it comes to the total costs of food waste to their business. The prevention of food wastage requires top management and employees to be committed and work together to prevent food wastage. 

Food wastage Measuring and monitoring plays a vital role towards food waste prevention (European Commission, 2011b; Gunders, 2012; LeanPath, undated; Nordic Council of Ministers, 2012). Separation and measurement of food waste can impact employees or customers positively by being aware of the quality of food waste that they generate and aggregate their effort to reduce food waste (European Commission, 2011b).  

When the source of food waste is identified, helps cafe and restaurant to determine the action points which they can implement to reduce both pre- and post-consumer waste such as making the guests aware about the amount of food waste produced each day and involving staff in reduction measures (Pre-waste, 2012). 

Innovation and technology in food management

Technologyp

Advancement in technology and innovations has improved and reduced the cost of food waste management. It is a gradual improvement concerning the current mechanism and distinguished act that are linked with waste minimization (Beise & Rennings, 2005). 

Use of technology and innovations helps to focus on reduction of food wastage by either developing new processes and operational improvements or advancement in current technology. For example, Wang et al. (2013) development of green  restaurant  management  standards which includes green  foods,  green  environment  and equipment and green management and social responsibility. These initiatives vary in the degree of newness to the adopting firm and, for the most part, require a low degree of new knowledge (Dewar and Dutton, 1986). Some researchers found that application of the Internet of Things (IOT) and network technology helps to improve food waste management in terms of collection, transportation or delivery. These require sophisticated management systems and which involves high level technical skills (Wen et al., 2017).

The use of technology along the whole food value chain from farming to placing food on the plate has an extensive probability of reducing the food wastage. Artificial intelligence (AI) technologies like computer vision, machine learning and data analysis have the key to enhance the food value chain from the farm to trucks to stores and restaurants in an attempt of reducing food waste.

Some restaurants are using Smart Scale to Reduce Food Waste. It helps them to accurately measure the certain amount they product they will require. This technology helps to enhance food traceability process, helps to decrease amount of food that go to waste, and efficiency in transportation and management of food product is raised. This has a direct impact on economic and environmental sustainability issues. 

Innovation 

Increamental innovation helps to utilize the current business processes and technology.  Thus, it is relatively less complex than profound innovation.  Radical innovations helps to identify various techniques that can be used in food waste management. They display a clear departures from current practices (Carrillo et al., 2010). Basic innovations in food management needs a better understanding and commitment , takes more time, and requires a lot of resources. It also associated with greater risks for market  uptake and on the other hand  they  can  lead to  great  significant  contributions  to  environmental sustainability. Nevertheless , there are scarce radical innovations that can be endorsed unless  a business has an internal know how resources about the complex and expert in innovation, how to interpret and absorb them (Souto, 2015).   

In the past, food waste was not part of managers’ practices until now where they are involved. The management of food waste needs to be creative, all parties should be aware and invent new mechanisms (Chou et al., 2012). 

Winnow builds artificial intelligence tools that assist kitchen employees to run more profitable and sustainable kitchens.  The AI has recently launched a tool known as Winnow Vision that is designed to automatically track food waste in the kitchens. This technology uses computer vision which is in form of artificial intelligence that helps kitchen employees to identify waste, cut costs and save time.

Camera installation with a set of smart scales plus machine learning technology like the one in autonomous vehicles, Winnow Vision helps to recognize different foods that are being thrown away compute the financial and environmental cost of wasted food in restaurant kitchens (Williams, 2019).

Investing in technology helps restaurant to prevent kitchen food waste and prevent from happening. It is also helps to accurately forecast the future demand and get prepared. Tenzo application is one of the technologies that are used in forecasting. 

Tenzo mobile application aids restaurant managers or the owner to forecast demand like how many people to staff and when or the amount of food to be ordered. It also helps them to identify those staffs that are performing better, in regard with up-selling or resulting to positive social media mentions, or to identify areas that are performing best or what menu item needs to be de-listed (Steve, 2017).

Through machine learning, Tanzo helps to predict future sale of a restaurant, therefore, it helps to reduce food waste. 

Reuse, recycle and food wastage reduction

Food waste recycle

Restaurants can implement the popular program of Reduce, Reuse, Recycle for waste management this includes the management of food waste, plastics, glass, and paper/ paper Boards (National Institute of Environmental Health Services, 2013). Waste reduction at the source is the main part of reduce, reuse and recycle. Reduction should always start fro, procurement department by purchasing what is required. Procurement is a very important factor to restaurant environmental sustainability.

Recycling of food wastage is efficient and effective than disposal. This process helps to divert waste from the landfill or elsewhere in the solid waste stream and ensure ongoing value when the item is converted into something useful, such as a soil amendment with composting.

Food waste can be used to generate energy for example it is used to generate biogas that is used as a fuel in some cars (Patterson et al. 2011) 

Recycling is a program that has a positive impact on food waste management (Wilson, Velis & Cheeseman, 2006) recycling in a restaurant is divided into two categories, a program with a full time recycling manager who oversees the recycling operation and the one that adds responsibilities of recycling to the employees (Lounsbury, 2011).

Snarr & Pezza (2000) Restaurants can avoid food waste by creating reduction consumption by reusing and recycling by donating food. Food waste can be recycled as animal feeds or used to make compost or renewable energy.

There are Ecological benefits of separating food waste collection. Separated collection of food waste is the best option for the environment, since waste should be recognized as a new resource within our world of resource scarcity (Stahel, 2016). Additionally, the processing of food waste results in lower CO2 emissions (Andersen et al., 2011). Sadly, there are few restaurants that choose ecology over economy (OVAM, 2011).

Reduction and Recycling measures

Separate food waste collection in restaurant helps to save time and money. The cost of disposal is relatively high than recycling (Hogg et al., 2016)

Correct food waste collection and recycling has a range of potential benefits (Mills & Andrew, 2014). It helps to divert biodegradable waste from landfill, reduce waste disposal costs since the landfill costs is high, reduce environmental impacts which is accompanied by landfill (toxicity in leachate, landfill gas emissions, etc.), Decrease greenhouse  gas  emissions  by  removing  the  putrescent  content from landfill sites, helps to Improve recycling rates. 

The most effective way in management of food waste is to reduce the source of food waste. The system needs to be designed that can help to inhibit, reduce and avoid food waste in the first place. 

This creates an opportunity for the business to save food, increase profit and the same time impact positively towards the environment. 

Through reuse, restaurants find a secondary ways to create a value from an item that was considered as a wasted. There are possible ways the restaurant can reuse waste food such as reallocating the leftovers elsewhere on the menu. Restaurants need to be careful and should comply strictly with food safety guidelines. They can also donate waste food to program that will distribute to the needy.  

Food and Safety

Impact of contaminated food

Food safety is vital in public health matters to avert or curb food-borne illnesses. In response to the increase in the number of food-borne illnesses, most of government across the globe is intensifying their efforts to improve food safety. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) contaminated food results to 1.5 billion cases of diarrhea in children annually which increase premature deaths. This affects both developed and developing countries. 

Poor nutrition and decline in food consumption is as a result of age-related decline in immune system functioning which gets weak in toddlers and old age which reduce the ability to fight food borne pathogens, resulting in food borne illnesses (Buzby 2002). 

Contaminated foods are not safe for human consumption and when consumed it develops symptoms of illness, which usually do not appear for at least one day after ingestion of the contaminated food, usually include diarrhea but vary according to the type of organism ingested (Nester et al. 1998; Jones 1992; de Vries 1997). 

Legal requirements

In order to enhance food safety in food service industry, it is important for restaurants to comply with the modernization act of food safety in which the main elements include preventive controls and hygienic design of equipment (Piotter, 2018). The hygienic design of equipment is crucial for the success of this program and in processing the different food items in a safe manner. 

The packaging of restaurants products should not contaminate the food. The basics in this regard are inspect able, cleanable, chemical cleaning as well as sanitizing solutions, corrosion-resistant, non-toxic and nonporous.

Food waste

Food is one of the basic needs to human while food waste is one of the major issues that are currently faced by humanity globally.  Food waste is also an economic and environmental problem (Purabi et al. 2016). Hence, it is an environmental, socio-economic issue. 

Every year, about 1.3 billion tons of food are termed as lost or wasted globally (FAO, 2013), this represent a considerable share of the overall food produced (Lundqvist et al. 2008; Parfitt et al. 2010). 

Food insecurity

The rate of food wastage is considered to be high in developed countries Buzby & Hyman (2012),  on  the contrary ,  842 million people  in poor countries has been estimated to experience chronic hunger (FAO, 2013). This develop a question whether food wastage need to be decreased along food supply chains (Curtis et al. 2016; Martinez-Sanchez et al. 2016; Muriana, 2017; Wilewska-Bien et al. 2016). 

Customers eating behavior and requirements have transformed. Increase in working hours and days, change in demographic and economic change has resulted to growth in catering services. This increases the rate of food wastage either by the providers or consumers Joanna et al. (2020).  Sustainable Development Goals number 12 which was agreed by United Nations General Assembly, pertain sustainability consumption and production patterns. The goal is to decrease global food waste by retailers and consumers per capita and reduce food waste that is generated in supply chain.

Impacts of food waste

In New Zealand, food wastage is one of the main environmental issues that are currently being addressed by individual, industry and government. About 24,372 tonnes of food get to waste yearly in New Zealand cafes and restaurants. 61 percent of this food waste is avoidable but the rest is unavoidable (Chisnall 2018). 60 per cent of waste food is a preparation waste such wastes are created when cooking such as vegetable peelings, food cooked in correctly, poor storage and unsold food and 33 per cent is plate waste which customers did not consume and finally, 7 per cent is food spoilage that goes bad before consumption Jones (2018).

Food waste and losses in the supply chain has a negative impact on the resources usage such as freshwater and cropland and where an additional billion people could be fed if crop losses were halved (Kummu et al., 2012). 

Methods 

This involved the methods that was used to collect data from the respondents. The primary data was obtained from the manager and an employee at Dominion. A manager and an employee were chosen as sample participants for this research since they are well informed about the store operation and the measures and action they take to reduce food waste. This helps the researcher to gather relevant and correct data required. Therefore, a qualitative method was used for this research. The manager was chosen because he is well informed about the internal and external operation. The employee was chosen since they have knowledge on the amount of waste food per day and the cause. 

Data collection method and design

Interviews was the data collection techniques that was used. 

Interviews as a method of collecting data will also be used. This method will specifically be used for collecting information on the suitable practice of food wastage management in Dominions. The reason for use of interviews is that they are easy to administer since the questions are prepared in advance. They also allow a great deal of information to be gathered in a short period of time. Interviews also eliminate many sources of bias common to other instruments like observations. In addition, interviews help seek clarification through probing. The questions that will be asked will be confidential between the researcher and the respondents. 

Limitations 

The waste food data are recorded and kept by senior authorities. The store policy information on dispensation is strict and only senior or authorized personnel had access to it. The respondents are only willing to give out the information that is not being kept secret. The researcher explained that the research is meant strictly for academic purposes and not for any other purpose. Lack of cooperation from respondents during data collection is another challenge which will be encountered. The respondents might hesitate to discuss due to fear of management. However, the researcher assured them that the information is for academic purpose only and there is no victimization. Therefore, they will be persuaded to participate in the study.

Ethics 

The participants participated in this research willingly, they were not forced to be interviewed or fill in the questionnaire. They were not forced to answer questions; they did not want to answer a particular question the researcher asked them the next question. The participants were assured that the details they share with the researcher will be confidential and will not be shared with anyone else. This includes their names, contacts, job description.

Research result

Total cost of avoidable and unavoidable food waste

After the interview and collection of the questioners, the researcher found out that Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store avoidable food waste cost is relatively high and the avoidable food waste is relatively low. The manager stated that the employees are not aware or trained on how they can reduce avoidable food waste and the measures that are required have not yet been introduced in the store. 

The manager stated that most of avoidable food waste is caused when preparing food. Employees do not measure the required amount. The employees also indicated that they have not been provided with equipment that would help them to measure the exact amount required. 

The estimated cost for avoidable waste food is about AUD 9,000 per week while that for unavoidable waste food is about 2,000 per week. This has affected the store revenue or profit. 

The store manager indicated that food waste was being measured, but further analyses or attempts to understand the implications were not made. The manager and the employees do not have knowledge on how measure food waste, which illustrates just how prevalent and problematic the knowledge gaps exist between the food business services and the policy makers.

Furthermore, the methods for measuring food waste were solely visual and highly inaccurate. Visual measuring should not be considered an efficient method because accurate information and cannot be gathered, especially from trash bags that are not transparent.

This practice may allow restaurateurs to claim that only small amounts of food waste are being produced.

Food waste and its impact 

According to the participants’ point of view, they stated that food waste has a negative impact towards the environment, economy and society. The manager stated that their budget is high and sometimes the resources do not go for long as anticipated. He also stated that they sometimes throw away left over and some people in the street sleep hungry. 

Throwing away food has an internal and external impact. The store profit is reduced which affects the whole economy since they will be taxed less than what they could have taxes when they makes maximum profit. 

Source of store food waste 

The store manager recognize that the food waste is caused by different activities such as left over from customers, over preparation by the employees, the portion plate size is not suitable, poor storage or lack of proper skills when preparing the menu. 

The employees also stated that the agricultural resources are over purchased and they end up getting spoiled. 

The employees stated that they lack knowledge on how they can help to reduce food waste in the store. They indicated that they need training and resources in order to reduce the amount of food that go to waste. 

The manager and the employees indicated that they are not aware of the other disposable options for their food waste. The government should provide information to businesses on different ways to expose their food waste and reduce restrictions and requirements for donating food. 

Use of technology to reduce food waste 

The participants indicated that they do not have a technology that helps them to track the food waste or assist them to reduce the food waste. They said that is the store could invest in technology it will make it easier for them to reduce food wastage. 

They also indicated that the store does not use reduce, reuse and recycle food waste. 

This research indicates that the manager and employees are not aware of their food waste. Food waste audits to the store needs to be implemented in order to estimate the food waste across all areas from supply chain to consumption. The store manager uses Visual estimations which provide inaccurate. The manager needs to keep in mind that reduction in food waste has economic gains. 

Research analysis

The result that was obtained via interview and questionnaire from the store manager and the employees indicates that the store on facing various challenges in management of food wastage. The manager does have knowledge on how he can measure food waste. According to Evans & Welch (2005), education, exchange of ideas and collaboration with other businesses and other agencies can help to tackle this challenge. 

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (UNFAO) has recently started a move of save food. It is a worldwide initiative on Food Losses and Waste Reduction. The campaign targets to involve all the actors along the food supply chain, such as policy-makers, to reduce food losses and waste globally (UNFAO website, 2013). This will help the store to gain more knowledge on how to reduce food waste

Conclusion and recommendation

Food wastage has negative impact to the economy, environment, economy and the store revenue. Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store has not put their focus on reducing, reusing and recycling food waste. The management does not offer training or support to the employees on how they can reduce and manage food wastage.

Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store food waste has a negative impact to the store and the society at whole. The store can reduce the food waste cost in order to make maximum profit. The cost of food waste disposal is high than recycling it. Recycling food waste to animal feed will create an income to the business.

The store needs to invest in technology which will ease the process of food wastage management. it will also help to calculate the cost of food wastage and the amount of waste food that the store produce every day.

Manager and employees training will help to curb this issue of food wastage. Training the employees on how to prepare meals with portion sizes that are not too large, create a better communication between staff and management to raise the awareness about food waste and opportunities that can be employed, improve communication with customers in order to develop more sustainable approaches and demand among the guests by exploring the desired menu of choice.

The store needs to introduce equipment that will be used to measure the exact required amount when preparing for their products. This will help to reduce over cooking and as a result the food wastage will reduce.

The store can start using a smaller landfill bins or the reduction of the hauling frequency. This could be a possible solution for reducing the creation of landfills and saving costs for disposal. Intergovernmental goals, such as the Sustainable Development Goals, will help address and tackle food waste and may even force certain stakeholders, such as food retailers, to deal with their leftovers

The employees need to reduce over trimming when preparing meet or vegetables.

Appendices

Appendix A: Ethics Approval Form

1PERSONAL DETAILS
Name
Student ID
Email address
Contact number
2ACADEMIC SUPERVISOR DETAILS
Name
Email address
Contact number
3PROGRAMME OF STUDY STUDY MAJOR
4RESEARCH PROJECT DETAILS
Research project titleInvestigating sustainable practices of food wastage management in Domino’ Pizza Davies Corner store 
Research Aim or QuestionTo identify innovative food management practices to reduce or reuse waste food at DominionTo investigate ways that Dominos can implement in order to reduce food wastageTo identify benefits of food wastage reduction by DominionTo find the effective measures on food wastage reduction at Dominion.
Project background or organizational context (250-300 words)In Dominion’s Pizza Davies Corner store employees face many challenges in reducing and managing food store food waste. They have limited resources that they can use to manage food waste. The use of technology could have make it easier for them to measure and track daily food waste and the cost that it incur.The employees are not trained on how they can reduce food waste.
Value of the research: The findings from the research study will particularly be useful in providing additional knowledge to Dominion’s Pizza Davies Corner store and other food service providers on the sustainable practices of food wastage management. The findings will also provide a useful reference document to stakeholders in the food service sector. It will also have a positive impact on environment, economic and social.
5RESEARCH METHODSTick those that apply.
☒Primary Data Collection                   ☐Secondary Data Collection
☐Quantitative Methods                       ☒Qualitative Methods
Explain briefly the reasons for your choice. Primary research was undertaken since there is no other research that has been performed on Dominion’s Pizza Davies corner store. The interview with the manager and the employee main focus was on qualitative data. The manager and the employee have the store information on the store operation and attain the knowledge that is required to complete this research.
6DATA COLLECTION METHODSTick the appropriate row.
☒ Interviews                         ☐ Questionnaires                  ☐ Focus groups☐ Observation                      ☐ Other
7DATA COLLECTION DETAILSPlease include details of all the data collection methods you will be using in your research.Delete the data collection methods you are not using.  
7.1Interviewsthe following methods were used to collect data:Tick the appropriate answer
☐ Convenience        ☐ Random        ☐ Snowball         ☒ Other – Experts
Explain briefly the reasons for your choice.
the research was technical and therefore, it required technical knowledge
Interview: Explain briefly how the sample is to be selected The participants were the manager and an employee who reside in Hamliton
Interview: Number of participants (sample size)Tick the appropriate answer
☒ 1 – 5                ☐ 6 – 10                 ☐ 11 – 15               ☐ More than 15
Interview Venue Tick the appropriate answer
☒ The store premises                               ☐ A neutral venue☐ Electronically (online or phone –please identify) ☐ Other 

ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS

Informed consent: the participants were given an invitation to participate in the research and were also given an agreement before the primary research commenced. 

