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The Management of Security in Cloud Computing-Answer

The Management of Security in Cloud Computing
Ramgovind S, Eloff MM, Smith E
School of Computing, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa
[email protected]; {eloff, smithe}
Abstract—Cloud computing has elevated IT to newer limits
by offering the market environment data storage and capacity
with flexible scalable computing processing power to match
elastic demand and supply, whilst reducing capital expenditure.
However the opportunity cost of the successful implementation of
Cloud computing is to effectively manage the security in the
cloud applications. Security consciousness and concerns arise as
soon as one begins to run applications beyond the designated
firewall and move closer towards the public domain. The purpose
of the paper is to provide an overall security perspective of Cloud
computing with the aim to highlight the security concerns that
should be properly addressed and managed to realize the full
potential of Cloud computing. Gartner’s list on cloud security
issues, as well the findings from the International Data
Corporation enterprise panel survey based on cloud threats, will
be discussed in this paper.
Keywords- Cloud computing; Security; Public cloud, Private
cloud, Hybrid Cloud, policies, cloud transparency
The success of modern day technologies highly depends on
its effectiveness of the world’s norms, its ease of use by end
users and most importantly its degree of information security
and control. Cloud computing is a new and emerging
information technology that changes the way IT architectural
solutions are put forward by means of moving towards the
theme of virtualisation: of data storage, of local networks
(infrastructure) as well as software [1-2].
In a survey undertaken by the International Data
Corporation (IDC) group between 2008 and 2009, the majority
of results point to employing Cloud computing as a low-cost
viable option to users [3]. The results also show that Cloud
computing is best suited for individuals who are seeking a
quick solution for startups, such as developers or research
projects and even e-commerce entrepreneurs. Using Cloud
computing can help in keeping one’s IT budget to a bare
minimum. It is also ideally suited for development and testing
scenarios. It is the easiest solution to test potential proof of
concepts without investing too much capital. Cloud computing
can deliver a vast array of IT capabilities in real time using
many different types of resources such as hardware, software,
virtual storage once logged onto a cloud. Cloud computing can
also be part of a broader business solution whereby prioritised
applications utilise Cloud computing functionality whilst other
critical applications maintain organisational resources as per
normal. This allows for cost saving whilst maintaining a secure
degree of control within an orgainsation.
Cloud computing can be seen as a service-oriented
architecture (SOA) exploring almost every computing
component including, but not limited to distributed computing,
grid computing, utility computing, on-demand, open source,
Peer-to-Peer and Web 2.0 [2]. It is a natural next step from the
grid model to a supply and demand utility model. In
minimizing potential security trust issues as well as adhering to
governance issues facing Cloud computing, a prerequisite
control measure is to ensure that a concrete Cloud computing
Service Level Agreement (SLA) is put in place and maintained
when dealing with outsourced cloud service providers and
specialised cloud vendors. Due to the nature and demand of
emerging cloud technologies, there is a certain degree of
inexperience when dealing with cloud security. Currently
Cloud computing clients have to trust 3rd party cloud providers
on many fronts, especially on the availability of cloud service
as well as data security. Therefore the SLA forms an integral
part of a client’s first line of defense. The SLA thus becomes
the solitary legal agreement between the service provider and
client. The SLA together with other key Cloud considerations
will be unpacked further on in this paper.
The remainder of this paper is structured as follows:
Section II introduces the different types of Cloud models also
known as deployment models together with its security
implications, Section III explains Cloud computing
architectural delivery models with a security insight, followed
by Section IV that discusses Cloud computing concerns,
particularly focusing on Gartner’s list on cloud security issues.
Section V pertains to the information security requirements that
are applied to Cloud computing. Section VI unpacks the
findings from the IDC enterprise panel survey based on cloud
shortfalls and finally Section VII highlights how Cloud
computing security can be managed.
In providing a secure Cloud computing solution, a major
decision is to decide on the type of cloud to be implemented.
Currently there are three types of cloud deployment models
offered, namely, a public, private and hybrid cloud. These,
together with their security implications will be discussed
below. Within this paper vendors are referred to as cloud
providers, or companies specialising in providing a tailor made
cloud solution. These entities have established cloud
infrastructure including virtual servers for storage matching
required processing power. Organisations are entities,
including business managers, executives and end-users,
entering into an agreement with cloud vendors to utilise their
cloud capabilities for personal and/or private use.
978-1-4244-5495-2/10/$26.00 ©2010 IEEE
A. Public Cloud
A public cloud is a model which allows users’ access to the
cloud via interfaces using mainstream web browsers. It’s
typically based on a pay-per-use model, similar to a prepaid
electricity metering system which is flexible enough to cater
for spikes in demand for cloud optimisation. This helps cloud
clients to better match their IT expenditure at an operational
level by decreasing its capital expenditure on IT infrastructure
[4]. Public clouds are less secure than the other cloud models
because it places an additional burden of ensuring all
applications and data accessed on the public cloud are not
subjected to malicious attacks. Therefore trust and privacy
concerns are rife when dealing with Public clouds with the
Cloud SLA at its core. A key management consideration,
which needs to be answered within the SLA deals with
ensuring that ample security controls are put in place. One
option is for both the cloud vendor and client mutually agree in
sharing joint responsibility in enforcing cloud checks and
validation are performed across their own systems. The
alternative option will be for each party to set out individual
roles and responsibilities in dealing with cloud computing
security within their utilization boundaries.
B. Private Cloud
A private cloud is set up within an organisation’s internal
enterprise datacenter. It is easier to align with security,
compliance, and regulatory requirements, and provides more
enterprise control over deployment and use. In the private
cloud, scalable resources and virtual applications provided by
the cloud vendor are pooled together and available for cloud
users to share and use. It differs from the public cloud in that
all the cloud resources and applications are managed by the
organisation itself, similar to Intranet functionality. Utilisation
on the private cloud can be much more secure than that of the
public cloud because of its specified internal exposure. Only
the organisation and designated stakeholders may have access
to operate on a specific Private cloud [5].
C. Hybrid Cloud
A hybrid cloud is a private cloud linked to one or more
external cloud services, centrally managed, provisioned as a
single unit, and circumscribed by a secure network [6]. It
provides virtual IT solutions through a mix of both public and
private clouds. Hybrid Clouds provide more secure control of
the data and applications and allows various parties to access
information over the Internet. It also has an open architecture
that allows interfaces with other management systems.
To summarise, in the cloud deployment model,
networking, platform, storage, and software infrastructure are
provided as services that scale up or down depending on the
demand [7]. In deciding which type of Cloud to deploy,
business managers’ needs to holistically assess the security
considerations from an enterprise architectural point of view,
taking into account the information security differences of
each Cloud deployment model mentioned above.
Following on the cloud deployment models, the next
security consideration that business management must unpack
relates to the various cloud delivery models. Due to the payper-
use economy model that pertains to Cloud delivery
models, the degree of information security is directed towards
adhering to industry standards and legislations among cloud
shareholders. The architecture of Cloud computing can be
categorised according to the three types of delivery models,
namely Infrastructure as a service (IaaS), Software as a service
(SaaS) and Platform as a service (PaaS).
A. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
Infrastructure as a Service is a single tenant cloud layer
where the Cloud computing vendor’s dedicated resources are
only shared with contracted clients at a pay-per-use fee. This
greatly minimizes the need for huge initial investment in
computing hardware such as servers, networking devices and
processing power. They also allow varying degrees of
financial and functional flexibility not found in internal data
centers or with co-location services, because computing