Withdrawal: the participants were informed their rights and were told that they can withdraw from the research at any time. A written copy for the withdrawal process was provided. 

Confidentiality: the participants were assured that that the information they share in the course of the interview will not be shared with anyone else but it will only be for academic use. 

Report audience: the research participants were assured that the information they share about the store will not be sent to the top management of the company. 

Disposal of data: Participants were advised that all data collected for the research will be returned to the Centre for Business and Enterprise at Wintec on completion of the research project.

Appendix D: Interview Questions for Manager

  1. Kindly briefly introduce yourself 
  2. What is your daily routine? 
  3. What is the main challenge do you encounter? Do you know the cause and how can you conquer those challenges? 
  4. Do you play any part in food waste management? 
  5. What are the store procedures on food wastage management? 
  6. Do you separate food waste for reuse or recycling? 
  7. Which technology do you use in food waste management? 
  8. What part of food wastage management do you wish should be improved? 

Appendix E: Interview Questions for Employee

  1. Kindly briefly introduce yourself 
  2. What is your daily routine? 
  3. What is the main challenge do you encounter? Do you know the cause and how can you conquer those challenges?
  4. Do you play any part in food waste management? 
  5. Are you aware of the impacts of implementing suitable practices on food wastage? 
  6. What causes food waste? 

Appendix F: Interview Transcript (Manager)

Interviewer: Good evening. Thank you for volunteering. 

Participant : it is my pleasure. 

Interviewer: Briefly introduce yourself. 

Participant: My name is Matthew, I am the manager at Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store. I have been managing this store for the last six years. 

Interviewer: What is your daily routine?

Participant: I arrive at the store 8.00 am every day except in Sunday. Every morning I have to check the store to make sure that everything is available. I also supervise the staff’s on how they take, prepare and deliver our customers order. 

Interviewer: What is the main challenge do you encounter? 

Participant: the main challenge I encounter is that the employees do not measure the exact amount they want when preparing our products. This sometimes increases food waste because of cooking more than required. The employees can be or with an equipment that will assist them in measurement. 

Interviewer: Do you play any part in food waste management? 

Participant: yes, I play part in waste food management. 

Interviewer: What are the store procedures on food wastage management? 

Participant: we try our best to prevent food waste by preparing our products as per the customer’s order. Food waste is separated from other waste. 

Interviewer: do you separate food for reuse or recycle? 

Participant: no, we don’t 

Interviewer: which technology do you use in food wastage management? 

Participant: currently we have not implemented any technology. 

Interviewer: What part of food waste management do you wish should be improved?. Participant: I think the part that needs improvement is making use of the technology which will ease food waste management process. Also training needs to be provided in order to gain knowledge on how to reduce food waste. 

Appendix F: Interview Transcript (employee)

Interviewer: Good evening. Thank you for participating in this research study. 

Participant: It is my pleasure. 

Interviewer: Briefly introduce yourself 

Participant: My name is John. I work in Domino’s Pizza Davies Corner store in the kitchen. I have been working here for 4 years. 

Interviewer: What is your daily routine? 

Participant: I report to work at 8 am every day except on Saturday. My first task is to start preparing the dough. Every day is different since there are days when there are a lot of orders that are made but some other days the orders are few. 

Interviewer: What is the main challenge do you encounter? Do you know the cause and how can you conquer those challenges?

Participant: the main challenge that I encounter is that the store does not have advanced equipment that can help to make exact measurements required in preparation of our products. The management can invest in this mechanism which will help to reduce food waste by preparing what is required. 

Interviewer: Do you play any part in food waste management? 

Participant: Yes, I play a role in food waste management where I am required to not overcook, trim the vegetables and other materials appropriately, separate food waste from other waste. 

Interviewer: Are you aware of the impacts of implementing suitable practices on food wastage? 

Participant: All I know is that reduction of food wastage has a positive impact to the store and the environment since the amount disposed in the land will reduce. 

Interviewer: What causes food waste? 

Participant: one of the causes is over production, over trimming, waste due to expiry, and equipment failure such as fridge. Customers left over

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We along with our experts have prepared a short commotion list for your business strategy assignments that will help you to draft a plan for your assignment and help you to split up your tasks. These steps are the suit for you if you want a fast and easy solution for your business strategy assignment. Always remember that customers are the main priority in marketing and you need to choose the most effective market strategy to attract and create new customers. You need to run a short and effective market research of your selected product or service. Customer satisfaction is a major player in this area. You need to collect information thoroughly by means of taking feedback, interviews, reviews etc. This primary data will help you to make your paper more authentic and reliable. Draft a plan before you start working on your business strategy assignment. Planning is always considered as the beginning step as it lifts half of the work. After collecting information, you will be able to match the question with the business strategy concept easily. It will help you to detect the solution according to the requirements. Planning will also give you a guideline for the total work and the outcome of the study. You need to link your own concept with the established business strategies. Theories are tested and justified and make your judgment more valid. Try to relate to the theories that were discussed beforehand in designing your business strategies. Discuss the similarities and dissimilarities to make your work more specific. For maintaining the originality of your assignment, you must keep tracks of your work and use proper referencing from valid sources. To justify your own concept, add relevant journals and articles with referencing. Thus, you will be able to avoid plagiarism.  You can also include real life examples or current situations where your ideas are suitable. Compare the previous results with your drafted solution for better understanding. You can follow these business strategic tools such as strategic decision, business policy, business ethics, BCG matrix, strategic leadership, corporate governance, core competencies, business analysis models, strategy evolution, etc. These aspects of business strategy are really important in the formation of a perfect and timely business strategy for an effective strategic formulation.

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Business Strategy – A Report on McDonald’s

Introduction

In this assignment will focus on the business strategy. McDonald’s restaurant will be selected to complete this assignment. This organisation is the world’s best fast food restaurant. In this assignment will describe the vision, mission, objective, competitive strategy, external fit, PEST analysis, porter’s five forces regarding McDonald. This assignment will also focus on Ansoff matrix, GE matrix of McDonald. In this way, this assignment can indicate strength, market position of the organisation.

Part A

Vision

McDonald’s is the leader in the global fast food restaurant industry. This company was founded in 1940, and it established as the McDonald’s corporation in the year of 1955. The vision statement of this company becomes the progressive modern burger company which is delivering contemporary customer services (Altinay et al. 2014). This company is reputed as the best quick service restaurant in all over the world and being the best services restaurant means providing excellent quality of food and services, value and cleanliness to the customer.  

Mission

The mission of the McDonald restaurant is clear. It wants to favourite place and way to eat and drink of the customer and want the first choice of the customer and provide top quality of products, excellent services and value for money.  This company want to be the best employer for the employee in each community in all over the world (Nyadzayo, Matanda & Ewing 2015). McDonald wants to achieve the profitable growth of this company by expanding the brand and leveraging the strong point of the system of McDonald by the technology and innovation.

Goals of McDonald’s

The main goals or objective of McDonald is to provide excellent food in the fun and friendly atmosphere and to be socially responsible organisation and also provide a good return to the shareholders of this organisation. The aim of this organisation is to establish a global strategy which is focused on the creating extraordinary customer services and maintaining the excellent quality of food (Lundgren et al. 2015). The most effective goals of this company are specific, measurable, realistic, achievable and time-bound. It wants to expand its business all over the world by expanding more store of this company.

Competitive Strategies of McDonald’s

The competitive strategies of McDonald indicate the basic approach to the development of this company and competitive advantage of the company. In the world as the biggest fast food restaurant chain, this organisation uses the intensive growth strategies to support the business development and expansion the business (Lundgren et al. 2015). The competitive business strategy of McDonald utilises the combination of the international market expansion strategies and the cost of leadership. The services and product standardisation lie in the cornerstone of the business strategy of the McDonald. The main competitive strategy of McDonald is the low prices. This organisation is involved in an extensive utilisation of economies of scale to gain the cost advantage. McDonald is the reputed for quick customer services without compromising the quality of the product or quality of the services. The universality of the taste of the food is the representative of another competitive strategy of the McDonald (Barney 2014). The competitive strategies of this company are related to the operational activities especially the action of the competitive firm and economic changes. McDonald has thousands of competitor in the market every company wants a share in the market. McDonald has recognised by its quality of food and services. This company has developed its competitive strategies that differentiate it from its competitors. All organisations require touching with the business environment because of matching the customer expectation with the customer services.

Business Model of McDonald’s

There are many business models which are related to the business organisation. In this particular assignment has focused on the world’s best fast food restaurant McDonald. In this specific assignment, the Franchisee Business Model is the best fit for McDonald. Franchising is the running of a business organisation some or all characteristics of another successful business partnership (Bereznoi 2015). In the traditional business, the business organisation would provide a right to sell a particular commodity in a particular market which is known as the distributorship. In the recent decades, the concept of franchising has grown in which the business organisation allow grants another business the license to maintain the business of the same name and can use the expertise if the parent’s company to establish the business successfully. Currently, McDonald has the franchised about 80% of its total restaurant. For the McDonald restaurant, the franchise model has led to years of growth, profitability and risk mitigation. Most of the operator or owners enter the market or system by purchasing an existing restaurant owner of the McDonald or operator of the McDonald (Gebauer & Saul 2014). Few numbers of operators enter into the market by purchasing a new restaurant. In this business model consist of some component which is the help to build the business model are the relationship between franchisor and franchisee, the agreement of franchise, benefits for the franchisor, benefits for the franchise, the cost of franchising for famous brands, etc. In this way, a business organisation can grow which is based on this business model.

External fit

The porter’s five forces tool is the simple but most essential instrument for understanding the situation in what situation the organisation is there. This business tool is the most useful because it helps to understand the strength of the organisation and the current position of the competitiveness. It is the instrument of marketing strategy. By the use of this instrument, the organisation can measure the level of competitiveness within the industry. Porter said that the understanding the level of competitiveness is essential to determine the attractiveness of the industry. Porter stated that there are five forces or factors can identify that the level of competitiveness in the market within the organisation. These factors are threats of new entry, competitive rivalry, supplier power, threats of substitution and buyer power.

Porter’s five forces for McDonald’s

Threats of new entry

The power of new entry into the market can affect the organisation which already exists. If a new organisation can easily enter into the market and start-up its business without substantial investment, then it is considered as the threats. If new entrants enter into an industry as well as into the market, it will achieve market share and rivalry will intensify. In the mar4ket if the existing firms are strong position then there is a barrier to entering the market, and if the barriers to entry are relative low, then the threats of new organisation entry will be high and vice-versa. In this context for the McDonald, there is a possibility of threats of new entry, but this company has the huge market reputation for its customer loyalty, better customer service without compromising its product quality.  

Competitive rivalry

In the business there is a key factor in the competitive intensity will be the competitive rivalry. In the traditional economic model, there is zero profit in the competition among the rival organisation. In the market of the particular industry are the importance of number and the capability of the participants (Altinay et al. 2014). If any organisations have more competitors in the market and these companies give the offer of the equally attractive products and services, the organisation should have the power to control in this situation. 

Supplier power

Supply power or an organisation is including the supply of raw materials, support of knowledge and the physical support of staff labour. There is need of buyer-supplier relationship between the organisation, and the industry to provide the raw materials and this will help to create the product (Michael 2014). If in the market the suppliers are powerful and have the ability to influence on the producing industry like selling of raw material at a high price to capture the profit of the industry. 

Threats of substitution

In the business treats of substitution is the essential factor. The customer may select to substitute product of the organisation from another organisation. This situation is not the same as switching to a different organisation to use the same product or services but switching products or services entirely. The existence of product demand of the product is affected by the change of price of a substitute product.

Buyer power

The buyers have the power to pressure to the organisation on the particular pressure at the low price (Stride & Higgs 2014). If the buyers have much option to choose from products or organisation, there the power of the buyer is considered as high.

PEST analysis of McDonald’s

PEST analysis is the business tool to measure the internal and external portion of the organisation. The PEST analysis of McDonald will explain below.

Political factors

The entire organisation is heavily affected by the political factors of individual areas, and McDonald is no exception. This company has many branches all over the world, and in this situation, there is the issue of health implication of the consumption of fast food (Nyadzayo, Matanda & Ewing 2015). The political factor may harmful elements like cholesterol and creation of any other health issues. 

Economic factors

Economic factors like currency exchange rate, policies of the government, the cost of labour and inflation rate can affect the business in the industry and the size of the company (Michael 2014). McDonald expands its business globally, so the changes in the currency of exchange rate have the impact on profit or income due to the global scope of the business organisation.

Socio-cultural factors

McDonald’s must consider the socio-cultural changes in its macroeconomic environment. International strategies of McDonald appear to act field to guarantee the lucrative return for the organisation (Rask 2014). The McDonald should understand its customer based on its characteristics. This organisation has an opportunity to develop its product and services to satisfy the target market or targeted customer.

Technological factors

Technological factors have on technological applications. The technological factors mainly affect the advertisement and product promotion. McDonald’s has the play a vital in the fast food industry (Yunna & Yisheng 2014). It uses the different technological factors to improve management and productivity of the organisation. 

Internal fit Analysis of McDonald’s Using Value Chain

The internal fit is one of the components that a company or organisation should consider when an organisation was trying to establish a sustainable competitive advantage (Leea et al. 2015). The internal fit is considered when the organisational system, technology and structure are aligned with the human resource system of the company. In the internal fit, all the internal component of the organisation reinforces and complements each other (Leea et al. 2015). The alignment between environment contingencies and organisational contingencies are positive affects the performance of the organisation. Internal fit indicates the value chain of the organisation. The value chain analysis is an analytical framework which is identified the activities of the business which can establish value and competitive advantage to the business (Lundgren et al. 2015). The value chain of McDonald can be categorised in two segments inbound logistic and outbound logistic. The inbound logistic are consist of operations, conventional franchising, developmental license and affiliates (Lundgren et al. 2015). The outbound logistic of the McDonald are consist of marketing and sales and services. 

Value Curves of McDonald’s

In the business, the value curve is an instrument for the strategic managers to observe how the strategy works in relation with the close competitions (Benjamin & Wesseler 2016). A value curve is a diagram which is used for identity where the value has established the services and product within the organisation. Value curve shows that current market position of the organisation and this value curve allows using the information to build the new offer, and compete with the existing competitors (Gebauer & Saul 2014). The value curve of the McDonald indicated the current market position of the organisation.

Part B

Ansoff Matrix of McDonald’s (Product/ market matrix)

In this part shows the Ansoff matrix of the McDonald which is consisting of new product and markets and existing markets and product (Barney 2014). This matrix is explained below.

Existing ProductNew Product
Existing marketsMarket PenetrationProduct Development
New MarketsMarket DevelopmentDiversification

GE/ Mckinsey Matrix of McDonald’s

In the business world, GE is the business framework that can evaluate the business portfolio, and provide further strategic implications and help to order the investment required for each business organisation (Altinay et al. 2014). This matrix helps to indicate the problem of resources scarcity is affected the decisions the companies make.

C:\Users\All We Write\Desktop\ge-mckinsey-matrix-blank.png

 Conclusion

This assignment had completed on focusing on McDonald fast food restaurant. This assessment describes the business analysis of McDonald. The main objective of this organisation is to provide better services without compromising the quality of the service. In this assignment described the different business tool to measure the current position of McDonald in the marketplace. In this way, this assignment had described the different matrix to measure the potential of this company. The competitive strategy of this organisation is very strong to control the competitor in the market.

Recommendations

McDonald required focusing on the service differentiation strategy in the fast food industry and should provide superior services to the targeted customers. This restaurant is the powerful brand name. This organisation faced many considerable issues which are based on emerging conditions in the global market. This organisation has limited process flexibility, and the product diversification is quite low. In this situation, this company may diversify on its product and services. This organisation may have flexibility in responding to the market variations. 

References

Altinay, L, Brookes, M, Madanoglu, M & Aktas, G 2014, ‘Franchisees’ trust in and satisfaction with franchise partnerships ‘, Journal of Business Research, vol 67, no. 5, pp. 722-728.

Barney, JB 2014, ‘How marketing scholars might help address issues in resource-based theory’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, vol 42, no. 1, pp. 24-26.

Benjamin, EO & Wesseler, JHH 2016, ‘A socioeconomic analysis of biocontrol in integrated pest management: A review of the effects of uncertainty, irreversibility and flexibility’, NJAS – Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, vol 77, no. 1, pp. 53-60.

Bereznoi, A 2015, ‘Business Model Innovation in Corporate Competitive Strategy’, Problems of Economic Transition , vol 57, no. 8, pp. 14-33.

Gebauer, H & Saul, CJ 2014, ‘Business model innovation in the water sector in developing countries’, Science of The Total Environment, vol 488-489, no. 1, pp. 512-520.

Leea, Y-K, Kim, S-H, Seo, M-K & Hight, S 2015, ‘Market orientation and business performance: Evidence from franchising industry’, International Journal of Hospitality Management, vol 44, no. 1, pp. 28-37.

Lundgren, JG, McDonald, T, Rand, TA & Fausti, SW 2015, ‘Spatial and numerical relationships of arthropod communities associated with key pests of maize’, Journal of Applied Entomology, vol 139, no. 6, pp. 446-456.

Michael, SC 2014, ‘Can franchising be an economic development strategy? An empirical investigation’, Small Business Economics, vol 42, no. 3, pp. 611-620.

Nyadzayo, MW, Matanda, MJ & Ewing, MT 2015, ‘The impact of franchisor support, brand commitment, brand citizenship behavior, and franchisee experience on franchisee-perceived brand image’, Journal of Business Research, vol 68, no. 9, pp. 1886–1894.

Rask, M 2014, ‘Internationalization through business model innovation: In search of relevant design dimensions and elements’, Journal of International Entrepreneurship, vol 12, no. 2, pp. 146-161.

Stride, H & Higgs, M 2014, ‘An Investigation Into the Relationship Between Values and Commitment’, Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, vol 43, no. 3, pp. 1-11.

Introduction

In this assignment will focus on the business strategy. McDonald’s restaurant will be selected to complete this assignment. This organisation is the world’s best fast food restaurant. In this assignment will describe the vision, mission, objective, competitive strategy, external fit, PEST analysis, porter’s five forces regarding McDonald. This assignment will also focus on Ansoff matrix, GE matrix of McDonald. In this way, this assignment can indicate strength, market position of the organisation.

Part A

Vision

McDonald’s is the leader in the global fast food restaurant industry. This company was founded in 1940, and it established as the McDonald’s corporation in the year of 1955. The vision statement of this company becomes the progressive modern burger company which is delivering contemporary customer services (Altinay et al. 2014). This company is reputed as the best quick service restaurant in all over the world and being the best services restaurant means providing excellent quality of food and services, value and cleanliness to the customer.  

Mission

The mission of the McDonald restaurant is clear. It wants to favourite place and way to eat and drink of the customer and want the first choice of the customer and provide top quality of products, excellent services and value for money.  This company want to be the best employer for the employee in each community in all over the world (Nyadzayo, Matanda & Ewing 2015). McDonald wants to achieve the profitable growth of this company by expanding the brand and leveraging the strong point of the system of McDonald by the technology and innovation.

Goals of McDonald’s

The main goals or objective of McDonald is to provide excellent food in the fun and friendly atmosphere and to be socially responsible organisation and also provide a good return to the shareholders of this organisation. The aim of this organisation is to establish a global strategy which is focused on the creating extraordinary customer services and maintaining the excellent quality of food (Lundgren et al. 2015). The most effective goals of this company are specific, measurable, realistic, achievable and time-bound. It wants to expand its business all over the world by expanding more store of this company.

Competitive Strategies of McDonald’s

The competitive strategies of McDonald indicate the basic approach to the development of this company and competitive advantage of the company. In the world as the biggest fast food restaurant chain, this organisation uses the intensive growth strategies to support the business development and expansion the business (Lundgren et al. 2015). The competitive business strategy of McDonald utilises the combination of the international market expansion strategies and the cost of leadership. The services and product standardisation lie in the cornerstone of the business strategy of the McDonald. The main competitive strategy of McDonald is the low prices. This organisation is involved in an extensive utilisation of economies of scale to gain the cost advantage. McDonald is the reputed for quick customer services without compromising the quality of the product or quality of the services. The universality of the taste of the food is the representative of another competitive strategy of the McDonald (Barney 2014). The competitive strategies of this company are related to the operational activities especially the action of the competitive firm and economic changes. McDonald has thousands of competitor in the market every company wants a share in the market. McDonald has recognised by its quality of food and services. This company has developed its competitive strategies that differentiate it from its competitors. All organisations require touching with the business environment because of matching the customer expectation with the customer services.

Business Model of McDonald’s

There are many business models which are related to the business organisation. In this particular assignment has focused on the world’s best fast food restaurant McDonald. In this specific assignment, the Franchisee Business Model is the best fit for McDonald. Franchising is the running of a business organisation some or all characteristics of another successful business partnership (Bereznoi 2015). In the traditional business, the business organisation would provide a right to sell a particular commodity in a particular market which is known as the distributorship. In the recent decades, the concept of franchising has grown in which the business organisation allow grants another business the license to maintain the business of the same name and can use the expertise if the parent’s company to establish the business successfully. Currently, McDonald has the franchised about 80% of its total restaurant. For the McDonald restaurant, the franchise model has led to years of growth, profitability and risk mitigation. Most of the operator or owners enter the market or system by purchasing an existing restaurant owner of the McDonald or operator of the McDonald (Gebauer & Saul 2014). Few numbers of operators enter into the market by purchasing a new restaurant. In this business model consist of some component which is the help to build the business model are the relationship between franchisor and franchisee, the agreement of franchise, benefits for the franchisor, benefits for the franchise, the cost of franchising for famous brands, etc. In this way, a business organisation can grow which is based on this business model.

External fit

The porter’s five forces tool is the simple but most essential instrument for understanding the situation in what situation the organisation is there. This business tool is the most useful because it helps to understand the strength of the organisation and the current position of the competitiveness. It is the instrument of marketing strategy. By the use of this instrument, the organisation can measure the level of competitiveness within the industry. Porter said that the understanding the level of competitiveness is essential to determine the attractiveness of the industry. Porter stated that there are five forces or factors can identify that the level of competitiveness in the market within the organisation. These factors are threats of new entry, competitive rivalry, supplier power, threats of substitution and buyer power.

Porter’s five forces for McDonald’s

Threats of new entry

The power of new entry into the market can affect the organisation which already exists. If a new organisation can easily enter into the market and start-up its business without substantial investment, then it is considered as the threats. If new entrants enter into an industry as well as into the market, it will achieve market share and rivalry will intensify. In the mar4ket if the existing firms are strong position then there is a barrier to entering the market, and if the barriers to entry are relative low, then the threats of new organisation entry will be high and vice-versa. In this context for the McDonald, there is a possibility of threats of new entry, but this company has the huge market reputation for its customer loyalty, better customer service without compromising its product quality.  

Competitive rivalry

In the business there is a key factor in the competitive intensity will be the competitive rivalry. In the traditional economic model, there is zero profit in the competition among the rival organisation. In the market of the particular industry are the importance of number and the capability of the participants (Altinay et al. 2014). If any organisations have more competitors in the market and these companies give the offer of the equally attractive products and services, the organisation should have the power to control in this situation. 

Supplier power

Supply power or an organisation is including the supply of raw materials, support of knowledge and the physical support of staff labour. There is need of buyer-supplier relationship between the organisation, and the industry to provide the raw materials and this will help to create the product (Michael 2014). If in the market the suppliers are powerful and have the ability to influence on the producing industry like selling of raw material at a high price to capture the profit of the industry. 

Threats of substitution

In the business treats of substitution is the essential factor. The customer may select to substitute product of the organisation from another organisation. This situation is not the same as switching to a different organisation to use the same product or services but switching products or services entirely. The existence of product demand of the product is affected by the change of price of a substitute product.

Buyer power

The buyers have the power to pressure to the organisation on the particular pressure at the low price (Stride & Higgs 2014). If the buyers have much option to choose from products or organisation, there the power of the buyer is considered as high.

PEST analysis of McDonald’s

PEST analysis is the business tool to measure the internal and external portion of the organisation. The PEST analysis of McDonald will explain below.

Political factors

The entire organisation is heavily affected by the political factors of individual areas, and McDonald is no exception. This company has many branches all over the world, and in this situation, there is the issue of health implication of the consumption of fast food (Nyadzayo, Matanda & Ewing 2015). The political factor may harmful elements like cholesterol and creation of any other health issues. 

Economic factors

Economic factors like currency exchange rate, policies of the government, the cost of labour and inflation rate can affect the business in the industry and the size of the company (Michael 2014). McDonald expands its business globally, so the changes in the currency of exchange rate have the impact on profit or income due to the global scope of the business organisation.

Socio-cultural factors

McDonald’s must consider the socio-cultural changes in its macroeconomic environment. International strategies of McDonald appear to act field to guarantee the lucrative return for the organisation (Rask 2014). The McDonald should understand its customer based on its characteristics. This organisation has an opportunity to develop its product and services to satisfy the target market or targeted customer.

Technological factors

Technological factors have on technological applications. The technological factors mainly affect the advertisement and product promotion. McDonald’s has the play a vital in the fast food industry (Yunna & Yisheng 2014). It uses the different technological factors to improve management and productivity of the organisation. 

Internal fit Analysis of McDonald’s Using Value Chain

The internal fit is one of the components that a company or organisation should consider when an organisation was trying to establish a sustainable competitive advantage (Leea et al. 2015). The internal fit is considered when the organisational system, technology and structure are aligned with the human resource system of the company. In the internal fit, all the internal component of the organisation reinforces and complements each other (Leea et al. 2015). The alignment between environment contingencies and organisational contingencies are positive affects the performance of the organisation. Internal fit indicates the value chain of the organisation. The value chain analysis is an analytical framework which is identified the activities of the business which can establish value and competitive advantage to the business (Lundgren et al. 2015). The value chain of McDonald can be categorised in two segments inbound logistic and outbound logistic. The inbound logistic are consist of operations, conventional franchising, developmental license and affiliates (Lundgren et al. 2015). The outbound logistic of the McDonald are consist of marketing and sales and services. 

Value Curves of McDonald’s

In the business, the value curve is an instrument for the strategic managers to observe how the strategy works in relation with the close competitions (Benjamin & Wesseler 2016). A value curve is a diagram which is used for identity where the value has established the services and product within the organisation. Value curve shows that current market position of the organisation and this value curve allows using the information to build the new offer, and compete with the existing competitors (Gebauer & Saul 2014). The value curve of the McDonald indicated the current market position of the organisation.

Part B

Ansoff Matrix of McDonald’s (Product/ market matrix)

In this part shows the Ansoff matrix of the McDonald which is consisting of new product and markets and existing markets and product (Barney 2014). This matrix is explained below.

Existing ProductNew Product
Existing marketsMarket PenetrationProduct Development
New MarketsMarket DevelopmentDiversification

GE/ Mckinsey Matrix of McDonald’s

In the business world, GE is the business framework that can evaluate the business portfolio, and provide further strategic implications and help to order the investment required for each business organisation (Altinay et al. 2014). This matrix helps to indicate the problem of resources scarcity is affected the decisions the companies make.

C:\Users\All We Write\Desktop\ge-mckinsey-matrix-blank.png

 Conclusion

This assignment had completed on focusing on McDonald fast food restaurant. This assessment describes the business analysis of McDonald. The main objective of this organisation is to provide better services without compromising the quality of the service. In this assignment described the different business tool to measure the current position of McDonald in the marketplace. In this way, this assignment had described the different matrix to measure the potential of this company. The competitive strategy of this organisation is very strong to control the competitor in the market.

Recommendations

McDonald required focusing on the service differentiation strategy in the fast food industry and should provide superior services to the targeted customers. This restaurant is the powerful brand name. This organisation faced many considerable issues which are based on emerging conditions in the global market. This organisation has limited process flexibility, and the product diversification is quite low. In this situation, this company may diversify on its product and services. This organisation may have flexibility in responding to the market variations. 

References

Altinay, L, Brookes, M, Madanoglu, M & Aktas, G 2014, ‘Franchisees’ trust in and satisfaction with franchise partnerships ‘, Journal of Business Research, vol 67, no. 5, pp. 722-728.

Barney, JB 2014, ‘How marketing scholars might help address issues in resource-based theory’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, vol 42, no. 1, pp. 24-26.

Benjamin, EO & Wesseler, JHH 2016, ‘A socioeconomic analysis of biocontrol in integrated pest management: A review of the effects of uncertainty, irreversibility and flexibility’, NJAS – Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, vol 77, no. 1, pp. 53-60.

Bereznoi, A 2015, ‘Business Model Innovation in Corporate Competitive Strategy’, Problems of Economic Transition , vol 57, no. 8, pp. 14-33.

Gebauer, H & Saul, CJ 2014, ‘Business model innovation in the water sector in developing countries’, Science of The Total Environment, vol 488-489, no. 1, pp. 512-520.

Leea, Y-K, Kim, S-H, Seo, M-K & Hight, S 2015, ‘Market orientation and business performance: Evidence from franchising industry’, International Journal of Hospitality Management, vol 44, no. 1, pp. 28-37.

Lundgren, JG, McDonald, T, Rand, TA & Fausti, SW 2015, ‘Spatial and numerical relationships of arthropod communities associated with key pests of maize’, Journal of Applied Entomology, vol 139, no. 6, pp. 446-456.

Michael, SC 2014, ‘Can franchising be an economic development strategy? An empirical investigation’, Small Business Economics, vol 42, no. 3, pp. 611-620.

Nyadzayo, MW, Matanda, MJ & Ewing, MT 2015, ‘The impact of franchisor support, brand commitment, brand citizenship behavior, and franchisee experience on franchisee-perceived brand image’, Journal of Business Research, vol 68, no. 9, pp. 1886–1894.

Rask, M 2014, ‘Internationalization through business model innovation: In search of relevant design dimensions and elements’, Journal of International Entrepreneurship, vol 12, no. 2, pp. 146-161.

Stride, H & Higgs, M 2014, ‘An Investigation Into the Relationship Between Values and Commitment’, Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, vol 43, no. 3, pp. 1-11.

Yunna, W & Yisheng, Y 2014, ‘The competition situation analysis of shale gas industry in China: Applying Porter’s five forces and scenario model’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol 40, no. 1, pp. 798-805.

Yunna, W & Yisheng, Y 2014, ‘The competition situation analysis of shale gas industry in China: Applying Porter’s five forces and scenario model’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol 40, no. 1, pp. 798-805.

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CAFÉ REFURBISHMENT BY ABC COMPANY

 Café Refurbishment by ABC Company 

Scope of the Project

Having been given the contract of refurbishing the Coffeeville café, and selected from the high number of companies offering similar services, ABC Company has not taken the selection for granted. This has been catalyzed by the best work we have done as ABC Company, hence the need for John to inquire from us about refurbishing his Coffeeville café, which has run for decades without being renewed.  Thus, as the headhunted project manager, I have to phrase out the report. The report shall be set out with dire need of giving off quiet, reliable information on the manner through which the Coffeeville cafe shall emerge as one of the best plazas, on the entire area of Melbourne CBD, after lifting its aged appearance after more than 40 years of operation. Nonetheless, the report shall indicate various aspects which shall be considered as part of the report inclusion of the project management process, with considerable experience in the IT infrastructure, concerning the hospitality industry. Hence, to rhyme with other lucrative facilities and be competitive, there is dire need of including IT experts to upgrade the kitchen and the seating area through the installation of newly innovated equipment.

Additionally, the reason behind the inclusion of the IT infrastructure personnel as well as the project manager who is well versed with technology is because the high numbers of hospitality entrepreneurs are turning to technology to ease their mode of services delivery Watt, (2007).  Some of these services include booking and marketing, provisions of media devices such as televisions on the Coffeeville cafe to entice the clients to come back, enhancement of security services through the installation of CCTV as well as including the most appropriate amenities on the conference halls. 

Additionally, technology has been applied in the modern digitalized world to advertise as well as storing clients information whenever they ought to book for the services from far countries, away from London.  Therefore, inclusion and selection of the project manager from communications limited have been done to enhance the high performance and installation of the senior standard facilities from the blue-chip organizations Watt, (2007).  Hence, this report is set to inculcate the skills and expertise procedures required to come up with the project. Nonetheless, the human is to error. This means there are some errors and risks which might occur concerning the project.

Thus, the project shall require both the work breakdown structure to aid on the smooth running of the project. Similarly, to curb the errors and risks, the project shall require the risk management plan as one way of dealing with the associated risks. The program shall aid on time-saving as well as attaining the expected outcome on a timely basis. In summing up, with technology advancement in place, the risks can also be attested and assessed whereby installation of the corrective measures to address the problem can be put in place. Therefore, the hindrance which might prevent the future growth of the organization is dealt with appropriately.

Project charter

Being the project manager of the newly proposed task by the Coffeeville café stakeholders, its relevant to understand some of the crucial factors. These factors shall aid the involved colleagues and the project manager to actualize for the more natural understanding of the project schedule.  Nonetheless, the interested parties must show a high level of interest and portray a sense of reasonable vision on all the program of the project Wrike, (2018). Moreover, there is a need to discuss in a viable manner with all the involved stakeholders of the project.

Similarly, on the approach of doing quite a good job and correspondence to the high level of interest by the stakeholder upon the appointment, after a thorough and busy week, there is need to initiate a gathering at the project site for assessment of the progress as well as execution. Furthermore, it will be another routine of tuning on the colleagues to enhance profitability. Sending of the messages to the project pioneers shall also show a point of concern on the undertaking of the project.