resources can be added or released much more quickly and
cost-effectively than in an internal data center or with a colocation
service [9]. However, corporate decision makers must
be aware of the capital outlay shift from a periodic fixed
expense payment reflected on the income statement to an
operational expense increase.
B. Software as a Service (SaaS)
Software as a Service also operates on the virtualised and
pay-per-use costing model whereby software applications are
leased out to contracted organisations by specialised SaaS
vendors. This is traditionally accessed remotely using a web
browser via the Internet. The software has limited
functionality and its core pack can be expanded and contracted
allowing of easy customisation which is billed accordingly.
SaaS providers may host the software in their own data centers
or with co-location providers, or may themselves be
outsourced to IaaS providers. The availability of IaaS services
is a key enabler of the SaaS model [10]. Software as a service
applications are accessed using web browsers over the Internet
therefore web browser security is vitally important.
Information security officers will need to consider various
methods of securing SaaS applications. Web Services (WS)
security, Extendable Markup Language (XML) encryption,
Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and available options which are
used in enforcing data protection transmitted over the Internet.
C. Platform as a Service (PaaS)
Platform as a service cloud layer works like IaaS but it
provides an additional level of “rented” functionality. Clients
using PaaS services transfer even more costs from capital
investment to operational expenses but must acknowledge the
additional constraints and possibly some degree of lock-in
posed by the additional functionality layers [6]. The use of
virtual machines act as a catalyst in the PaaS layer in Cloud
computing. Virtual machines must be protected against
malicious attacks such as cloud malware. Therefore
maintaining the integrity of applications and well enforcing
accurate authentication checks during the transfer of data
across the entire networking channels is fundamental.
Combining the three types of clouds with the delivery
models we get a holistic cloud illustration as seen in Figure 1,
surrounded by connectivity devices coupled with information
security themes. Virtualized physical resources, virtualized
infrastructure, as well as virtualized middleware platforms and
business applications are being provided and consumed as
services in the Cloud [11]. Cloud vendors and clients’ need to
maintain Cloud computing security at all interfaces. The next
section of the paper will introduce current concerns faced in the
Cloud computing domain.
Upon strategically deciding on the appropriate cloud
delivery and deployment models to explore, security officers
should be aware of the current Cloud computing concerns
experienced in the Cloud environment. Gartner has conducted
an investigation regarding the information security issues that
should be considered when dealing with Cloud computing.
The following list contains several security issues
highlighted by Gartner that organisations and key decision
makers, as a prerequisite, should unpack with Cloud computing
vendors [9]:
• Privileged access: Who has specialised/privileged access
to data? Who decides about the hiring and management of
such administrators?
• Regulatory compliance: Is the cloud vendor willing to
undergo external audits and/or security certifications?
• Data location: Does the cloud vendor allow for any
control over the location of data?
• Data segregation: Is encryption available at all stages, and
were these encryption schemes designed and tested by
experienced professionals?
• Recovery: What happens to data in the case of a disaster,
and does the vendor offer complete restoration, and, if so,
how long does that process take?
• Investigative Support: Does the vendor have the ability to
investigate any inappropriate or illegal activity?
• Long-term viability: What happens to data if the cloud
vendor goes out of business, is clients’ data returned and
in what format?
• Data availability: Can the cloud vendor move all their
clients’ data onto a different environment should the
existing environment become compromised or
By considering the above mentioned cloud issues,
executives can gain a comprehensive understanding as well as
measure the feasibility of employing Cloud computing
solutions to best match their Cloud strategy. The next section
follows on from the concerns mentioned above and is aimed at
assisting IT managers assess business critical needs in terms of
information security requirements.
In the ISO 7498-2 standard [10], produced by The
International Standards Organisation (ISO), Information
Security should cover a number of suggested themes. Cloud
computing security should also be guided in this regard in
order to become an effective and secure technology solution.
Figure 2, illustrating the information security requirements
coupled with the Cloud computing deployment model and
delivery models has been adapted from Eloff et al [12]. In
Figure 2, the different cloud delivery models and deployment
models are matched up against the information security
requirements with an “X” denoting mandatory requirements
and an asterisk (*) denoting optional requirements. However
future work is needed in investigating the optimal balance
required in securing Cloud computing. Figure 2 should be
viewed in context as a guideline in assessing the security level.
Each of the security requirements will be highlighted below in
context of Cloud computing.
A. Identification & authentication
In Cloud computing, depending on the type of cloud as
well as the delivery model, specified users must firstly be
established and supplementary access priorities and
permissions may be granted accordingly. This process is
targeting at verifying and validating individual cloud users by
employing usernames and passwords protections to their cloud
B. Authorisation
Authorisation is an important information security
requirement in Cloud computing to ensure referential integrity
is maintained. It follows on in exerting control and privileges
over process flows within Cloud computing. Authorisation is
maintained by the system administrator in a Private cloud.
C. Confidentiality
In Cloud computing, confidentiality plays a major part
especially in maintaining control over organisations’ data
situated across multiple distributed databases. It is a must
when employing a Public cloud due to public clouds
accessibility nature. Asserting confidentiality of users’ profiles
and protecting their data, that is virtually accessed, allows for
information security protocols to be enforced at various
different layers of cloud applications.
D. Integrity
The integrity requirement lies in applying the due
diligence within the cloud domain mainly when accessing
data. Therefore ACID (atomicity, consistency, isolation and
durability) properties of the cloud’s data should without a
doubt be robustly imposed across all Cloud computing deliver
E. Non-repudiation
Non-repudiation in Cloud computing can be obtained by
applying the traditional e-commerce security protocols and
token provisioning to data transmission within cloud
applications such as digital signatures, timestamps and
confirmation receipts services (digital receipting of messages
confirming data sent/received).
F. Availability
Availability is one of the most critical information security
requirements in Cloud computing because it is a key decision
factor when deciding among private, public or hybrid cloud
vendors as well as in the delivery models. The service level
agreement is the most important document which highlights
the trepidation of availability in cloud services and resources
between the cloud provider and client.
Therefore by exploring the information security
requirements at each of the various cloud deployment and
delivery models set out by the ISO, vendors and organisations
can become confident in promoting a highly protected safe
and sound cloud framework.
From the survey done by the International Data Corporation
(IDC), we can learn enormous lessons from past and present
cloud players. The reference to the International Data
Corporation, is important because it highlights the shortfalls of
Cloud computing as well as users’ security expectations in
Cloud computing. In the Cloud Computing Services Survey
conducted during August 08/09 by IDC IT group
( [3], users were asked to rate their issues and
challenges experienced with Cloud computing. The results
shown in Figure 3 illustrate that security is the biggest concern.
Information security, availability and performance issues still
remain in the top 3 for both years the survey was done.
Security is the main issue users are concerned with when
considering Cloud computing solutions.
Selecting and implementing the suitable cloud security
architecture is not as simple as it might seem as shown from
the survey above. Some of the most important issues for
companies to consider before engaging in Cloud computing,
highlighted from the survey above, are the providers’ terms of
service, as well as the location and data restrictions on
information stored in the cloud. Down-time of cloud services is
another growing concern. Cloud providers have the right to
read and make public information that is put in the cloud.
There needs to be a subtle balance between cost effectiveness
and a smooth running of secure operations with the selected
cloud environment. From the cloud shortfalls presented above
and by exploring the information security concerns,