Moreover, colleague management is required since they are the key implementers of the manager’s aims as well as the objectives of the project.  Thus, execution is expected to be of the highest order, to present and build up a hotel inside the timeline allocated as well as anticipated quality as inspired by the Coffeeville café stakeholders. Thus, the stated are the key deliverables of the project. 

The Life Cycle of the Project

To come with clear guidelines and the manner through which the plan of the project shall be used, there is dire need to come up with the project life cycle. Thus, as the project manager, the following are the four phases which must be employed upon the project lifecycle.  The four stages include the initiation phase, planning phase, execution phase, as well as the closure phase. The stated aspects can be indicated under the following flow chart to showcase the way through which they can be implemented. Nonetheless, the steps can as well be outlined and explained throughout the project.

In the first place, the initiation phase marks the inception period, where the project manager has to recognize the deliverables of the project. At this point, there is reviewing of the resources given to the project manager.  Therefore, the initiation phase sets out the goal of the project as well as close checking on the related risks which must be spelled out to avoid future issues throughout the project. The initiation phase entails the following: 

  • Identification of project scope
  • Deliverables license specifically under the services and the products
  • Project stakeholders’ identification 
  • Business case identification

Secondly, the planning phase follows where the schedule and the milestone of the project are outlined, and the decision agreed upon. It’s a critical stage since all the deliverables are described at this phase Wrike, (2018). Planning stage runs throughout the project since all the priorities are written down. Additionally, the work breakdown structure is expected to draw to offer the requirements which must flow appropriately. The following steps can be followed:

  • Project schedule creation
  • Schedule writing down
  • Work breakdown structure
  • Communication plan creation

Thirdly, there is the execution phase. At this juncture, the project manager shall execute the task as per recommendation from the planning phase. Nonetheless, the test case of the Wrike, (2018).has to be made, including the measures set to achieve desired results. The business case is also set, the wherein fact there is the failure to meet criteria set, a recent amendment has to be done on the plan of this project. Finally, the involved stakeholders are thus supposed to review the work often. The following are the step the project manager has to follow:

  • Workflow organization and tasks delegation
  • Team members briefing on the awaiting tasks
  • Updating colleagues through the hierarchy level 
  • Checking of the quality tasks
  • Spending and budget monitoring

Lastly, we have the fourth phase, which is the final stage. This being the closure phase, marks the closure of the lifecycle of the project. The step entails the results of the project whereby the manager shall release the report to all stakeholders. Afterward, to seal the completion of the agreement, the document shall be signed to show and conclude about the conclusion of the Coffeeville cafe Ray, (2018). The project managers have to adhere to the following steps:  

  • Final results delivery
  • Results on the assessment 
  • Filling the documents
  • Reviewing of the conduct during the hotel construction
  • Checking on the proposed budget of the entire project

The leadership of the Project to enhance quality assurance

Leadership is also a very crucial factor in the completion of the Coffeeville cafe. It’s one of the requirements for managing the project successfully. Moreover, it’s one of the factors which shall foresee the completion of the project on time as well as on the planned and allocated budget. Therefore, the project manager must entail the traits of a good leader who is ready to include her junior on decision making. 

Quality Control 

Additionally, for the project manager to be considered as a leader, he must show or rely on one of the critical theories of leadership, which shall guide him throughout the entire project tasks. Therefore, different from being a dictator, the manager should portray autocratic leadership. This means that he should consult as well as listening to the other counterparts and juniors throughout the project.  Similarly, with authoritarian leadership style, saying he shall welcome views from his colleagues, the manager shall be on the correct position of implementing the entire project life cycle phases and the processes. Therefore, the manager cum a leader should also have excellent communication skills. This will harmonize all the involved personnel to work under his roof.  

Furthermore, the project manager must also be in the position of delegating some of the duties to involved supervisors or head of the departments. This will relieve off some burdens whereby he could now work correctly on some few challenging and demanding tasks on the construction site.  Additionally, the project manager must show a sense of being creative.

The creativity of the project manager is also an essential factor.  This means that he will bring forth positive feedback and outlook on the construction site.  Positivity in the real sense shall aid on the success of this project, Watt, (2007). Therefore, the project manager is expected to understand and accept the positive ideas rendered unto him, through critiquing them to come up with the best idea. The excellent idea can thus be added to the project to make it better.

Project Implementation Strategy

Additionally, the leader has to be ready to provide feedback upon the work done by his team of workers. In the real sense, the input shall enhance the identification of the weaker areas, which requires more attention as well as improvements.  This means the project manager is a leader must be on the frontline to ensure he checks on all the responsibility given to him by the Coffeeville cafe stakeholders, to come up with the aspired building Team, ( 2017). Thus, being responsible shall catalyze the project manager to present the feedback of the project implementation. This shall aid on close checking on the project completion and whether it meets the desired outcome.

Innovation goes hand on with planning. This indicates that for the project manager of ABC Company to be successful, he must envy innovative ideas which will help him to achieve the aims and objectives of the project. Moreover, the procedure of plan implementation shall also require a higher level of innovation to check out the hierarchical techniques. Finally, with a high level of skills as well as experience, the project manager shall complete the project successfully.  

Contract Control, the Problems, Administration, and Solutions

The setting of the project objective is a critical concern concerning the management of this project.  This means, if in any chance, the scope as well as the project objectives are not met or well defined, the success rate of the project automatically goes down. Failure to come up with the established goals, the project is expected to stagnate throughout the construction process.  Keeping in mind, the Coffeeville cafe is set to be a hotel, the high number of credential amenities are required for its success. The hotel is expected to offer hospitality services. Thus, there is dire need to understand the problems which align with the modern hospitality and management industry, more so the high rate of competition where clients go for the best Cameron, (2011). Hence, to get a clear solution on the administrative duties of the manager, their dire need of coming up with objectives, which has to be discussed on a timely basis in conjunction with the hotel management. Appropriate discussion shall ensure the project runs smoothly meeting all the aims and objectives.

Peoples Plan

The term unrealistic expectation, moreover upon the client satisfaction, might pose a high risk unto the project success. This means if the time scheduled for the completion of the project are not met appropriately, more so the deadline of project completion, might pose a negative outcome on the success of the project. Resources availability must also be in line with the project management to ensure the deadlines are met, and the project shall be completed on a timely basis. The project manager has to know that failure to meet the deadline shall amount to higher pressure. However, there should be the total balancing of the tasks, due to the facts that the results must also align to the expectation of the stakeholders as well as the target clients Ray, (2018). Thus, to beat the deadline, the project manager is expected to be referring to the dates as well as the tasks which are supposed to be performed at each particular with no failure nor delay. Through this, the project shall be completed on time where the client and stakeholder expectation will be met. The final results will be better upon the stakeholders.

Sufficient Skills

The project manager of ABC company must be a skills-oriented person. This indicates that the manager has to select the team of workers who are skilled to alleviate the challenges and also meet the set timeframe of project completion.  Similarly, the application of the SWOT analysis might be considered to be worthy, for close checking on the strength as well as the weaknesses of all team members and analyzing their capability upon their skills since their presence and skillful shall aid on the project completion on the set schedule Ray, (2018). The project manager must also develop the control measures to prevent the risks on the project.

Management of the Risk

Risk management is one of the critical sections in the construction of the two projects. To counter check on the risks, the project manager must come up with means of assessing the dangers which might be associated with the project.  The team must also be notified to report any risk on time to prevent future problems Pinto, (2013). The identified risks have to be mitigated and abolished to ensure they do not occur once again on the project.

Communication Technology application 

The project manager can as well use the software to manage the projects. This means that the manager shall reduce the effort given to the project, and at the same time, he will save time. Thus, the activities which can be automated must be automated and therefore dealt with on a better way Kerzner, (2013).  The software must also be used for the higher performance as well as the results on the management of the Coffeeville cafe refurbishment.

Gantt chart

The following diagram is used to offer an explanation of the duration of time allocated for the project.

Work Breakdown Structure

 Conclusion

In a nutshell, the study has presented the report unto which the project manager shall inculcate on his implementation and coming up with an already refurbished café which will attract the high number of people. It’s quite clear that with all the set procedures and activities, the hotel shall be of high relevance to the stakeholders, and the clients shall have an easy avenue to relax off their mind.  Similarly, with good structure and work, the project manager shall be on the position of getting another contract from Coffeeville cafe management as they deal with the hospitality industry. 

References 

Cameron, D. A. (2011). Developing Management Skills.

Kerzner, H. (2013). Project Management. 

Maxwideman (2018). Leader available at http://www.maxwideman.com/papers/leader/lifecycle.htm accessed: (16th December 2018).

Pinto, J. (2013). Project Management: Achieving Competitive Advantage. Harlow: Pearson Education

Ray, S. (May 09, 2018). Project Quality Management – A Quick Guide available at https://www.projectmanager.com/blog/project-quality-management-quick-guide accessed: (16th December 2018). 

The team, L. (August 28, 2017). The 4 Phases of the Project Management Life Cycle available at https://www.lucidchart.com/blog/the-4-phases-of-the-project-management-life-cycle accessed: (16th December 2018).

Watt, b. a. (2007). Project Management available at https://opentextbc.ca/projectmanagement/chapter/chapter-16-risk-management-planning-project-management/ (accessed: 17th December 2018). 

Work Breakdown Structure. (2018) available at https://www.workbreakdownstructure.com/ accessed: (17th December 2018). 

Wrike (2018). Project management guide available at https://www.wrike.com/project-management-guide/faq/what-is-work-breakdown-structure-in-project-management/ accessed: (16th December 2018).

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Business Communication Assignment Help by AssignmentHero

Communication model and explanation with barriers 

The process of managing communication is based on the engagement of proper business model which could be used in the proper understanding format of the business. The rhetorical communication theory states that perceptions and outcomes of communication are dependent on the attitudes of the speaker and the listener (McCroskey, 2015). The proper management of the persistence in the business model is very well defined by the model of Aristotle which is an important part of the rhetorical communication theories. The model of Aristotle has three-layer such as sender, the message and the listener. The sender sends the message of the communicational aspects as per the need of maintaining the communication. The speaker/sender plays very important role in communication according to the Aristotle. The full control of the course of a certain conversation is dependent on the communicator himself (Petersons & Khalimzoda, 2016). The process of managing message is needed to be sent to the receiver through the very good perception of transmitting.

Figure 1: Model of Aristotle

(Source: Bajracharya, 2018)

Aristotle advised previously that the speech development process should be different for different types of audiences (Communication theory, 2018). The level of transmitting the message has been established to be done by the perception of sender which could be used in engaging the speaker and the receiver. The second level of model is the message which is needed to be conveyed by the sender to the receiver. The receiver is the third and the last level of model. The receiver receives the message from the sender and decodes it to the perfect message which could make the communication much better. The process of managing the confronted selection of message is very much managed in the communication.  Advancement in technologies has leaded the modern world individuals towards a less effect practical communication skill level (Panayirci, 2016). The barrier to communication could engage the process of less activeness to be imparted. The process of managing the selective assessment to get done by the sender and receiver is needed to consider ten barriers so that the process of managing effective communication would be easy. The first barrier is the lack of properly conveying the message. The second barrier is the medium under which the message is being conveyed. The third barrier is the message or signal capturing barrier of the sender and the last barrier is the barrier of understanding. These barriers are needed to be managed to get the process of company based management more and more improved.

Definition of Emotional intelligence along with five competencies

The emotional intelligence is the capacity of managing situational based behaviour of human or any other living being. The American physicist Goleman had described five competencies of the emotional intelligence. These are

  1. Self-awareness
  2. Self-regulation
  3. Motivation
  4. Empathy
  5. Social skills

The self-awareness of the emotional intelligence is the part which could be easily used in the engagement of the different aspect of behaviour and the daily motive to be intermittent.

Self-regulation is the process of managing the necessary changes that are needed to the daily basis of motivation self-behaviour to be adjusted. Emotional intelligence is associated with job stress and wellbeing of the employees (Karimi et al., 2014). Motivation is the factor of maintaining the daily life balance under some sort of discourage or disgrace that could occur in any moment in the life of human being. Empathy is the process of paying attention to the body language of other human and also to the conditional based behaviour of the other persons and feeling other’s experiences by going through the same situation (Davis, 2018).

Social skills are very much involved in maintaining the collaboration between the communication gap between the social and cultural activities with the human being. Motivation is one of the key factors of the empathy which could be developed to gain the performance aspect to be maintained in the workplace. According to Pardoe, Vincent & Conway (2018), Workplace environment is the most important factor affecting the motivation levels of the workers. The motivation is the process of maintaining the work culture to be maintained so that the best possible aspect to be maintained.  Proper maintained motivation will be helpful in managing work to be completed in the given deadline. The implementation of the motivation is thus very much useful in keeping the balance in the work-life culture. The motivation thus plays an important role in maintaining the communication in the organisational and in the personal life.

Explanation of effective listening and the barriers of effective listening 

The process of effective listening based on getting message of comprehension aspect to be maintained in the organisation. The effective listening is based upon the proper message conveying massage decoding structure. It would be very helpful to manage the communication if the proper speaker and proper receiver have been engaged with a right medium of communication. Listening to all the details is essential in identifying factors and assessments of problems in both management and delivery of quality products or services (Cardon, 2014). The process of managing selective assessment is needed to be managed in the perception of speaking efficiency to be maintained into organisation. Effective listening is based on proper message conveying. Safe and quality services delivery is highly dependent on the clarity during communication especially in sectors such as healthcare (Thomson et al., 2015). The messages which are needed to be conveyed to the sender and receiver must have to be managed as per the very best computation of the selective adjustment.

First barrier is the physical barrier. This implies to the physically handicapped and physically challenged section which might or might not be overcome as per the best clinical province. The second is the systematic barriers which are the barrier of managing system or the organization to be implied in the computational aspect. Wood (2015) mentioned that in advanced management-careers, people are required to work effectively with others and listen to feedback carefully often. The management based problem in the organisations must have to be managed as per the comprehensive assessment of the communication.  There are different perceptions of active listening based on the behavioural responses of the individuals (Weger et al., 2014). Third is the psychological barrier which could be much more effective rather than previous barriers. The psychological barrier is based on mind manipulation regarding message conveyance.

The message of the effective communication must have to complete these barriers to get the message of the sender properly received in the process. This will also help in engaging most accurate perception of decoding message no matter how bad or unconventional the medium is in the organisation.

Reference list

Bajracharya, S. (2018). Aristotle’s Model of Communication – Businesstopia. Retrieved from https://www.businesstopia.net/communication/aristotles-model-communication Retrieved on 5th October 2018

Cardon, P. W. (2014). Business Communication: Developing Leaders for a Networked World (3e). McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from  http://sb.cofc.edu/academics/academicdepartments/management-and-marketing/syllabi/fall-2018/MGMT332-01_Carrico_F-18.pdf Retrieved on 5th October 2018

Communicationtheory (2018). Aristotle’s Communication Model. Retrieved from https://www.communicationtheory.org/aristotle%E2%80%99s-communication-model/  Retrieved on 5th October 2018

Davis, M. H. (2018). Empathy: A social psychological approach. Routledge. Retrieved from https://content.taylorfrancis.com/books/download?dac=C2017-0-76734-2&isbn=9780429962448&format=googlePreviewPdf  Retrieved on 5th October 2018

Karimi, L., Leggat, S. G., Donohue, L., Farrell, G., & Couper, G. E. (2014). Emotional rescue: The role of emotional intelligence and emotional labour on well‐being and job‐stress among community nurses. Journal of advanced nursing, 70(1), 176-186. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/download/32979271/Emotional-Rescue-Nurses.pdf Retrieved on 5th October 2018

McCroskey, J. C. (2015). An introduction to rhetorical communication. Routledge. Retrieved from https://content.taylorfrancis.com/books/download?dac=C2015-0-77694-3&isbn=9781317347187&format=googlePreviewPdf Retrieved on 13th October 2018

Panayirci, U. (2016). Are Communication Theories Affected by New Communication Technologies? : A Look at Spiral of Silence Theory. AJIT-e: Online Academic Journal of Information Technology. 7. 51-66. 10.5824/1309-1581.2016.1.004.x. http://www.peoi.org/Courses/Coursesen/mass/mass2.html Retrieved on 5th October 2018

Pardoe, J., Vincent, K., & Conway, D. (2018). How do staff motivation and workplace environment affect capacity of governments to adapt to climate change in developing countries?. Environmental Science & Policy, 90, 46-53. Retrieved from http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/90398/3/1-s2.0-S1462901118304763-main.pdf Retrieved on 5th October 2018

Petersons, A. & Khalimzoda, I. (2016). Communication models and common basis for multicultural communication Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303556858_COMMUNICATION_MODELS_AND_COMMON_BASIS_FOR_MULTICULTURAL_COMMUNICATION_IN_LATVIA/download Retrieved on 16th October 2018.

Thomson, K., Outram, S., Gilligan, C., & Levett-Jones, T. (2015). Interprofessional experiences of recent healthcare graduates: A social psychology perspective on the barriers to effective communication, teamwork, and patient-centred care. Journal of interprofessional care, 29(6), 634-640. Retrieved from  http://blogs.luc.edu/ipry/files/2015/10/Experience-of-recent-health-graduates-in-interprofessional-teams-20152.pdf Retrieved on 15th October 2018

Weger Jr, H., Castle Bell, G., Minei, E. M., & Robinson, M. C. (2014). The relative effectiveness of active listening in initial interactions. International Journal of Listening, 28(1), 13-31. Retrieved from  https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10904018.2013.813234 Retrieved on 13th October 2018

Wood, J. T. (2015). Interpersonal communication: Everyday encounters. Nelson Education. Retrieved from  https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/37169075/wood67647_0495567647_02.01_chapter01.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1545139179&Signature=7Sd09Ij4KXqh7FR6An09apkQKz0%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DEveryday_Encounters.pdf Retrieved on 25th October 2018

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Managing a Successful Business Project

Introduction

One of the largest consumer product companies in the world, Unilever Plc is co-headquartered in London, and Rotterdam. Unilever’s products are used by 2.5 billion people daily and its product range spans frozen food, beverages, personal products, cleaning agents etc. In 2012, Unilever became the world’s largest consumer product company according to revenue. Currently, this company owns more than 400 brands. Some of its iconic brands are Luz, Rin, Knorr, Lipton etc. These 400 brands contributed more than 50 billion Euros to its turnover. There are thirteen other brands in the Unilever stable that contribute more than one billion Euros. The Company sells and markets its products in 190 countries and the company business is divided into four main categories- Foods, Refreshment, Home Care, and Personal Care. Unilever was founded in 1930 after the merger of a Dutch company, Margerine Unie and the British soap maker, Lever Brothers. It being an iconic company, Unilever had to struggle a lot while coping with marketing, distribution and human resources disruptions brought by digital technologies. 

P1: Project Aims and Objectives 

This project aims to bring in focus the main challenges faced by Unilever while adopting digital technologies in managing its core business areas. The main aims and objectives of this paper are:

1. Understanding the core business model of Unilever globally

2. Understanding the transition of Unilever from a pure brick and mortar company to an organization adept in digital practices.

3. Benefits of digital best practices in the Unilever eco-system.

4. A rough understanding of the organizational structure of Unilever. 

P2: Project Management Plan

Unilever is present in 190 countries around the world. Most of the bigger economies like United States, European Union and Brazil are headed by a CEO. The smaller markets are clubbed together and they form a collective market like West Asia and Eastern Europe. These markets are headed by expatriate senior marketing professionals. 

Globally, Unilever is run by a Global Executive Council which is headed by the Global CEO. He is assisted by the Chief Marketing Officer, and the four category heads. 

While the consumer product industry is growing at a rate of 8 %, Unilever is growing at sub-optimal levels. Another cause for concern is the growing costs in running the company. Over the years, some inefficiencies had crept up in the business leading to erosion of profit margins. While average profit margin of the industry stood at 5%, Unilever’s figures stood at 4.5% in 2017. 

To address the twin issues of decelerating profits and increasing cost pressures, it was suggested that Unilever adopt certain digital initiatives like implementing ERP and marketing its products via digital platforms. 

World over, enterprise resource systems have proven to be a game changer and have helped companies prune costs. Resources can be planned by keeping a sharp eye on their demand and availability and this monitoring can be done by managers who run individual departments. Thus, ERP is a democratic activity too. 

To roll out these digital initiatives, a project team was set up that comprised members from various functions like sales, marketing, production, finance, human resources and logistics. 

Every professional organization plans it projects according to a set of criteria. For every project, there is a team which is headed by a Project Head. In the case of Unilever, the Project Head was reporting to the global ceo of the Company. 

One distinguishing feature of every project-based activity is that it has a timeline. Every project must be executed by a certain timeline. The second important feature of a project based activity is that it must be managed within certain budgetary and resource constraints. Lastly, any sound project management plan is also aware of its dependencies. This means that the project team must know about all the limiting and enabling factors. Some of these factors may be in-house while the others are extraneous in nature. 

For its digital initiatives, Unilever broke its umbrella activity into several parts, each of which was assigned a team. Every sub project was given a budget and was supposed to be finished by a certain timeline. Periodically, the digital project was evaluated in terms of its progress, objectives, and challenges. Based on this feedback, the Company used to tweak its plan and sub-plans without changing the project deadline, resources and budgets. 

For the success of any project, it is essential that the team be composed of employees from different departments. Thus, in the case of Unilever, the project management team comprised members from the IT, Marketing, Production, Sales, Finance and Administration teams. 

In the case of Unilever, the project plan looked like this:

Week 1Notes
Building Team Consultation with the Top Management of Unilever
Assigning Resources to TeamAfter consultation with CEO/ CFO
Assigning Roles to team membersHR/Functional Heads Intervention
Developing Data Collection ResourcesIT/ Marketing/ Logistics Heads Intervention
First Round of Team Interaction 
Week 2Notes
Sales Figures inputsConsultation with Sales Head of Unilever
Understanding Market ChallengesMarket visits and historical data
IT constraints Tech team involvement
Developing NetworksIT/ Marketing/ Logistics Heads Intervention
Training of IT  modules HR/ IT Heads involvement
Week 3Notes
Administration of Qualitative ResearchConsultation with MarketingSales Head of Unilever
Week 4Notes
Administration of Quantitative ResearchConsultation with Marketing/Sales Head of Unilever
Week 5/6Notes
Collation of Results/Product Roll OutFeedback and Control after consultation with CEO/Functional Heads/ Category Heads

In the project plan shown above, one can see the various tasks, sub-tasks, timelines, and the schedules. 

Many other organizations do not go into such micro details while planning a project. Project scheduling breaks the project into several measurable parts. 

P3: Gantt Chart

A Gantt chart basically is a pictorial depiction of a project schedule. It can be made into a word document but most organizations like Unilever want their communication to be simple and easy to understand (van der Bosche, 2007) 

Designed by Henry Gantt, an American mechanical engineer, his chart is used to scientifically study the various stages of any project. 

In a Gantt chart, tasks are arranged in rows. Dates are placed along the top in increments of days, weeks and months. The expected time of each task is represented in the form of a bar. The left extremity of this bar represents the starting of the task, while its conclusion is located on the right side. Some tasks can overlap each other while others may cross one another. 

To track the progress of a task, each bar is shaded with a specific colour. The shaded area represents the time taken to complete a certain part of the task. 

The Gantt chart in the case of Unilever is represented below:

Task Week 1Week 2Week 3Week 4Week 5Week 6
Creation of Team for Digital Project





Training of Team in digital concepts





Collection of Sales Data





Collection of Production Data





Collection of Marketing Communication data points





Making Digital Footprints live





Feedback and Control 





The Unilever Gantt chart was shared with the CEO of the parent company, all the category heads, functional heads and all the participants. The dashboard was live which means that all the information seen was live and not deferred. 

P4: Qualitative and Quantitative methodology

4.1 Qualitative Research Methodology

The Digital Project team used quantitative and qualitative research methodology to ascertain responses of a cross section of the Unilever employees on the question of digital adoption. 

The aim of a qualitative researcher is to understand the psychology behind the decisions taken by a subject or subjects in a given context. Qualitative methods are used to ascertain the ‘why’ and ‘how’ of a particular decision. These results are later quantified using quantitative methods. Many statisticians believe that qualitative research can produce explanations of the particular cases studied. 

Unilever being a highly research driven organizations used the following approaches in its qualitative research program:

  1. Ethnography – This approach understands the background of the individual. A given subject may or may not take a decision depending upon his ethnicity, background, previous experiences etc.
  2. Narrative- In this approach, different answers from different subjects are woven together to form a narrative to explain a given situation. 
  3. Phenomenological – In this approach, researchers draw upon their conclusions by examining the various perspectives of the subjects. This kind of research uses a lot of interviews. Generally, in each group there are 5 to 25 respondents belonging to different backgrounds, age, occupation, gender etc.
  4. Grounded Theory – This method actually observes how respondents use a particular tool. Based on these observations, researchers base their conclusions on actual occurrences or events. The sample sizes in the grounded theory approach are larger. Typically, each such group is made of 25 and more people. 
  5. Case Study- This is one of the most popular methods of qualitative research. Pioneered by the Harvard Business School, the case study method is often used by Unilever to understand events, processes and organizations. 

In a case study method, a particular business situation is examined from several perspectives and appropriate conclusions are taken. There is no right conclusion from a particular business problem. Unilever managers use this method frequently to understand business problems. 

Unilever identified the following target groups for piloting its digital strategy:

  • 50 % Male Respondents
  • 50% Female Respondents
  • 18-35 years (40%)
  • 36-45 years (55%)
  • 46 years plus (5%)

The sample group for this survey was heavily skewed towards the European and North American market as these geographies were more conducive to digital adoption. 

Some of the subjective questions asked were:

  • Should Unilever adopt digital technology for the company’s future?
  • What are the problems likely to arise because of such adoption?
  • Which set of customers are likely to order products through online channels?
  • Which categories of products are likely to be bought by potential customers and why? 
  • How can the company benefit from the adoption of the digital model?
  • What percentage of your household grocery are you likely to order via online channels?
  • Would mobile based channels work more than the rest and how can you justify your answer?

There were 70 questions that were asked by the surveyors using all the above methods of qualitative research. 

4.2 Quantitative Research Methodology

Unlike the previous approach, quantitative research tries to establish numerical relationships among the various sets of data. While the qualitative data forms the bedrock of all data, numerical data forms the bridges between the various elements of the data infrastructure. 

Quantitative research uses statistical methods, mathematics and advanced computational techniques to derive meaningful information (Quinton,2013). Researchers use this technique to segment their markets, assess the usage of their products or services and to do forecasting. Quantitative methods use the following methods for analysis:

  1. Generation of models, hypotheses and theories
  2. Development of tools and instruments for analysis
  3. Experimental control and manipulation of variables
  4. Collection of data generated by experiments
  5. Modelling and analysis of data

The Digital Project Team deployed its quantitative research methodology in the following way. 

  • First, the team identified a set of respondents from different age groups.
  • Respondents were administered questions which had multiple choice answers. 

The idea behind these questions was to get objective answers from the respondents (Topalian, 2003). Queries were framed tightly so that there was no scope for guesses or giving evasive replies. Some of these questions were:

  1. Have you ever worked in a digital environment in your career?
  2. How many hours per week do you spend on internet?
  3. Which equipment do you use while accessing the internet:
  • Mobile Phone
  • Laptop
  • Desktop
  1. How much money do you spend per month on your internet usage?
  2. How many times have you ordered grocery through the internet?
  3. Which product categories are most suitable for online ordering:
  • Grocery
  • Food
  • Refreshments
  • Footwear
  • Books
  • Electronics

P5: Analyzing the Data Collected 

After analyzing the data collected by various methods, the following things were understood by the Unilever researchers and managers.

It would take more than 10 years for the Company to catch up with its contemporaries after digital adoption. While Unilever was focused on growth in the early 2000s, its competitors were investing on technology and developing new digital platforms. It does not mean that the Company never realized the importance of the new-age technology. What stopped its progress was the resistance of its older employees who feared their jobs would be in risk. The second area of opposition came from the Company distributors and the retailers who were unwilling to share costs of the digital training programs (Thorpe,2007). 

Some of the participants in the project team felt that the organization was not geared toward implementing the new technology. There were not just culture issues involved but also the angle of learnabilty. Many senior employees thought it was humiliating for them to be taught by their younger colleagues. 

An important conclusion that emerged was that the company was not ready to put additional infrastructure in place for the roll out of the digital initiative. For example, Unilever had to invest in the frozen foods infrastructure in Europe but there were not much funds. 

The researchers also concluded that it would be worthwhile to roll out the digital initiative in only a few countries than go the whole mile and implement it in all of Europe and North America. To make this point more clear, it was realized that Poland and a few Central European countries were not doing very well in terms of business. While average growth rate of the European business of the Company was 14 percent, these countries were clocking just 7.5 %. As such, it made no business sense to invest in modern digital technologies in Poland, Slovenia, Serbia, Czech Republic and Greece. 

From a target audience perspective, the research results suggested that women buyers were less likely to use online channels to order their products. Surprisingly, the same customers were ready and even using the internet to order fashion products like eyeliners, mascara, nail polish etc. This meant that women customers did not associate Unilever with online shopping. To them, this Company remained a brick and mortar company. 

Another significant outcome of the research was confusion on the final benefits of digitization of the Company’s processes. The top management of Unilever was unable to foment a consensus on the ultimate benefit of this revolutionary process. Most of the participants looked at digitization from their individual compartments. The Production department thought that this process did not add value to their function while the Sales function considered the digital initiative as a sales enhancement tool. It was felt by them that through the deployment of this new initiative, sales would grow exponentially. Similarly, the Marketing employees thought that digital communications would not add significant value to the overall communication efforts of the Company.  The top management of Unilever also did not have clarity about the role that digital processes would play in the middle to long term (Rust, 2004). 

Lastly, the biggest challenge came from bandwidth issues in some countries. While the United States, Canada, Germany, Britain and France have excellent internet connectivity, the rest of its European and American markets do not have the same advantage. It was realized that it would take more than 5 years for these countries to catch up with their counterparts. This disadvantage also showed up in the quality of manpower also. 

To conclude, there were several challenges before Unilever before it could implement its own digital roadmap. Most of these challenges were related to infrastructure, business and attitudinal issues. Many marketing experts have pointed out that while business and infrastructural issues can be sorted out, it is the attitudinal problems that need to be sorted out. 

P6: Recommendations 

After analyzing the qualitative and quantitative results, the following recommendations were made to the top management of the firm by the Project Head (Royle, 2014).

  1. There should be a continuous and year-long marketing campaign by Unilever about it being a new age company. One of the data points thrown up by surveys was that the average customer of Unilever’s products like Rin, Dove etc thought the Company was not present in the digital space. On asking an open question, most of the respondents thought that the Company’s competitors were more aggressive on social media and other digital platforms.
  2. The second recommendation and closely related to the first one was to identify the top 3 products that could use digital marketing in the next 5 years. It was nobody’s case that all the members of the Company should be pushed for digital marketing. 

As a first step, these brands were encouraged to start their digital profiles and grow their audience organically (Ryals, 2001). 

  1. Training the relevant company personnel- One of the recommendations was about training the relevant managers and other employees about digital adoption. Since Unilever is present in more than 190 countries and enjoys a leadership position, it was felt that regular and continuous training in emerging digital technologies was the need of the hour to sustain global leadership. In this regard, the following topics were identified for digital training:
  • Technical Skills like PHP, Java, Ruby on Rails etc- meant for employees in IT 
  • Application and Development- meant for employees in marketing and IT
  • Application of Digital Technologies in HR, Marketing, Sales and Finance departments. It was also recommended that case studies from other organizations be also taught to the relevant employees (Chi, 2011). 
  • Since digital technologies help in process and business efficiency, it was also recommended that all the departmental heads be trained in the relevant discipline. 
  • Another area for training and development was the Human Resource Development function. Many interviews happen face to face and are expensive in nature. Potential employees have to be called at company expense and cumulatively, all this results in a heavy outflow of funds. To avoid this cost overrun, consultants advised the Company to use virtual interviewing tools like Skype and Viber. 
  • Since there was no convergence among the top leaders of the Company regarding the benefits arising from this digital initiative, it was recommended that the CEO and the other functional heads take an active interest in the digital rollout. Unless, the top leadership of the Company saw value in the digital initiative, such a venture was bound to be unsuccessful. Many business leaders have a deep rooted commitment to the new age technologies like social media outreach, digital marketing communications, and improvement of business processes through ERP etc. 
  • Another important recommendation to the top management was regarding the trade partners of the Company. Unilever conducts its business with the help of its vast network of warehouse owners, distributors, and retailers. If the Company wants to implement a robust ERP programme and use its digital capabilities for consumer outreach, then it is important for the trade to come on board. For this to happen, it is important that the top leadership of the Company to reach out its trade partners. 
  • Lastly, the Company needs to have a deep pool of talent well-versed with the intricacies of digital marketing and ERP processes. This manpower must be empowered to take the appropriate decisions and should not limit itself to taking tactical actions. Members of this team must be trained in strategic  actions. 

P6: Reflections

Marketing and other business challenges must be anticipated and should not be reacted upon. In the case of Unilever, these digital led changes were thrust upon the Company (Aladwani, 2001). Despite Unilever being a global organization, there were little or no capabilities within to meet this new challenge. Even externally, the customers felt that Unilever was not doing enough for its digital transformation. An important thing to be noted is that the Company was able to understand the market pulse with the help of its Quantitative and Qualitative research tools. Unilever is known globally for its market research and this capability finally helped the organization to chart its future course. In the contemporary world, digital skills provide the cutting edge to all kinds of organizations, whether big or small. Not only these skills help companies run their operations more efficiently, they also complement their own traditional marketing efforts. After the successful implementation of ERP and other digital processes, Unilever posted a healthy growth rate of 10% globally. Its margins went up by 10 % and all this was possible thanks to the digital initiatives. From a customer’s perspective, these new initiatives helped the Company to position itself as a modern organization. This has many positive spin-offs as well. New positioning of Unilever helps the organization to draw savvier employees to its ranks thus making the Company smarter and in tune with the times. Not surprisingly, all this also makes Unilever as a great place to work at. Most importantly, the Company also becomes a place where employees learn, grow and develop as successful managers and leaders. This is how Unilever coped with its digital challenges (Haniffa, 2007). 

References:

Aladwani, A. (2001). Change management strategies for successful ERP implementation. Business Process Management Journal. 7 (3), 266-275.

Chi, HH. (2011). Interactive Digital Advertising vs. Virtual Brand Community. Journal of Interactive Advertising. 12 (1), 44-61.

Haniffa, R. (2007). Exploring the Ethical Identity of Islamic Banks via Communication in Annual Reports. Exploring the Ethical Identity of Islamic Banks via Communication in Annual Reports. 76 (1), 97-116.

Royle, J. (2014). The digital marketing skills gap: Developing a Digital Marketer Model for the communication industries. International Journal of Information Management. 34 (2), 65-73.