prospective users will become more familiar and aware of its
potential and how Cloud computing can be used to better
improve the way we do things whilst pushing the boundaries of
traditional norms adapted by society.
The biggest challenge in implementing successful Cloud
computing technologies is managing the security. As with any
new technology enhancements, criticisms are driven by fear of
unknown variables and changes to current control procedures.
How can cloud stakeholders ensure and promote the security
of Cloud computing? By focusing more on information
security awareness, cloud privacy and by ensuring appropriate
policies and procedures are initially put in place, Cloud
computing can become the most viable information
technology solution. Cloud security polices, cloud
transparency and its security impact are the core themes in
analysing the strategic information security of Cloud
computing which will covered in the next section. These
themes, once fully understood and explored by potential endusers
can provide the strategic intelligence in guiding the
successful implementation of a secure cloud solution.
In order to effectively manage and control the use of cloud
technology in an organisation, business and strategic decision
makers need to begin with assessing the potential impact of
Cloud computing on their competitive edge. Secondly,
business critical security questions of implementing cloud
technologies will then need to be evaluated. Managing and
controlling Cloud issues will need to address but not limited to
the following:
 How the organisation will deal with new and current
Cloud compliance risks. This will deal with the
potential impact which Cloud computing may have
on the business concerning governance and
 How Cloud computing may affect the organisation
in terms of its business intelligence and intellectual
property by potentially influencing its market
In setting up a Cloud framework that specifically
addresses, organisations’ information security, senior
professionals and management may look to adapt and
incorporate current data protection, trust and privacy policies
in formulating a comprehensive set of Cloud computing
guidelines. These guidelines may include:
 Establishing an overall business Cloud computing
policy that highlights the organisations stance on
information protection.
 Govern the installation and communication of Cloud
computing when IT decisions are made.
 Leverage of current IT audit and TAX processes with
the in embedding cloud security disclosure and Cloud
audit practices.
Cloud computing guidelines should be seen as the
cornerstone of the Cloud strategy with Cloud governance and
transparency forming part of the security perspective.
A. Cloud Govenance
Cloud computing policies and procedures should be put in
place in an effort to protect the cloud from potential of threats,
hacks and the loss of information. We must understand that it
is necessary to design privacy within the Cloud right from the
outset. The privacy challenge for software engineers is to
design cloud services in such a way so as to decrease privacy
risks and to ensure legal compliance. There are threats
associated with the data being stored, processed remotely and
an increased usage of virtualisation and sharing of platforms
between users. Concerns arise when it is not clear to
individuals why their personal information is requested or how
it will be used or passed on to other parties. This lack of control
leads to suspicion and ultimately distrust. The protection of
data in the cloud is a key consumer concern particularly for
committing fraudulent activities and financial exploitation.
With governance and security in place, Cloud computing can
be used safely and with confidence.
B. Cloud Transparency
Transparent security would entail cloud providers
disclosing adequate information about their security policies,
design, and practices, including disclosing relevant security
measures in daily operations [9]. Public clouds are more likely
to be seen as having a greater degree of transparency as
compared to the Hybrid or Private Cloud models. This is due to
public cloud vendors having a “standardised” cloud offering
thereby targeting a wider client base. Private clouds are usually
built for specific organisations having more attention focused
on offering customization and personalisation cloud
One of the most important protocols in ensuring
transparency within Cloud computing is the SLA. The SLA is
the only legal agreement between the service provider and
client and its importance is greatly discussed in the article titled
“Cloud Security Issues” [13]. The only means that the cloud
provider can gain the trust of clients is through the SLA,
therefore the SLA has to be standardised. The main aspects as
a guideline, which the SLA contains, are:
 Services to be delivered, performance,
 Tracking and Reporting
 Problem Management
 Legal Compliance
 Resolution of Disputes Customer Duties
 Security responsibility
 Confidential Information Termination.
One of the main challenges of Cloud computing is that the
software vendor should assume responsibility for maintaining
the application and ensuring quality of service [14].
C. Cloud Computing’s Security Impact
As computer manufacturers, employers and universities
deploy cloud based tools on desktops, many users may fail to
realize that they are in fact using an Internet based service.
This risk of confusion will likely increase when cloud based
applications lack any recognizable browser branding, and
continue to function when the user is not connected to the
Internet. The use of HTTPS together with WS Security should
be a bare minimum when logging on to access data using
Cloud computing. But providing a HTTPS encrypted
connection takes significantly more processing power and
memory for a Web server to provide than a normal web
connection [15]. WS-Security assists with SOAP messages by
defining the header that carries the WS-Security extensions.
Additionally, it defines how existing XML security standards
like XML Signature and XML Encryption are applied to
SOAP messages [16]. Thus far there has been four service
failures identified between Amazon and Google in 2008,
ranging from 1.5 to 8 hours downtime. Organisations must
decide whether proper security measures are in place (to
secure their data and applications) or do they share a joint
responsibility with service providers when engaging in the
cloud environment [17].
The shift to Cloud computing moved much of a user’s
normal activity to the Web browser. Web browsers generally
store all of a user’s saved passwords, browsing history and
other sensitive information in a single place. As such it is
possible for malicious websites to exploit browser
vulnerabilities in order to steal information associated with
other existing or previous browsing sessions, such as a logged
in email account or online banking session. It is for this reason
that some security experts recommend that consumers use one
web browser for general surfing, and another for more
sensitive tasks, such as online banking. Often, usernames and
passwords are transmitted to remote servers via unencrypted
network connections. In cases where encryption is used, it is
typically only used to transmit the initial login information,
while all other subsequent data is sent in the clear. This data
can easily be snooped on by hackers. This exposes users to
significant risks when they connect to the services using
public wireless networks to any Cloud Service.
In the book titled ‘The Tower and the Cloud’, Richard Katz
focuses on many areas where the cloud may impinge on
education [18]. He advocates that because companies might be
storing documents which should not be made public, there are
reasons for concern about what can happen to the information.
Potential Cloud organisations and vendors need to be aware
that it may become easier for attackers to threaten clouds by
moving towards a single cloud interface.
Although Cloud computing can be seen as a new
phenomenon which is set to revolutionise the way we use the
Internet, there is much to be cautious about. There are many
new technologies emerging at a rapid rate, each with
technological advancements and with the potential of making
human’s lives easier. However one must be very careful to
understand the limitations and security risks posed in utilizing
these technologies. Cloud computing is no exception.
In this paper key security considerations and challenges
which are currently faced in the Cloud computing industry are
highlighted. While current offerings explore trail-and error
control methods, a great deal of investment must be made in
the managing security around this evolving technology. The
Cloud Security Alliance [19] is one such organisation. It is a
non-profit organization formed to promote the use of best
practices for providing security assurance within Cloud
computing, and provide education on the uses of Cloud
computing to help secure all other forms of computing. By
following guiding principles discussed in this paper, a great
deal of insecurities may be easily expelled, saving business
owners’ valuable time and investment. Cloud computing has
the potential to become a frontrunner in promoting a secure,
virtual and economically viable IT solution and future work
and progress lies in standardising Cloud computing security
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Computer, Vol. 42, pp. 15-20, 2009.
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in the Service World’, IT Professional, vol. 11, pp. 28-33, 2009.
[3] Gens F, 2009,’ New IDC IT Cloud Services Survey: Top Benefits and
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Project Management Answer


Project management is the overall application of all the processes involved to meet the requirement of a project. These processes include all the tools, techniques, plan and skills that are required from the participants (Kerzner&Kerzner, 2017, p.12).Project management is extremely necessary in an organization in order to successfully achieve an objective or goal. According to authors Nicholas &Steyn (2012, p.47), project management has now become an utmost necessary in all fields of business including engineering and technology where the project managers must be responsible for the delegated work and have co-ordination with individual parts. Any project that an organization desire to complete with perfection, requires effective planning and execution and these are mostly managed by project managers. Therefore, project managers play an important role in an effective and successful project management. These project managers require some important qualities which helps them conduct their job successfully (Martinelli& Milosevic, 2016, p.48). This essay will focus on the importance of project management and about key qualities that are required in a successful project manager.


Project management forms the key necessity to conduct a project successfully. Both simple and complicated projects require an effective project management by an organization. Authors Marcelino-Sadabaet al (2014, p.339) state that project management is necessary for both small and large firms. In case of small firms, this can help them to successfully complete a project for further growth in the market, whereas for the larger firms, successful project completion help them stay afloat in the market along with good reputation among their clients.

Project management of an organization can be categorized into five stages. They are initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and closing. For the initial stage an organization needs to decide the necessity of the project for the business development (Heagney, 2016, p.1). Secondly, the risk and issues related with the project fall in the initiating stage as well. This is mainly decided by the higher authorities of the organization who can identify the requirements for the project and its future impacts.

The second stage of project management is the planning process of the project. This is the most important phase of a successful project management. This phase mostly decides the future of the project (Hidding & Nicholas, 2014, p.4314). Planning in project management include the budget required to complete the project, requirements of resources which include human as well as materialistic, all the security requirements, risk analysis and others. Therefore, a perfect planning before executing a project forms an integral part of project management. There have been many cases of project failure due to ineffective planning process in project management and lack of winning goal (Nicholas &Steyn, 2012, p.104).The planning in a project management involves the requirements of proper identification of skills and knowledge of the human resources involved in the project. Moreover, the selection of technologies or materials required for completing the project successful also forms the key requirements of project management. Proper planning on time and cost of the project is also necessary to avoid any delay on the execution and closing stages of a project. This stage may require important tools and techniques for making the later stages of project management successful (Heagney, 2016, p.1). These tools and techniques include Key Process Indicators, Benchmarking, and Total Quality Management and so on depending upon the nature of the project.

The third stage which is called execution forms the main phase of the project management. This stage forms all the works that are involved in the project and which should be error free to prevent all the risks and failures in the closing stage (Tonchia, 2018, p.45).This phase requires active participation of all the individuals involved in the project. The skills and knowledge of these individuals are made used in this phase. Effective communication system between the project managers and the employees is extremely necessary in this phase to avoid any error in the process. There might be some execution gap involved in the project management. Heagney (2016, p.1) specified that these gaps generally include absence of required understanding among the employees or lack of coordination among them, lack of effective replacements of human or materialistic resource, error in strategic management and ineffective leadership. Therefore, for making the execution phase successful, the project managers are require to reduce these gaps as much as possible. According to authors Iyer& Banerjee (2016, p. 236), benchmarking can be an effective tool for avoiding any execution in project management. Benchmarking involves learning from other successful organizations on their process of successful project management. This can reduce the possible errors in the execution phase.