Ryals, L. (2001). Cross-functional issues in the implementation of relationship marketing through customer relationship management. European Management Journal. 19 (5), 534-542.

Rust, R. (2004). Return on Marketing: Using Customer Equity to Focus Marketing Strategy. Journal of Marketing. 68 (1), 109-127.

Thorpe, E. (2007). In pursuit of the “ideal approach” to successful marketing strategy implementation. European Journal of Marketing. 41 (5), 659-677.

Topalian, A. (2003). Experienced reality: The development of corporate identity in the digital era. European Journal of Management. 37 (7), 1119-1132.

Quinton, S. (2013). The community brand paradigm: A response to brand management’s dilemma in the digital era Sarah Quinton Pages 912-932 | Published online: 08 Nov 2012 Download citation https://doi.org/10.1080/026725. Journal of Marketing Management. 29 (7), 912-932.

van den Bosche, A. (2007). The impact of organisational characteristics on corporate visual identity. European Journal of Marketing. 40 (7), 870-885.

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Business Communication Assignment Help by AssignmentHero

Business Communication

Topic:

Many organizations are relying on their employees to work in teams to find solutions to productivity, innovation and customer service problems.

  1. Define team cohesiveness
  2. Explain the key elements of achieving high team cohesiveness.

Contents

Introduction 1

What is team cohesiveness 1

Team Cohesiveness 2

Key elements of achieving high team cohesiveness 2

How would you accomplish team attachment? 3

1. Move: Create a typical vision, and look after it 3

2. Gathering similitude and determination 4

3. Energize criticism, and ensure everybody’s assessment checks 4

4. Energize individual associations 5

5. Compromise 5

References 5

Introduction

Business communication is essential for accomplishment in all business. Achievement in this setting implies, having the capacity to achieve a specific assignment or to accomplish a particular target. Great business interchanges seeing someone either with kindred staffs or clients is required keeping in mind the end goal to thrive. Business achievement can be estimated as far as the practicability of business connections which is specifically relative to the nature of correspondence.

What is team cohesiveness

“One group, one dream”. Union is when assemble individuals meet up as a unit, working towards a shared objective. At the point when a group is strong, individuals feel that they are a piece of a particular substance, as opposed to a cluster of people working independently in a mutual office space.

A strong domain cultivates trust and regard and empowers positive connections. By concentrating on making a decent powerful in the workplace, your group will probably deliver higher and better outcomes in collective undertakings. This can make it less demanding to convey applicable input, and to create energy towards organization objectives.

A few examinations bolster the view that firm gatherings outflank non-strong ones. Such examinations think about durable gatherings to score higher in conduct and effectiveness measurements, and strengthen the estimation of group union.

Team Cohesiveness

Groups contrast in understanding to their structure, the setting of their activity, and their condition in the associations. Groups can likewise vary by the distinction of the profitability delivered by the group, the kind and event of its exercises, and cohesiveness of the group. For the most part, a gathering is named to be in a state of union when its individuals possess joins interfacing them to each other and the gathering on the loose. Firm gatherings are exceptionally effective regarding execution and gathering life span.

Boyle affirms that the connections that interface individuals from a gathering to each other and their whole gathering are not accepted to develop precipitously. The wonder of gathering cohesiveness has been portrayed by social researchers in various courses throughout the years. Some social researchers recommended that cohesiveness inside gathering individuals develops from an escalated feeling of having a place, collaboration and association by means of division of work, and relational and amass level fascination, regardless of whether through the closeness of gathering individuals or deterrents to assemble section or some different methodology.

As per Schermerhorn, the connection between group union and group execution can be improved with inspirations positive gathering based rewards or negative things lost after leaving the gathering. For example, an organization or supervisor can structure a segment of the material or non-material prizes towards the advancement of collaboration or gathering introduction. Gathering attachment has been related with an assortment of positive and negative results. For examples, individuals from firm groups have a tendency to speak with each other in a more positive way rather than non-durable groups. Thus, individuals from durable groups normally report higher degrees of fulfillment and lower degrees of nervousness and rigidity rather than individuals from non-strong groups. What’s more, group attachment has been related with upgraded assemble execution, especially when the individuals from a group are devoted to the errands of the gathering.

Key elements of achieving high team cohesiveness

The initial couple of long periods of business are urgent to the achievement of your organization. For an effective business usually a period while spearheading representatives are ravenous and centered around a shared objective. Amid this stage, spirits are by and large high and individuals are roused.

As your organization develops, it is critical to keep up this level of vitality into what’s to come. Group attachment is basic for proceeded with organization development. Regardless of whether your organization doesn’t urge your representatives to cooperate in groups or connect with different groups every day, having great union in an organization can bring about a more joyful and more gainful condition, which likewise implies that you’ll hold your workers for more.

How would you accomplish team attachment?

Anyway, how would you make your group as firm as could be expected under the circumstances? There are two or three methods that you can actualize, for example, group building activities and attempting to advance work environment solidarity. While applying these methods, you ought to dependably intend to manufacture trust as the principle and most imperative esteem. At the point when representatives trust each other, they will probably converse with each other, and can shape significant associations and connections that could profit your organization. Also, they are more ready to share encounters and thoughts that will build effectiveness inside an organization.

1. Move: Create a typical vision, and look after it

Motivation can be hard to get a hold of. Yet, organizations need to drive development and worker commitment. It’s vital that all colleagues comprehend an organization’s target, and are persuaded to consistently work towards accomplishing it. It’s one thing to make a moving organization objective; it’s another to constantly drive towards it.

Before spreading out another assignment or venture, assess the targets you’re planning to accomplish and move them back to the organization’s center objectives.

Once you’ve opened up interchanges channels to discuss these objectives with your group, keep on investing in correspondences and exhibit how these objectives identify with the function you are doing. Discuss your optimal position in the market, center around your customer’s definitive objectives, and convey compelling business systems. What ought to be organized? How are distinctive parts adding to these needs?

Locate the master plan. Discover a reason, a mission. At that point, ensure everybody in the organization is continually returning to it. In the event that they are not, remind them to. You comprehend what is best for your organization, yet in the event that your kin don’t, at that point it’s just for nothing; you won’t accomplish anything. So constantly put time in conveying the qualities and culture of the organization. As a pioneer, such correspondences are basic for bunch attachment and achievement.

Authority doesn’t just originate from the best, yet in addition the base and center. Continuously endeavor to perceive and remunerate group accomplishment, and make honest to goodness associations with representatives. Be a positive case and urge everybody to work towards a typical target.

2. Gathering similitude and determination

It’s vital that your group can identify with each other. By obviously imparting your organization’s qualities, you will probably draw in workers that offer an indistinguishable goal from your organization. Consider the sort of unique that you are endeavoring to create for your group. Having people that can discover shared belief implies that your group will immediately reinforce their connections in the working environment.

It’s vital to consider a man’s abilities and past experience – however it is similarly critical to think about their identity. For instance, if you somehow managed to acquaint another person with your current group, how might the new hopeful fit in? Clearly, to accomplish group union, the individuals from each group must get along. What’s more, if specialists are set with people that are totally unique in relation to each other, they are more averse to get along, which could bring about a resistance and regard.

Take as much time as is needed while enlisting another part. It’s alright to be exacting. Deliberately consider whether the new hopeful has what it takes and mentality to drive towards organization objectives. Being particular can likewise influence your group to feel esteemed and acknowledged; they may even feel like they have a place with a profoundly successful, first class group.

3. Energize criticism, and ensure everybody’s assessment checks

Individuals get a kick out of the chance to feel like they are being heard. So ensure that there are open doors for criticism. Give your workers a space and time to express helpful recommendations or data. It will help influence your workforce to feel esteemed and will likewise give an understanding into what is working and what may should be moved forward.

The more your organization develops, the simple it is to end up removed from your staff. Make open doors for input and keep everybody on top of it, including directors, who are in charge of the group on an everyday premise.

A decent method to get input is by means of an online mysterious review. Workers can be straightforward without agonizing over what their bosses will think. This can give you genuine and profitable data.

4. Energize individual associations

Expanding correspondence between groups will likewise enhance group attachment. To accomplish this, enable your group to connect outside of the workplace, in a more casual condition, so they can become more acquainted with each different as a man, instead of just as a collaborator. Once your group cooperates with individuals in a social domain, they will probably confide in each other and feel a closer association with the organization, driving them to center around enhancing shared objectives.

Group building practices outside the workplace are an extraordinary method to help individual associations. These could be short outings, birthday festivities, outside exercises, sport exercises or occasion parties.

Keeping up open and simple directs of correspondence in the workplace is additionally an unquestionable requirement. Supervisors ought to empower group cooperation consistently, and it could be as simple as setting up an email aggregate keeping in mind the end goal to incorporate everybody and send messages speedier.

5. Compromise

At long last, always remember about compromise. Regardless of how very much arranged the group is, there will dependably be a distinction of sentiments which will make struggle. And keeping in mind that that is superbly typical, you should be set up to advance in to manage the circumstance, aid compromise and give a solid arrangement. The sooner you mediate, the sooner the contention will be settled and the better the increases to group attachment and profitability.

References

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2008, Consumer price index Australia: June quarter 2008, Canberra, viewed 10 June 2012, < http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/[email protected]/mf/6401.0>

Banerjee, A 2007, ‘Fixed mobile substitution and lessons for food pricing’, paper presented to the ACCC 2007 Regulatory Conference, Queensland, 26 to 27 July.

Bowden FJ & Fairley, CK (ed.) 2006, Eating patterns in the Northern Territory: estimations of effective food use, Pearson, viewed 2 June, 2012, via EBL books.

Commonwealth of Australia 2008, Report of the ACCC inquiry into the competitiveness of retail prices for standard groceries, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Canberra.

Douglas J 2006, ‘Food Insecurity in Northern Adelaide’, SACOSS News, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 15-30.

Frith J 1998, From the rich man’s table, political cartoon by John Frith, Old Parliament House, Canberra, viewed 11 May 2012, <http://www.oph.gov.au/frith/theherald-01.html>.

Innes-Hughes, C, Hardy, LL, Venugopal, K, King, LA, Wolfenden, L, & Rangan, A 2011, ‘Children’s consumption of energy-dense nutrient-poor foods, fruit and vegetables: are they related? An analysis of data from a cross sectional survey’, Health promotion journal of Australia, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 210-216, viewed 12 June 2012, via PubMed.

‘Irvine J. Rudd price check: he’s powerless’. 2008, Sydney Morning Herald, 6 August, viewed 10 May 2012, <http://www.smh.com.au/>.

Kirk, J 2002, ‘Theorising food security’, PhD thesis, University of Technology.

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Recent Developments in E-Business industry and Future direction of E-Business

E-Portfolio

  1. Recent Developments in E-Business industry and Future direction of E-Business

Business Industry is dynamic and E-business is the pathway to its evolution. E-business has taken the business operation to much higher standards and made communication much easier for both seller and buyer. Various areas in the internet are developing rapidly to support the uprising E-Commerce world. Some of the recent Developments and their future direction in context of E-business are discussed below:

Personalization and Data-Driven Marketing:

The trend which is expected to pave the way of future marketing and advertisement of businesses are Data-driven marketing and personalization.  Firstly personalization is really self-explanatory as it means that the product offering of businesses are provided and produced regarded the individual needs of the consumer. The product is made on the basis of customer need in order to give more value to customer needs and fulfill customer satisfaction. Cookies are used to primarily achieve personalization (Chaffey, 2015).

On the other hand Data-Driven Marketing refers to the continuous collection of data on visitors (internet traffic) and categorizing them into various demography based group. Then the content can be presented to the target group through in very personalized way. For example a young web surfer aging 12-15 will be targeted with content that are customized to his/her age, i.e. teenagers will be getting fashionable clothing content more than those adults who will be seeing more Professional wardrobe. This is possible due to the combination of personalization and data driven marketing. It is said that in next 10 years companies that withhold data will be most successful as now Data is considered to be king in the business industry (Chaffey, 2015).

Mobile Commerce

The introduction of smartphone has opened a world of opportunities and the developers are trying their best to utilize smartphones to make people’s lives much more convenient. The business industry is also trying to cope up with the implications and opportunities the Uprising smartphone industry has to offer. Mobile internet is playing huge role in the e-commerce world. In the recent years we have seen the boom of increased use of smartphones and tablets for visiting e-commerce websites. In present mobile phones are frequently being used to place orders. No matter what kind of business, people take online order method as granted (Chaffey, 2015). People just don’t want go through the hassle of visiting a shop and choosing their products rather they want it delivered to their home. This trend of smartphones and tablets impact on E-commerce industry is expected to stay for the future. Therefore it is really important for businesses to adapt their website to add features which will support smartphones and tablets exclusively (Laudon and Traver, 2018).

Multi-Channel (Multi-platform) Approach

As the internet has been introduced to the world and interconnected the world, The economy of countries are growing which results in the rapid growth of selling online practically in Europe and all over the world. Stores traditionally sold items by putting it on the shelves of their store. But nowadays stores that are present physically and also have online (multi-channel) presence proved to be greater than purely physical store or even the purely online based stores. The online presence increases the strength and amplifies the performance of the physical store also. In the future years, no store will be functional without having an online presence of some kind. Besides Online system provides a rating system for the service of that particular business’s website. Consumers rate it and other buyers can also see the reviews and ratings and imply judgment to whether take service from this seller or someone else. So the businesses have to put a lot of effort on service to maintain customer satisfaction as well as a reputable image of business (Laudon and Traver, 2018).

References

  • Laudon, K. and Traver, C. (2018). E-commerce. Boston [etc.]: Pearson.
  • Chaffey, D. (2015). E-business & e-commerce management. Harlow, England: Pearson/Financial Times Prentice Hall.
  • Lee, I. (2017). E-business innovation and process management. Hershey, PA: CyberTech Pub.

  1. Various types of E-business infrastructure technologies, business models and payment and security systems in a corporate setting

The online based Infrastructure is the accumulation of architecture software, hardware, data and content used to provide e-business services to customers, target market as well as employees and partners also. A typical 5 layer model of e-business structure has the following components:


Figure: A five-layer model of e-business infrastructure




The e-business architecture is basically of two types and they are

  1. Two-tier: Comprising of web server and database server. It is simple in process and easier to manage as well. This structure is illustrated below:
Image result for two tier e-commerce architecture


Figure: Two tier architecture

  1. Multi-tier: For the front end has web application servers and backend consists of legacy databases. Web server is linked to middle tier layers which consist of series of application servers (Shergill, Singh and Brar, 2016). These servers perform specific tasks as well as to a backend layer of the current corporate system. Multi-layer architecture is illustrated below:
Image result for multi tier e-commerce architecture

Figure: Multi-Tier Architecture


E-commerce business models

Business model is the set of underlying plan in a business organization that designs, directs and controls its activities to result in a profit in the marketplace. It is the plan which helps organization to plan for the successful operation of business, identification of sources of revenue, Identify the customer base and gives details of financing (Shi and Murthy, 2016). E-commerce business model uses the features of internet and communication system of web to leverage its activities. The business model has 8 key elements and these are illustrated below:

  1. Value proposition: Providing the personalization/customization for the consumer at competitive pricing which attracts customer to buy from the business. This model adds value to the businesses activities.
  2. Revenue Model: This model describes how the firm will incur profits. Revenue model helps the firm to identify which revenue source to pursue and what value to offer. It also determines how to price the value and who will pay for these values (Shergill, Singh and Brar, 2016).
  3. Market Opportunity: The area of potential value where the company wishes to operate and capitalize. The profitable target market for the company is realized and determined through this model.
  4. Competitive Environment: The external dynamic system where the business operates and competes. The more the seller of a particular/similar product the more competition is prevailing there. The external environments competitiveness is influenced by numbers of competitors, competitors market share, profitability of rivals and most importantly pricing of competitors (Shi and Murthy, 2016).
  5. Competitive Advantage: The specialty a firm provides to its consumers which differentiate it from the competitors. The most competitive advantage is to follow the low cost leadership to provide the offerings at cheaper rate than the competitors.
  6. Market Strategy: The outstanding planning a firm uses to introduce its offerings and make people consciously aware about the product/service. Firms promote products to attract the target market and aware them about their product.
  7. Organizational Development: It is the systematic and planned approach to improve the organizations effectiveness. It helps the organization to align people with process according to organizational strategy (Shergill, Singh and Brar, 2016).
  8. Management team:  The managerial personnel who are behind the maintenance of the overall operations of business. They maintain the resources of the firm and oversees the business operations so that maximum output can be reached. Strong management team is considered an asset because it makes the business model work and the outside investors are attracted by them to invest in the firm (Shi and Murthy, 2016).

Payment and security system in corporate setting

The E-commerce industry buys and sells products on the basis of online transactions, so there must be payment system to support these online transactions (Shi and Murthy, 2016). The payment and security system that we currently see for the e-commerce are illustrated below:

Payment through Debit/Credit cards: Most of the developed countries support credit/debit card transactions. Money is transferred from consumer’s card issuing bank to clearing house than it gets stored into merchants bank account.

Online Stored value systems: The most dominating example is PayPal system of online purchase and transactions. It is based on the value stored in bank of consumer, credit card account etc. Some other alternative systems to this are, Amazon pay, MasterCard’s MasterPass, WUPay, Stripe etc.

Mobile payment systems: Using the mobile to make payment. This is mostly used by the NFC feature of mobile phones. Other payment system that use mobile are basically Social/Mobile peer to peer payment system. There are some mobile apps and mobile wallets that also help to make payment through mobile system (Shi and Murthy, 2016).

Digital cash & Virtual Currency: digital cash is a currency which can be only used in the online. Bit coin is such digital cash which is based on algorithm that generates tokens which are useable in real world also. Virtual currency are inbuilt currency of any app or system which can only be used within that system. For example Facebook credits, dollars in second life. These are basically used to purchase online goods (Shergill, Singh and Brar, 2016).

References

  • Shergill, S., Singh, J. and Brar, N. (2016). Portfolio Management. Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.
  • Shi, N. and Murthy, V. (2016). Architectural issues of web-enabled electronic business. Hershey, Pa: IGP.
  • The standard for portfolio management. (2017). Newtown Square, Pa: Project Management Institute.
  1. Impact of E-business strategies on organizational process and outcomes

Business operates its activities in the dynamic environment. If the business operations are not executed strategically then the business will surely fail in the process to generate profit. That is where business strategy comes into play.

Business strategy is stated as organizations high-level plan for reaching business goals. These strategies succeed when they take the business towards growth and competitive position and renders strong financial performance. Five generic business strategies that affect the business process and outcomes are:

Product/Service differentiation: The process by which a firm distinguishes its offering or products or services from other competitors to make it more attractive to the target audience. This makes the firms product differentiate from competitors products and attract sellers creating a unique value addition (Huang, Wang and Day, 2018).
This affects business process by creating unique products targeted toward their consumers.
The outcome of following this strategy results in gaining more loyal customers and creating a unique brand image in the market with a unique style that adds value to the customer base (European marketing data and statistics, 2016).

Cost competition: Cost competition is stated as the setting of price of a product depending on what the rival competition are charging for the same service/Product. The cost competition strategy is used more often by firms to sell similar products because services vary from firm to firm whilst the characteristics/Specifications/attributes of product remain somewhat similar.
This strategy influences the business process by allowing it to offer products in a competitive pricing which creates the outcome, loyal customers of other firms overlook their decision and in the end convert to this firm’s loyal customer (Huang, Wang and Day, 2018).

Scope: The domain of business, Scope, It is the part of business landscape under which the business operates its activities. It is the possible area under which the business can continue its operations.
By following this strategy the business process can be specifically tailored to operate within its scope.
Utilizing this strategy results outcome in maximum output in the given scope of business.

Focus/Market Niche: It is the subset of market upon which a particular product is focused. This is called niche market. These products are targeted toward a special focused audience. Market niche is defined as the features of product that are aimed at satisfying specific needs of the market. Production quality, Demographics and price range helps to determine the niche markets which is the small market segment (Huang, Wang and Day, 2018). The niche market allows the business process to create unique products designed for specific segment of market. The outcome is the Small but really profitable loyal consumer base (European marketing data and statistics, 2016).

Customer Intimacy: The marketing strategy which is used by business to get closer to their clients. The customer intimacy benefits business to improve problem solving capabilities of the business and greater adaptation to customer needs. The more the customer is inclined toward the business the more effort business gives to satisfy the customer needs (European marketing data and statistics, 2016). Firms closer with their consumers try to provide customers with quality products and tries to improve their offerings for value addition. This also results in greater customer loyalty and increases customer satisfaction as well. Customer intimacy helps the business processes to be highly tailored on the basis of customer feedback and this results in quantity increase of loyal customer (Huang, Wang and Day, 2018).

References

  • European marketing data and statistics. (2016). London: Euromonitor International.
  • Huang, W., Wang, Y. and Day, J. (2018). Global Mobile Commerce. IGI Global.
  • International marketing data and statistics 2016. (2015). London: Euromonitor International Ltd.

  1. Demonstration of the Technical research skills to assess existing and emerging e-business technologies to transform organizations for competitive advantage

Internet has dramatically lowered the entry barriers for new firms that want to join the market. Companies can now easily enter into the e-commerce because they do not require large sales force and capital investments like the Offline companies in the market. As the number people that have access to internet is increasing, more people can converge themselves into the market of e-commerce business (Wibbeke and McArthur, 2016). The internet alters the basis of competition by changing the product cost structure of the businesses. It makes price comparison for the consumer much easier.

Strategies for competitive advantage in E-business

Existing FirmsNiche Products or Innovation
Differentiation
Expansion into retailed product line
Customer centered strategy
Cost Leadership

smart pricing and Price lining



Value Added services and products

Brand appeal based on beliefs and experiences Promotion strategy



Revenue sharing marketing
Clicks and Mortar strategy
Strategic alliances
Threat of substitutesProduct Differentiation
Niche products or Innovation
Customer Centered strategy
Price discrimination
Cost leadership

Value added products and services

Click and mortar strategy
Bargaining power of Buyers
Value added products and servicesRevenue sharing marketingOutsourcing or strategic alliance
Bargaining power of suppliers
Value added products and servicesCustomer Centered strategy
Brand appeal based on beliefs and experiences
Outsourcing or strategic alliance

The technical skills that mostly contribute to converge the current technology to create competitive advantage in e-business are illustrated below.

E-business Integration with business processes: business processes contribute to business efficiency and so it is a major source for competitive advantage. Currently the business process are getting standardized and integrated in the e-business operations. E-business investments have strategic effects when taken initiative for innovating business processes (Wibbeke and McArthur, 2016).

Organizational Agility: The businesses external environment is really dynamic and ever changing. E-businesses allow development support to be agile in adapting to this ever changing business environment. This also includes responsiveness and flexibility of the organization. This helps the organization as in the competitive market they need to quickly respond to the variable customer needs. E-business also facilitates significant organization structure and removes the clutter of traditional hierarchy. For this reason e-businesses are really flexible and can change their leadership style from coercive to consultative or collaborative. This results in dynamic team orientations which bring out the maximum output at any situation (Wibbeke and McArthur, 2016). These differences act a source of distinctiveness among organizations in the competitive market and gives the firm a competitive edge over other firms (Belloc, 2017).

Management Commitment and support: Commitment of management has the potential to create difference between successful and unsuccessful e-business investments. Managers with positive orientations toward e-business can positively affect their commitment to strategic technology implementation and help them to effectively deploy available resource to exert maximum output.

Interaction between IT professionals and e-business application users: Feedback works just like benchmarking. It helps the firm know if it is performing on par with the industry average or not. But e-businesses don’t have such standard to compare performance. So the organizational performance of e-businesses are increased by the variety of interaction between IT professionals and end-users. Cooperative interaction can inherent the source of innovation and vitally help to develop supporting e-business solutions (Belloc, 2017). So it is considered as a key factor of success in e-business investment. This constitutes opportunity for asymmetric distinctiveness among competitive organization in the same market and thus competitive advantage becomes possible for the firm (Belloc, 2017).

References

  • Wibbeke, E. and McArthur, S. (2016). Global business leadership.
  • Belloc, H. (2017). On. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press.
  • Habryn, F. (2017). Customer intimacy analytics. Karlsruhe: KIT Scientific Publ.

  1. Developing the Ability to work independently and contribution as a member of team employing appropriate interpersonal, profession and technical communication skills

There are various organizational structure and the most evident and traditional structures are diminishing day by day. The organization have become more flat rather than traditional styled and rigid in structure. The organizations are more flexible and employees have to look over a variety of operations (Swann, 2018).

The most accepted feature in the current organization is the team culture. People form work groups that work together as an entity to accomplish business goals. Besides these an individual also has to prove himself. One will not always work in a team rather he has to perform as a lone wolf sometimes. In a recent research it was found that on a scale of 1 to 5, managers judge the importance of having good interpersonal skills around 4.37 which is just below the ability to work in teams which is scored around 4.49 (International marketing data and statistics 2016, 2015). Although technology has evolved so much but there is necessity of verbal and diplomatic skills to effectively communicate with employers and coworkers (Swann, 2018). So there are some necessary skills that are needed to develop the ability to work independently as well as make contribution as a member of team. These skills can be categorized as:

  1. Interpersonal Skills: The set of skills (mostly that stay under the skin) implemented by a person to communicate and interact with others. In case of business the term is used to state the ability of an employee to get along with others while accomplishing the business goal. E-businesses have much more online interactions but still there is necessity of verbal and diplomatic skills to effectively communicate with employers and coworkers. Employees that inherent good interpersonal skills are more productive than those who do not have good interpersonal skills (Swann, 2018). This is because People with good interpersonal skills have positive attitude to look for problem’s solution.

  2. Professional Skills: If one wants to be successful than in any field one has to be professional (Sénac, Ott and Seneviratne, 2016). Professionalism is essential in the business world and much more in the e-business world. Being professional requires more than having specialized knowledge or good dressing sense. There are much more attributes such as:

    1) Maintaining time properly and arriving on time to meetings and actively participating in it.
    2) Fully engaging thyself in project planning and problem solving activities.
    3) Keeping updated knowledge and technical skills.
    4) Showing reliability and providing high quality work consistently.
    5) Showing respect to commitments and taking responsibility and being accountable for own work and actions.

  3. Technical Communication skills: The general communication is the exchange of particular meaning and understanding it. But technical communication skills consist of 4 parts and these 4 parts are listening, speaking, writing, and reading. Technical communication is the means by which we can convey our factual information and communicate about technical or specialized objectives like computer software or environmental regulations. In the e-business the technology helps to perform technical communication among the employees and consumers. It is usually regarding products and services (Sénac, Ott and Seneviratne, 2016). Technical communication is done by using technology such as web pages, social media sites or message services. It is important to create drafts before technical communication because it is hard to revert because of the e-business system (Swann, 2018). These technical communication messages contain instruction about how to do something regardless of the fact how technical the actual task is. Technical communication helps to make information more accessible and useable by those who need it. By doing this they excel and accomplish the goals of the organization employing them (Sénac, Ott and Seneviratne, 2016).

References

  • Swann, A. (2018). The human workplace. London: KoganPage.
  • Sénac, P., Ott, M. and Seneviratne, A. (2016). Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking, and Services. Berlin: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
  • McKibben, M. and Stafford, K. (2017). Mastering workplace skills.
  1. Legal, Ethical, Social and cultural issues that affect the use, design and implementation of e-business systems

The rules created by society members to construct balance the individual rights to self-determination against the requirements of the society are in total called the Laws. These Laws or rules are prohibition that mandate certain behavior of individuals which are drawn away from ethics. On the other hand Ethics are behaviors that are socially acceptable and perceived as neutral or positive behavior. The primary difference among ethics and laws is that laws have authority or governing body to maintain them. But in contrast ethics are based on cultural morals (Wiersema, 2016).

E-business is in its emerging state and not every country and every law has adapted to the new heights that e-commerce has set. So there are various issues such as legal issues, social issues, ethical issues and cultural issues that affect the use and design and implementation of e-business systems. In this below part we will discuss about various issues these factor bear in hampering the activity of e-business systems.

Legal and ethical Issues: Operating business in the online doesn’t mean that the firm is free from legal rules and regulations. There are some legal issues associated with e-businesses as well. Some of the problems that e-businesses have to face due to legal issues are:

  1. Incorporation problem: small businesses that are operated via only website and have no offline presence are incorporated which means they are not official legal entity to run business operations. So any activity such as selling or buying will be considered illegal and the business can’t claim right to case against fraud or corruption (Wiersema, 2016).

  2. Trademark Problem: having no trademark protection is one of the key legal issues in the market of e-businesses.  As the trademark is the company’s logo and symbol. It represents business all over the internet and web. So it must be protected but it can be easily infringed upon and can turn out to be a deadly threat to the e-business.

  3. Copyright Protection Issue: When people publish any content, to stop theft copyright is used which shows that this content belongs to a particular owner. But in e-business, publishing content for the e-commerce website having content of any other company can be a huge problem. It might even bring the end of business also.  Even if unintentionally using copyrighted content, the party owning the original content can sue the business with unintentional deeds (Wiersema, 2016).

  4. Privacy issues: In case of e-businesses privacy is one of the major issue which creates problem for both customers and business. Consumers expect business to keep their information confidential and thus they share their personal information with them. But minor mistake of the business may lead to leakage of valuable customer information. The business might not lose customer or lose loyalty of customers. But the image of the company gets degraded and sometimes the e-business might even get into serious legal problems (Salisbury, 2017).

Social and Cultural issues: E-commerce opens up a new way to communicate between buyers and seller through e-business system. This has significantly reduced the distance and made our world much smaller through effective communication through web. But there are some shortcomings of this innovative approach. This part will basically highlight on the social and cultural issues that hinder e-business processes (Wiersema, 2016).

The main issue that exists in the e-business is the trust issue. People view product and online and then order it through the online system but they cannot be reliable on the online vendors. Besides the e-business might mitigate the barriers of global communication but it is still hard to communicate effectively in the global market (Salisbury, 2017). This shortcoming restrains the e-business firm to induce new global customer to its customer base. Another problem is the complexity problem, the e-business sometimes makes the operation process tiresome and really buggy. That is why consumers deviate sometimes.

References

  • Wiersema, F. (2016). Customer intimacy. London: Profile Books.
  • Salisbury, A. (2017). Game development business and legal guide. Boston, Mass.: Premier Press.
  • Finch, B. (2016). How to write a business plan. London: Kogan Page.

References

  1. Belloc, H. (2017). On. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press.
  2. Chaffey, D. (2015). E-business & e-commerce management. Harlow, England: Pearson/Financial Times Prentice Hall.
  3. European marketing data and statistics. (2016). London: Euromonitor International.
  4. Habryn, F. (2017). Customer intimacy analytics. Karlsruhe: KIT Scientific Publ.
  5. Huang, W., Wang, Y. and Day, J. (2018). Global Mobile Commerce. IGI Global.
  6. International marketing data and statistics 2016. (2015). London: Euromonitor International Ltd.
  7. Laudon, K. and Traver, C. (2018). E-commerce. Boston [etc.]: Pearson.
  8. Lee, I. (2017). E-business innovation and process management. Hershey, PA: CyberTech Pub.
  9. Sénac, P., Ott, M. and Seneviratne, A. (2016). Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking, and Services. Berlin: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
  10. Shergill, S., Singh, J. and Brar, N. (2016). Portfolio Management. Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.
  11. Shi, N. and Murthy, V. (2016). Architectural issues of web-enabled electronic business. Hershey, Pa: IGP.
  12. Swann, A. (2018). The human workplace. London: KoganPage.
  13. The standard for portfolio management. (2017). Newtown Square, Pa: Project Management Institute.
  14. Wibbeke, E. and McArthur, S. (2016). Global business leadership.
  15. Wiersema, F. (2016). Customer intimacy. London: Profile Books.
  16. Finch, B. (2016). How to write a business plan. London: Kogan Page.
  17. McKibben, M. and Stafford, K. (2017). Mastering workplace skills.
  18. Salisbury, A. (2017). Game development business and legal guide. Boston, Mass.: Premier Press.
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Sustainability Business Assignment Help

Sustainability Business

Table of Contents

Introduction 3

Task 1 3

Task 2 6

Task 3 9

Conclusion 10

References 12

Introduction

Sustainable management is the concept that shows the intersection of business and sustainability and the practice manages a firm’s impact on three bottom lines such as people, planet and profit (Babu, Arshinder and Rajendran, 2018). In the present case, it is identified that Brighton hotel has been experiencing problems in the area of resource wastage; thus considering the issue the management has looked at the concept of sustainability management. Paying attention towards this, the staff members are also directed to inform and educate customers about sustainable practices so that better environmental outcome can be obtained.

Henceforth, the discussion is being included in the sustainable policy and its importance in hotel’s better performance. Furthermore, the researcher has also stated about different strategies that can be adopted to minimize wastage of resources. Lastly, feedback has been collected from the stakeholders who have also helped in analyzing the areas of improvements. Based on the information collected, corrective measures will be taken to enhance the overall practices linked with sustainability.     

Task 1

In simpler terms sustainability policy is defined as the statement which defines the overall strategy and commitment of business towards different areas linked with sustainability. In the modern era, sustainability policy is important for business because it helps in developing a culture of accountability within the enterprise (Johnson, 2016). Furthermore, the scope of this policy is that it plays a vital role in enhancing the brand image of an organisation in the marketplace. The scope of sustainable policy is that it can help in reducing the overall cost of operations in the long-run. The Australian Government has developed a range of environmental policies which helps in minimizing the impact of business operations on the environment. In this context, Brighton hotel should implement Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act which covers assessment and approval process of national environmental and cultural concerns (Payen, Ramkissoon and Mavondo, 2018). It is legal frameworks which protect and manage nationally and internationally ecological communities and heritage places. Apart from this, the subsequent hotel can also implement other acts which focus on environmental management issues such as energy use, office waste and wastage of resources.   

Sustainability initiatives can be developed in several areas such as water, waste, transport, resource management and general sustainability. To carry out development of the sustainability policy, it is required by the brand to identify the key stakeholders which will be involved in the process. Here, stakeholders such as employees, managers, suppliers and customers will be playing critical role in the development of the entire policy.

Open channels of communication will be used to consult with the stakeholders in the process of policy development. The consultation will be carried out with the help of meetings and here, the need and benefits of the sustainability policy will be communicated to all the internal and external stakeholders (Kopnina and Blewitt, 2014). In addition to this, the views and suggestions provided by the stakeholders will be also taken into consideration while developing the sustainability policy in order to create high degree of satisfaction among all the stakeholders of the hotel. At the time of planning for sustainability policy, it is required by the selected business enterprise to provide string commitment towards the prevention and reduction of environmental impact. In addition to this, a commitment towards continuous improvement in sustainability practices and performance will be required while planning and developing sustainability policy for the Brighton hotel.