Next process is monitoring and controlling. Tonchia (2018, p.45) identified that this phase is mostly conducted by the project managers. They need to supervise the execution phase and the working procedures of each individual. This phase also requires motivation of the participants and making regular conversation with them. Performance management is the necessity while monitoring and controlling. This phase helps in reducing the errors involved in the execution and further help in correction of the errors when identified. Project managers in this phase require to ensure that each process is completed within the given time period. Too & Weaver (2014, p.1391) state that the project managers need to monitor all the ethics and corporate governance during the execution of the project.

The last phase is closing. This phase is the penultimate phase which decides the result of the all the above phases of the project management. All the employees and project managers need to ensure that the project has been completed error free (Patterson, 2010, p.73). This phase also involves testing and measuring the success of the overall project. All the project deliverables and output are further reviewed by the higher authorities of the organization and further close it if no more errors are found.

All these phases are needed to be executed with perfection in order to avoid any risks or errors in the project. Therefore role of project managers is extremely important for the whole project management process in an organization.

Project managers have the highest responsibility in a successful project management. Therefore, they need to have some vital qualities to make the whole process successful. Patterson (2010, p.73) cited that the most important quality that they require is leadership quality which involves influencing and motivating the individuals who are involved in the project. Project managers need to have creative vision and should have quality to make required changes in the execution phase of the project. Heagney (2016, p.1) mentioned that for this, they need to have the required skills and knowledge for managing all the phases of the project. They need to be both polite and strict with the employees and should maintain all the ethics while conducting the project. They should be unbiased to all the employees irrespective of their caste, religion, gender or others. Regular feedback during the whole process is extremely important for these project managers (Boyle, 2017, p.15). Further, they need to have regular communication with the higher authorities during the whole process. In many cases it is seen that the organization contracts the project outside of the organization meaning contractor and the customer do not come from same organization.(Hidding& Nicholas, 2012, p.107). Therefore, communication skills are crucial in these situations. Moreover, they should have skills to build a team and improve the coordination among the involved employees and this can help them to complete the project successfully. They should have all the skills required for solving the problems and should be available full time during the execution of the project. They should have all the required knowledge and skills for risk management and change management. That is they should be involved in quick response during any disaster management in the project. Project managers should effectively plan and organize the whole process by discussing with the higher authorities and should have replacement plan during any problems in the execution of the project.

Overall, the organizations should select those project managers who can be effective for the project and for this they need to test all the skills of these managers before giving them responsibilities to lead the project.Projects managers are responsible for effective selection of human and materialistic resources required for the project and they should have qualities for identifying the best requirements for the project (Boyle, 2017, p.15).


Project management is the most necessary requirement in any organization for completing a project successfully. Therefore, a strong and well planned project management helps in boosting success of an organization. Project managers forms the most essential part of project management. Therefore, they should have all the required qualities for managing the project with perfection. Project management involves some important phases which need to be planned effectively. Planning forms the most important phase of project management which decides the future of the project. Successful project management involves risk analysis, benchmarking, key performance indicators and other important tools and techniques for making it error free. Therefore, the project managers are required to have all the essential skills and knowledge for understanding the techniques. Moreover, the employees involved in the project should also have the required knowledge for which they need to be trained by the organization. This essay analyzed all these requirements involved in a successful project management. All the phases have been discussed with their importance. Lastly, there has been discussion on the required qualities of the project managers and how they are essential for a successful project management.



Boyle, G. (2017). Design project management. London: Routledge.


Heagney, J. (2016). Fundamentals of project management.AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn. link:,+J.+(2016).+Fundamentals+of+project+management.AMACOM+Div+American+Mgmt+Assn.&ots=7ofhHZQLX7&sig=LxGvwf8rzwE8KIdVV-dyYAlP4cw#v=onepage&q&f=false

Hidding, G. J., & Nicholas, J. M. (2014, January).Reducing IT Project Management Failures: Early Empirical Results.In System Sciences (HICSS), 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on. 4305-4314. link: .

Iyer, K. C., & Banerjee, P. S. (2016). Measuring and benchmarking managerial efficiency of project execution schedule performance. International Journal of Project Management, 34(2), 219-236. link:

Kerzner, H., &Kerzner, H. R. (2017).Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. link:,+H.,+%26+Kerzner,+H.+R.+(2017).Project+management:+a+systems+approach+to+planning,+scheduling,+and+controlling.+New+Jersey:+John+Wiley+%26+Sons&ots=Xb2qTQN3wR&sig=3_QpcdUvujoQE9t9p52LJkL96AU#v=onepage&q&f=false

Marcelino-Sádaba, S., Pérez-Ezcurdia, A., Lazcano, A. M. E., & Villanueva, P. (2014).Project risk management methodology for small firms.International journal of project management, 32(2), 327-340. link:

Martinelli, R. J., & Milosevic, D. Z. (2016).Project management toolbox: tools and techniques for the practicing project manager. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. link:

Nicholas, J. M., &Steyn, H. (2012).Project management for engineering, business and technology.London: 4th eds. Taylor & Francis. link:

Tonchia, S. (2018).Project Execution. In Industrial Project Management,Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. link:,+S.+(2018).Project+Execution.+In+Industrial+Project+Management,Springer,+Berlin,+Heidelberg&ots=xO3PFhNime&sig=pBqthWm8_ZDs2iQaHKzPchAFjB4#v=onepage&q&f=false

Too, E. G., & Weaver, P. (2014). The management of project management: A conceptual framework for project governance. International Journal of Project Management, 32(8), 1382-1394. link: ://

Patterson, J.H., (2010). Leadership: the project management essential. Production and Inventory Management Journal, 46(2), p.73. link:

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Healthcare Management Question

COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA Copyright Regulations 1969
This material has been reproduced and communicated to you by or on behalf of Kaplan Business School pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (‘Act’). The material in
this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further reproduction or communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection
under the Act. Kaplan Business School is a part of Kaplan Inc., a leading global provider of educational services. Kaplan Business School Pty Ltd ABN 86 098 181 947 is a
registered higher education provider CRICOS Provider Code 02426B.
Assessment Information
Assessment Information
Subject Code:
Subject Name:
Healthcare Management
Assessment Title:
Assessment 3 – Recorded webinar
Total Marks:
Due Date:
Week 13, Monday at 11.55 pm AEST
Assessment Description
Submission method – Electronic
Students are to choose an individual healthcare organisation that is a leader in the adoption of technology to help it meet its strategic and operational objectives. Students will describe the benefits and difficulties that the organisation has experienced with the different technologies and provide an insight in what technologies may be utilised in the future.
Students present their analysis as a 15-minute pre-recorded webinar, aimed at staff of an organisation within the given segment. The organisation must be real and be able to be researched to provide the information required. It does not have to be in Australia.
The webinar should present to the audience:
• An overview of the organisation and the scope of its healthcare activities
• The various stakeholder groups and their perspectives on medical technology acquisition and utilisation
• The challenges and opportunities presented by using medical technology
• Ethical responsibilities in relation to the use of medical technologies
• Identification of what different technologies may be utilised in the near future
Students are encouraged to explore and adopt features of webinar technologies and to include a wide range of multimedia and/or interactive content, such as:
• Short interviews with stakeholders
• Information presented visually, such as photographs, charts and diagrams
• Patient or carer testimonials
• Project or implementation issues that attracted media attention
COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA Copyright Regulations 1969
This material has been reproduced and communicated to you by or on behalf of Kaplan Business School pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (‘Act’). The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further
reproduction or communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act. Kaplan Business School is a part of Kaplan Inc., a leading global provider of educational services. Kaplan Business School Pty Ltd ABN 86
098 181 947 is a registered higher education provider CRICOS Provider Code 02426B.
Assessment Information
Criteria F (Fail)
P (Pass)
CR (Credit) 65%-
D (Distinction)
75% – 84%
HD (High Distinction)
MBA623 Assessment 3 – Assessment Content (Subject Specific) OUT OF 80 MARKS
Clearly identifies the
organisation, its range of
operations its willingness to
use new technologies
No appropriate identification and
analysis of the organisation
An adequate introduction to
the organisation and industry
in which it operates
An adequate introduction to
the organisation and industry
in which it operates and a
basic justification of the need
for technology
A comprehensive introduction to
the organisation and the
industry in which it operates and
a detailed justification of the
need for technology
A comprehensive introduction to
the organisation and the industry
in which it operates plus a clear,
succinct summary of the business
case for adopting technology.
Presents a range of
stakeholder perspectives in
relation to the technologies
No stakeholder groups
At least three appropriate
stakeholder perspectives on
the issue discussed.
Three or more stakeholder
perspectives presented, with a
brief assessment of the impact
of the technologies on these
As with credit, also assessing
the impact of the strategic
response to the technologies on
these groups.
As with distinction, with sound
rationale for why the technologies
have assisted in meeting strategic
Identifies ethical issues and
responsibilities in relation to
the technology such as equity
and privacy
Does not identify ethical issues Identifies relevant ethical
issues, with limited discussion
in relation to specific
Identifies and discusses
ethical issues relevant to the
technologies discussed,
including discussing the
impact on operations
As with credit, with explicit
discussion of the organisation’s
ethical responsibilities
As with distinction, also
considering appropriate strategies
to respond to the ethical issues
now and into the future
Describes the impact of
technology on organisational
efficiency and effectiveness
Does not identify how the
technology impacts on
Provides a limited description
of how technologies impacts
upon operations in one or
more areas.
Provides a vivid description of
the new technologies and their
potential impact on operations
As with credit, but also explains
the strategic response that
underpins operational changes
As with distinction also uses
theory to explain the rational for
strategic directional changes in
response to new technology
Presents possible new
technologies that may be
adopted by organisations now
and into the future
Makes little of no attempt to
identify emergent technologies.
Makes limited attempt to
identify emergent technologies.
with limited discussion or
rationale for their value to the
Identifies a range of emergent
technologies. with competent
discussion or rationale for
their value to the organisation
As with credit but explores a
very wide range of possible new
As with distinction but also
postulates their impact on the
strategic direction of the
MBA623 Assessment 3 – Structure Format and Presentation (Consistent across all courses) OUT OF 20 MARKS
COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA Copyright Regulations 1969
This material has been reproduced and communicated to you by or on behalf of Kaplan Business School pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (‘Act’). The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further
reproduction or communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act. Kaplan Business School is a part of Kaplan Inc., a leading global provider of educational services. Kaplan Business School Pty Ltd ABN 86
098 181 947 is a registered higher education provider CRICOS Provider Code 02426B.
Assessment Information
Webinar adopts a clear and
logical structure, consistent
with KBS guidelines
Poorly organised and
difficult to follow and/or does
not contain the required
Addresses criteria, but
does not follow a
logical structure or
Clearly and appropriately
structured and of a
professional standard.
As with credit,
with logical
progression from
subsection to
subsection, with
clear relevance to
As with distinction, of
a high, error-free
standard such that its
can be adopted by
Appropriate theory and
research presented
Presents insufficient
evidence of research, and
does not refer to relevant
Presents limited
evidence of research
and refers to theory
with some links to topic.
Presents evidence of
research, and the inclusion of
appropriate theory to justify
statements and assertions
Presents evidence of sound
research, and includes a range
of appropriate theories to justify
statements and assertions
As with distinction, seamlessly
integrating research and
theoretical frameworks to justify
statements and assertions
Professional language,
presentation and engagement
The presentation and
language is not of a
professional standard,
inappropriate for both
business topic and audience
The presentation is
mostly appropriate for
the topic and audience,
with some issues such
as clarity or too much
jargon language
The presentation is
appropriate for the topic and
audience, with little to no
issues, offering some
engaging content
The presentation is of a high
professional standard, using
appropriate business language
and offering a range of
examples using multimedia or
interactive content
As with distinction,
and the presentation
is responsive to
audience, with a
highly engaging
delivery, sequence
and clarity
Webinar is within + / – 10% of
time requirement
Webinar is significantly
under time.
Webinar is more than
10% under or
significantly over time
N/A N/A Webinar meets time
requirements to
within +10/-10%

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Individual Assignment: Reflective Journal     

Individual Assignment: Reflective Journal







Table of Contents

Introduction. 3

Important Learnings. 3

Team Communication. 3

Organisational Communication. 5

Conclusion. 6

References. 7


This reflective journal will allow to express personal evaluation in growth in skill and knowledge throughout the subject. The basic focus of this reflective journal will be on two important topics explored in the course. The reflective journal will not only discuss about understanding of the topic, but also will reflect upon how it would contribute to role in work or business. The reflection journal will describe personal experience and the events taking place during the course, if there are any. The events have been interpreted and evaluated from personal perspective like; what is personal thinking about it? How it is related to other things already known along with reflection upon connections with other learning, revealing of new thoughts, etc.

Important Learnings

There are two important topics learned through the course, communicating in the 21st Century. The two important topics include organisational communication and team communication. The team communication as well as the organisational communication were the key learning activities from the course that are really going to help me in the future. The team communication will specifically help me while working in team or in a group. On the other hand, the organisational communication will benefit me in my professional life where I will have to work with a particular organisation.

Team Communication

Learning about team communication was very useful and effective learning experience for me. Before, learning about team communication, I really did not had much idea and experience of working in a team, hence, identifying problems within a role, and knowledge and skill to resolve differences among the team members. The encounter of learning about team communication has a great contribution towards my knowledge and skill to work in a team currently as well as in the future (Gillespie, 2010).

There are five important elements of learning through the topic Team Communication, lecture 4. The first important element through the course was identification of the reasons behind people joining and subsequently leaving different groups. The other main thing learnt was about the concepts of social loafing and synergy. Before, going into the course, I had familiarity with the concept of Synergy but, was not clear about its application in team communication (Trilling, 2009). It has been found through literature review that existence of synergy between different teams, groups, and individuals in an organisation is critical to the success of an organisation (Ruck, 2012). On the other hand, the concept of social loafing was a new concept for me. Had I not got the chance to go through the communication course, I would not have been able to learn, understand, and apply the concept in my current as well as in the future personal and professional life (Trilling, 2009).

The third important element of learning under the topic team communication was explanation of norms and dynamics of roles within a group. Before, taking the course, I had general knowledge about working in a group. This group has helped in learning specific norms and dynamics of roles working within a team. Moreover, before going through the course, I had really no knowledge about different stages and phases of development in a group. The topic of team communication has helped me in learning that there are five stages or phases in group development like; forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. I learnt about the different phases and learnt what activities are performed and how to communicate during those stages and phases. Moreover, I used to use the terms team and group interchangeably. The course has helped me learning about the perceived and real differences between a team and a group  (Trilling, 2009).

The other important things learned through the course, through the topic of team communication include; explanation of differences and similarities between work teams and sports teams; explanation of weaknesses and strengths of work teams; explanation of weaknesses and strengths of virtual teams; and explanation of different types of communication skills which can be utilised in teams and groups  (Trilling, 2009).

As a class we went through different phases, events, and activities, where I got the opportunity to apply the concepts gained through the course particularly, through the topic of team communication. One important thing that I noticed during the application of team communication concept while working with my colleagues as a team was that real life and the theory have certain gaps. The real-life event does not take place as we assume or perceive in theory. So, there are certain things in communication that we learn through personal experience like learning about behaviour and attitude of different team members (Koseoglu, 2010). Nevertheless, it was a very useful experience to learn and apply the concepts of team communication.

Organisational Communication

The other main important topic learnt through the course is organisational communication. This topic is much more important than the topic of team communication as the topic organisational communication is much broader in scope in comparison to team communication (Ruck, 2012). However, it is same with the both that there are a number of things learnt under the topic, organisational communication.

One of the most important thing learnt through the course under the topic of organisational communication is learning about different types of channels which can be used in organisational communication. Earlier, I did not had knowledge about existence of different communication channels within an organisation. For example; memos, formal meetings, focus groups, plenary briefings, newsletters, videotapes, websites, email, instant messaging, charts and posters, informal meetings, etc. I also understood about nature of downward, upward, and horizontal communication patterns. It has been found through literature review that successful organisations around the world have all the communication channels in place and are implemented effectively like the existence of communication between different levels and layers and between the individuals from same level or layer hence, communication from the top management to the bottom of the organisation (Lingard, 2008).

Before, taking the course, I lack the knowledge about the importance of organisational design regarding organisational communication. This course has equipped with necessary knowledge about how organisational design factors affect organisational communication like centralised versus decentralised and tall versus flat. The other important element of learning was understanding the concepts of network roles, network organisation, and networking strategies. For example, network roles include; liaison, bridge, isolate, cosmopolite, gatekeeper, opinion leader, and power behind the throne. Furthermore, the other element of learning was identification of different aspects of culture of an organisation  (Trilling, 2009).

Before, going through the course and the topic of organisational communication, I had no idea about the concept of knowledge management, hence, its relationship with organisational communication. I have been able to gain very important and useful knowledge and skill to understand relationship between organisational communication and knowledge management. Moreover, it would help me in my future professional life in building an effective organization by focusing on developing relationship between organisational communication and knowledge management  (Trilling, 2009).

Overall, if discuss about any particular incidents took place during the course learning, there were not any such serious one. However, the learning took place in very effective learning setting. The class went through many theories and had the chances to apply the theories in different activities like assessments. The important thing as discussed earlier during the application of organisational communication concept while working with my colleagues, as an organisation was that real life and the theory have certain gaps. The real-life event does not take place as we assume or perceive in theory. So, there are certain things in communication that we learn through personal experience like learning about behaviour and attitude of different team members and individuals working in the organisation. Nevertheless, it was a very useful experience to learn and apply the concepts of team communication.

Furthermore, ensuring I consolidate the social procedure as indicated by the culture I am working with will unquestionably prompt better group relations and a more fruitful result for any organization I may work for. While this data is illustrated in a straightforward way, the general population placing it without hesitation should be genuinely steady individuals that comprehend the genuine significance of collaboration. Likewise being a really pleasant individual, with great conduct, will enable the correspondence to process work less demanding and speedier, so this ought to dependably be kept in the brain of the individual adding to the correspondence procedure. You can’t instruct somebody to be pleasant; they either are or are most certainly not.


This reflective journal will allow to express personal evaluation in growth in skill and knowledge throughout the subject. There are two important topics learned through the course, communicating in the 21st Century. The two important topics include organisational communication and team communication. The team communication as well as the organisational communication were the key learning activities from the course that are really going to help me in the future. The team communication will specifically help me while working in team or in a group. On the other hand, the organisational communication will benefit me in my professional life where I will have to work with a particular organisation.


Den Otter, A. a. E. S., 2007. Exploring effectiveness of team communication: Balancing synchronous and asynchronous communication in design teams. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 14(5), pp. 408-419.

Gillespie, B. C. W. L. P. a. W. M., 2010. The impact of organisational and individual factors on team communication in surgery: a qualitative study. International journal of nursing studies, 47(6), pp. 732-741.

Koseoglu, M. B. C. P. J. a. C. S., 2010. Knowledge management, organisational communication and job satisfaction: An empirical test of a five-star hotel in Turkey. International Journal of Leisure and Tourism Marketing, 1(4), pp. 323-343.

Lingard, L. R. G. O. B. R. R. B. G. D. D. E. S. B. J. a. W. S., 2008. Evaluation of a preoperative checklist and team briefing among surgeons, nurses, and anesthesiologists to reduce failures in communication. Archives of surgery, 143(1), pp. 12-17.