The plan and development of Brighton Hotel’s sustainability policy is mentioned below as:

Areas coveredDescription
WaterProper management is required for hygienic standards in toilet and other areas. Toilets and flush systems should be used suitably. Proper reporting of all leakages and installation of aerators is also vital.
Waste managementNatural resources can be used at the office. Reusable containers can be used while having food or beverage items (Seele, 2017). Focus should also be there on recycling plastic bottles for better environmental concerns.
TransportUse of green vehicle guide is essential. Teleconference calls can be carried out rather than travelling to long distance meetings.
General sustainabilityRecycled toilet paper should be used along with proper examination of company policies is also essential (Crutzen, Zvezdov and Schaltegger, 2017). Use of paper should be minimized to a possible extent.

According to the provided information, it is observed that resources are not optimally utilized at Brighton hotel and employees are also not concerned about the conservation of sources. While leaving the hotel, staff members do not switch off the lights and AC and alongside wastage is also observed in other resources like photocopy paper, water and toner.

Considering the problems, the Brighton hotel is recommended to generate awareness among the employees regarding sustainable practice management. There should be a proper investigation of operations in which resources are implemented. This way the hotel will be able to acquire the way resources are being utilized (Carvalho and Rabechini, 2017). Within 3-4 months, the overall impact on the environment will be reduced through adopting sustainable practices. Brighton hotel will have a budget of around 1000 Australian Dollar to implement sustainable practices in all the domains.

The scope of new sustainability policy will be to encourage all the people to develop environment standards by emphasizing on all such practices that can contribute to ecological balance. Sustainability policy will give attention on many things such as water conservation, proper use of paper bags, electricity management, optimum use of paper, recycling of plastic bottles, using only minimum sources to get the work done and reducing the impact of business operations on the environment. Further, the policy will also look at the need for training and education for the employees so that they can learn about ways to conserve the environment effectively (Baumgartner and Rauter, 2017).   

All the people out there in the top management and senior people are required to be involved in the consultation process because they will be giving consent to the implementation process. At the time of implementing any policy in Brighton hotel, it is crucial to involve all the stakeholders as they hold importance in company’s affairs.

To minimize the use of resources, the manager should focus on proper allocation so that in requisite areas resources can be implemented accordingly. There should be a proper recording of resource usage, and use of electricity should be by the needs. The focus should be laid on recycling the materials by reducing the impact on the environment (Schuler, et al. 2017). Water consumption should be according to the requirements, and automatic tap system should be established. Paper wastage should also be minimized by recycling it.

Sustainability policy of Brighton hotel will include all the above-mentioned things, and that will also aid in maximizing the balance between environmental facets. At the initial stage, legal aspects will be maintained through which policy formation process will be held. Afterwards, emphasis will be laid on areas of concern, and for that, different strategies will be formulated accordingly. Involvement of stakeholders will also be ensured so that all can present their opinion in the decision-making process. Lastly, with the help of performance indicators, the effectiveness of the plan will be measured (Sievers, 2018). The sustainability policy will made as an integral part of the hotel’s overall planning. In future, the selected organisation will ensure that all the plans and strategies developed for long term growth includes sustainability practices. The brand will also focus formulating plans which supports in protection of the environment and reducing the negative impact of all operations and activities on societies and environment. The policy of environmental sustainability can be also considered as a potential business opportunity for the hotel. The statement can be justified by the fact that such policy will support in attaining high degree of satisfaction among external and internal stakeholders. At the same time, it will motivate the stakeholders to take active participation and contribute their best towards accomplishment of goals and objectives linked with sustainability.

The sustainability policy is a business opportunity because it will allow Brighton hotel to save money and other important resources through activities such effective consumption, waste management and recycling. It will also provided Brighton hotel with competitive edge over the other hotels and businesses operating in the hospitality industry by differentiating it from the other players operating in the industry (Galea, 2017). It can be stated that the selected company will be able to reduce its cost of operations and enhance the volume of sales and profitability in the long-run. The policy will be implemented by developing a team of effective and skilled personnel’s who will be responsible for the entire process of implementation. The outcome of sustainability policy is that it will provide the hotel will an opportunity to ensure success and growth in the long-run.  

After implementing sustainable policy into practice, it is essential for the manager of Brighton hotel to compare it with the expected results. This way the importance of actual outcomes can be identified and overall resources of the hotel will be managed effectively. While implementing the policy, several performance indicators will also be defined by which value of outcomes will be ascertained respectively. The key performance indicator for economic sustainability of Brighton hotel will be profits and overall turnover of the company. In addition to this, the KPI for social sustainability will include HR practices and community development practices and KPI for environmental sustainability will include waste management techniques, water, electricity and paper consumption and emission of green house gases.  

Task 2

The Melbourne City Council has determined on sustainability practices which can aid Brighton hotel to enhance the efficiency of operations. It states that business entities should focus more on environmental activities so that it can minimize costs of operations, can amend the value of productivity and can encourage business reputation (Schaltegger and Hörisch, 2017). Under this council, hotel industry can adopt a range of measures which can mitigate environment impact. Melbourne City Council is committed to the execution of sustainable practices in all the associated organizations. It continuously measures the business practices so that its impact on ecology can be found out.  To promote the sustainability policy to all stakeholders, a three steps process will be taken into consideration by the brand. In the first step, Brighton hotel will focus on identification of the key stakeholders to whom it will promote its policy. Apart from this, the brand will also need to define how important it is for the company to promote the sustainability policy to all stakeholders (Deraman et al. 2017). In the second stage, the selected hotel will be required to emphasise on developing an issue map which will outline the key sustainability issues faced while carrying out activities and operations. The issues can include increasing wastage of resources and negative impact on environment. In the last stage, the hotel will need to develop an engagement plan which can encourage the internal and external stakeholders to become the part of developing sustainability policy (Davies, 2016). However, it can be critically argued that it will be required by Brighton hotel to review the stakeholder’s engagement plan at regular intervals and cross examine the sustainability progress against the set goals and desired objectives.    

To promote the expected outcomes of the policy, strategies such as meetings and conferences will be taken into consideration. At the time of developing the policy, the management of Brighton hotel will communicate the benefits and outcomes which it is expecting out of the sustainability policy (Aykol and Leonidou, 2015). This will include outcomes such as establishment of waste recycling program and reducing the consumption of electricity and paper.

It aims to develop the reputation of global city leader in the domain of sustainability management (Carvalho and Rabechini, 2017). Hence, considering this, the country is adapting appropriately to climatic changes. Apart from this, health wellbeing of the people is yet another objective of this council for which all the health standards are being maintained suitably. Thus, under this efficiency of the business practice is measured through observing the ways by which different resources are being utilized. Considering this, Brighton hotel should start the provision of paperless office in which use of some paper will be reduced to a greater extent.

Involvement of stakeholders

  • In communicating the requirements of the policy, it is crucial for Brighton hotel to involve and integrate all the stakeholders. All the stakeholders of the hotel will be informed about the implementation of the policy so that they can also present their opinion on organizational matters. The policy implementation plan will include many things along with the conservation of resources, and it will also describe the ways of contributing to environmental development (Williams, et al. 2017).
  • Stakeholders will be informed about the water consumption capacity and the automated functions for water usage. While installing new regulators at the washbasins and toilets, detailed information will be given to the stakeholders.
  • Electricity consumption and new systems will also be introduced to the stakeholders so that they can know about the way Brighton hotel is trying to contribute to ecological development.
  • Information will also be given regarding waste management in which staff member of the subsequent entity is required to focus on the optimum use of paper. Plastic and poly bags will be used which will further for the reusable purpose.
  • The focus will also be laid on transportation sources wherein fleet cars will be used by focusing on green vehicle guide.
  • While managing business operations, Brighton hotel will maintain its impact on the environment (Crutzen, Zvezdov and Schaltegger, 2017).
  • There will be proper monitoring and control of activities regarding conducting the process of auditing. The hotel will be engaged in delivering organic food items to the customers.
  • Along with this, recycle, and unbleached printing paper will be used in the office. Paper will only be printed when required, and after that, all the wastage papers will be recycled.

This way entire aspect of the policy will be communicated to the stakeholders, and they will also be invited to the meeting. In the present conference, stakeholders will be invited to present their feedback about the policy implementation process (Barnett, Henriques and Husted Corregan, 2018). This way their involvement will be facilitated in the company affairs, and they will be informed about every practice the hotel is engaged in.

Strategies for continuous improvement

  • To improve the existing business services, the staff members are required to give their feedback about sustainability management. Employees of the hotel will inform about the ways through which all the practices are being managed according to sustainable concepts.
  • With the help of employee monitoring, resource utility will also be defined. This way Brighton hotel will determine how the resources are being utilized for the organizational purposes (Seele, 2017).
  • Since various resources of the hotel are not used in an optimum manner; hence prior notice will be given to the employees regarding the usage of such resources.
  • Customer feedback will also be acquired in which they will help the hotel to analyse the practices. End users of the hotel will inform the business entity about the ways staff members treat them.

To communicate the implementation of sustainability policy, team meetings will be carried out within the hotel. The management and staff members will be communicated that the company will be using energy efficient methods for consuming electricity. In addition to this, the renewable energy alternatives will be also implemented and used within the premises of the hotel (Kunttu et al. 2015). During the process of communication, the stakeholders will be encourage to ask questions and issues so that their doubts, queries and concern can be resolved in the best possible manner.   

Responsibilities of stakeholder in promotion sustainability policy

The responsibility of stakeholders such as employees will be to make sure that all the activities and tasks carried out within Brighton hotel are directed towards attainment of sustainable goals and objectives. For instance, it is the responsibility of the employees and managers to make sure that recycled and unbleached papers are used in the office and premises of the hotel. In addition to this, the employees should also encourage the use of scarp and waste paper to write down notes and other related information (Galea, 2017). Instead of using fax, it is the responsibility of the staff members working in Brighton hotel to use email as a form of communication. Other than this, the managers and employees are also responsible to make sure that air conditions, lights and fans are used only when they are required. Stakeholder such as suppliers is responsible to provide services and products which are sustainable and which do not create any kind of negative impact on society, economy and environment (Wang, 2014). The role of customers in promotion of sustainability policy is that they can increase the demand and use of the sustainable products and services offered by the selected hotel. Increasing demand of sustainable practices from customers can also motivate the company to adopt such kind practices in order to attain high degree of satisfaction among customers.  

Individual and team responsibilities

  • In the process of policy implementation, all the team members have to play different roles and responsibilities; hence there will be an appropriate delegation of authorities among people (Nawaz and Koç, 2018).
  • In this respect, Human Resource Management of Brighton hotel will monitor all the practices to analyze if the practices are aligned with sustainable practices.
  • Operational department of the organization will ascertain if the activities are eco-friendly. They have to ensure that environment is not affected by operational practices. There should be an optimum allocation of resources, and that needs to be ensured by the organizational members.
  • However, the entire team members will have to coordinate and support each other so that they can deliver effective services to the end users (Babu, Arshinder and Rajendran, 2018).
  • Together, they can also implement new and different processes for the development of hospitality services. For every work dimension, it is essential for the team member to facilitate proper communication.

There should be continuous tracking of employee performance as that will help in analyzing the areas of improvements Han and Hyun, 2018). However, sustainability practices require appropriate management of all the supporting activities and here in focus is also to be laid on resource administration. For the purpose of enhancing sustainability advantages, it is crucial for Brighton hotel to record every dimension so that new changes can be implemented accordingly. Hence, the hotel will be able to undertake new and different strategies for overall management of sustainable tasks. Considering all the shortfalls, appropriate modifications will be made to the business resources and activities.   

The employees working in Brighton hotel will be responsible to deal with the recording system and to track continuous improvement. Furthermore, the management will provide employees with adequate authority to take decisions as and when they are required to attain the goals and objectives.   

Task 3

Identifying the activities of the hotel, it is identified that electricity sources should be utilized in the optimum manner in which according to the requirements, lights and ACs shall be used. Apart from this, the hotel can also make use of renewable energy sources like solar energy which will not harm the environment in any cause (Aboelmaged, 2018). After, implementing sustainable policy, Brighton hotel will have to control and monitor all the practices so that to identify the efficiency of business operations. Water is the most important source for the environment; hence the consumption of water should be according to the necessities. There should be the feasible utilization of water so that so that it can be preserved for the environment.

It can be defined that the outcomes of sustainability policy implementation will include reduction in the wastage of water, electricity and paper. Furthermore, development and implementation of effective practices linked with recycling of waste is also a major outcome which will be attained after the implementation of sustainability policy (Kopnina and Blewitt, 2014). It is expected that to reduce the wastage of water, monitoring of the water usage and effectiveness of the air conditioning systems installed in the hotel will be carried out. It is also expected that the water leakage with be reported and fixed immediately after the implementation of the policy.

The expected outcome after policy implementation also includes development of process in which all the plastic bottles, glass bottles, plastic take away and aluminum cans within the hotel will be recycled in the best possible manner. Instead of using hand dryers and paper towels for drying hands, the employees will be encouraged to dry their hands naturally. The staff members will be also motivated to use systems such as carpooling after the implementation of sustainability policy within Brighton hotel (Galea, 2017). It can be defined that the hotel will make its process of purchase and supply chain more environmental friendly and sustainable after the implementation of the entire policy.

As per the collected feedback from the stakeholders, it can be said that there is a need for staff training regarding adequate utilization of resources. This will not only help the staff members to enhance their efficiency level but also it will contribute to developing an overall standard of the service dimensions (Cha, Kim and Cichy, 2018). In staff training, they will be informed about the suitable use of electricity, water and other resources. Since resource wastage issue is increasing in the hotel; therefore it is imperative to know about the proper management of resources.

The policy will be failed if all the defined standards will not meet. While executing any policy, it is crucial to focus on the success criteria as on that basis effectiveness of the system will be ascertained. With the help of key performance indicators, success criteria of the plan will be analyzed. This is also crucial to know about the areas of improvements. In this area, stakeholders will also present their views and opinion regarding business performance standards. However, the policy will be failed to produce optimum outcomes if all the requirements will be met. It can be stated that the chances of sustainability policy getting successful is more than its failure and there are several reasons associated with the same (Pagell and Shevchenko, 2014). The policy will be successful because the views and opinions of stakeholders are taken into consideration. This will result in creating high degree of satisfaction among the stakeholder and at the same time it will encourage them to give their best towards implementation of the policy.

Another reason which will results in making the policy successful is that all aspects or elements of sustainability are taken into consideration by the management of Brighton hotel. For instance, the policy includes strategies which will support in attaining the objectives linked with economic sustainability (Johnson, 2016). In addition to this, the key areas which are creating obstacles in sustainability are identified and strategies are developed to deal with these areas in every possible manner. The chances of sustainability policy getting successful are higher because the management has developed flexible policy instead of developing a rigid policy for sustainability. It means the selected hotel will not face any kind of issues or difficulties while carrying out changes in the policy as per the need, requirement and situation.     

For further areas, it is essential for the subsequent hotel to address all the challenges that are coming in the business management (Farmaki and Farmakis, 2018). Regarding continuous improvement, it is significant for Brighton hotel to change the way employees are managing their roles and responsibilities. Employees will have to work with full attention so that issues related to operational management can be reduced. All the employees will have to play diverse roles in strategy implementation process, and by the essential terms, they will be handling different tasks and activities. Along with this, the management will also emphasize on protecting the environment through adopting eco-friendly approaches.

To promote continuous improvement in the sustainability policy, the management will be required to focus on areas such as roles and responsibilities of the staff members (Chambers and Humble, 2017). Here, team meetings can be conducted at regular intervals to make the workers clear about the diverse role and responsibilities which they need to accomplish for carrying out continuous improvement in the practices linked with sustainability. Furthermore, the benefits and need of sustainability practices and continuous improvement will be clearly communicated to all the staff members during the meetings and conversation.    

The above-mentioned sustainability policy deals with the appropriate management of resources; however, as per the review, several improvements are required to be implemented accordingly. Regarding improvements, changes are required to be made in the timescale in which within 2.5 months, sustainability contribution of the hotel should be amended (Yfantidou et al. 2018). Along with this, several new parameters will also be added for the purpose of measuring the value and effectiveness of the policy. Apart from this, it is also essential for the manager to continually focus on employee training and development. It can be stated that to attain the desired goals and objectives of sustainability, it is required by the management to carry out certain changes in the sustainability policy. The policy should include activities such as monitoring of the utility bills generated with the hotel. The rationale behind integrating monitoring of the bills in the plan is that it will provide the management with an opportunity to identify whether activities such as minimizing waste and energy conservation are reducing its bill or not (Rana et al. 2017). Here, the change in sustainability policy is that a team of employees will be developed and the team will be provided with responsibility to identify the key areas where energy is been wasted. The team will be also responsible to take immediate action to make eliminate the waste of energy.

The changes in policy are also required in areas such as purchase of applicant. It is required by Brighton hotel to develop a sustainability policy which emphasise on replacing the old applicants with the new ones which are energy efficiency. This will support the selected hotel in becoming more sustainable and reduce its overall cost of operations in the long-run.   

Conclusion

Summing up the entire research study, it can be said that legal dimensions should always be followed upon when implementing any strategy or policy. This keeps things updated in the business, and as a result, it ensures that business is meeting up all the standards. Sustainability benefits can be acquired if the hotel can meet all the defined standards.

Along with this, the focus is also to be laid on meeting the quality standards, especially while delivering services to the end users. This way Brighton hotel will be able to create a competitive edge over other rivalries operating a business in the same market place. It can be also inferred that the use of sustainability practices and policies will provide the hotel with an opportunity to enhance the volume of sales and profitability by creating high degree of satisfaction among the internal and external stakeholders.

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