Ruck, K. a. W. M., 2012. Valuing internal communication; management and employee perspectives. Public Relations Review, 38(2), pp. 294-302.

Trilling, B. a. F. C., 2009. Organisational Communication . In: 3rd, ed. 21st century skills: Learning for life in our times. s.l.:John Wiley & Sons.

Trilling, B. a. F. C., 2009. Team Communication. In: 3rd, ed. 21st century skills: Learning for life in our times. s.l.:John Wiley & Sons.

Welch, M. a. J. P., 2007. Rethinking internal communication: a stakeholder approach. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 12(2), pp. 177-198.

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Develop a Change Management Strategy-ANSWER



Develop a Change Management Strategy


Tables of Content

  1. Abstract
  2. Identification of Change Goals and its Impact

      – Who and what is impacted

      – How they are impacted

      – When the impacts will be realised

  1. Identification of Change Goals in respect to Organization’s Strategic Goals
  2. Cost-benefit Analysis of Each Change Requirements

      – Change requirements

      – Costs of changes

      – Risks involved

      – Possible Benefits of each change

      – Assessment of benefits against costs and risks

      – Categorised Changes: feasible, may be feasible and not feasible

  1. Risk Analysis of Change Requirements

     – Identification of risks and barriers

     – Analysis and evaluation of risks and barriers

    – Identify mitigation strategy

  1. Develop a Change Management Project Plan

    – Stakeholder management

    – Communication plan

    – Education/training plan

  1. Measuring/Reporting Strategy

    – How to measure success

   – How to report success: format of report, when and to whom will it be produced.

  1. Conclusion
  2. Abstract


Fast Track Couriers is a logistics and distribution company. This study involves the development of a chain management strategy for the betterment of the company. It involves the identification of the changes required by the company like adaptation to PDA and GPS system and following the policy of one person per truck and how it is related to the organization’s strategic goals. The report also includes a cost-benefit and risk analysis for the change requirements. It asses how beneficial the chain management strategy would be and what risks it could face. It also identifies the roles of the stakeholders in the company and the communication and training program for the change requirements.

  1. Identification of the change requirements and its impact

The following are the change requirements needed to be implemented at Fast Track Couriers:

  • Implementation of GPS and PDA devices on every truck
  • Implementation of a new policy one person per truck
  • Implementation of using automatic lift gates

Now let’s assess who, how and when these aforesaid change requirements affect the different aspects of the company.

2.1 Change1 – Implementation of GPS/PDA devices on truck fleet

The implementation of PDA and GPS devices on the truck fleet will definitely improve the performance of the company but people who will be affected by this change will be the truck drivers. The truck drivers might resist to this change as they may feel that the management does not trust them and their whereabouts which is why they need a tracking device on the truck. The impact of this change can be realised within a few months of its implementation and would improve the business performance by predicting the traffic conditions and other obstacles and thus choosing a route that will save delivery time.

2.2 Change2 – Implementation of One Person per Truck Policy

This change will most definitely increase the business for the company as they could now expand their trucks numbers and employ the drivers to those trucks, increasing the business. However this change won’t be accepted by the truck drivers because they enjoyed a companion in the truck while travelling to a long route. This way they would feel that the company is dividing them and make their work lazier. The impact of this change can be seen as soon as it is implemented. If the truck drivers do not accept this change there is a possibility of a strike and if the truck drivers accept it willingly, the company can gain more business from the new trucks.

2.3 Change3 – Implementation of Automatic Lift Gates

Automatic lift gates will make the task of loading and unloading the goods much easier. It will be a helpful too for the truck drivers as they now don’t have to manually load and unload the stuff. However this change is only acceptable by the truck drivers if they still have a companion with them while on the run. If the company adopts the one person per truck policy and to make work easier implements these gates, then truck drivers might resist it. The impact of the change can be seen immediately as the loading and unloading of the items will become easier for the drivers and will require minimal physical strength.

  1. Identify change requirements in relation to organization’s strategic goals

The strategic goal of Fast Track Couriers is to increase their market share and gain some more business. The change requirements identified aforesaid would impact the company’s strategic goals in the following way:

3.1 Change1 – Installation of GPS/PDA devices and organization’s strategic goals

This change requirement is vital to the company as it ensures the optimum use of resources to cover the needs of the market. With these devices management can not only look at the raw hours spent at the job but will also consider other factors like traffic conditions and job difficulty in order to optimize truck fleet usage. This will get them more business. This change also measures the job performance and recognizes those good at it.

3.2 Change 2 – Implementation of One Person per Truck Policy and Automatic Lift Gates

With this change, the company can indulge in to optimum use of resources to cover the needs of the market. It will also help them save the cost of hiring external trucks to complete their orders, instead will use the secondary drivers to the new trucks and increase their business share in the market. Also the automatic lift gates would reduce the delivery time since loading and unloading of the items would become easy and less manual.

  1. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Change Requirements

It is estimated that if the aforesaid goals are achieved as per the instructions then there will be an increase in the net profit by $2000000 because of increased business and efficiency. Change is inevitable and with every change there is some extra cost involved. Let’s assess whether the cost incurred on implementing these changes are actually benefitting the company or they are shelling out thousands of dollars in vain.

4.1 Change Requirements:

The change requirements as said before are the implementation of PDA and GPS systems on truck fleets and use of automatic lift gates.

4.2 Cost of Change

The budget proposed for the change strategy exclusive of the technology, lift gates and cost of new trucks is estimated to $25000. The new trucks could cost atleast $7000 per truck while the technology like PDA and GPS devices costs $2500 per device and lift gates would amount up to $3000 per truck. Though this is a onetime cost and can be considered as a fixed asset, however you may have to incur costs on fuel, its maintenance and especially training. The trainer for PDA/GPS charges $150 per hour while lift gates trainer costs $150 per hour, as per the requirement.

4.3 Risks Involved

The risk involved with the expenses incurred on the truck is related to how accepting your workforce is to these changes and whether they will give some fruitful results or not. Truck drivers can resist a few changes like accepting PDA or GPS systems in their trucks or not accepting the one person per truck policy. This could result in loss of expenses. Another risk that the company can face due to these changes is technical. The devices and automatic lift gates require maintenance and lot of care while handling it. If any major part of the device is broken then it will call for huge repairing or replacing expenses. Also the drivers and staff might resist participating in the training program and does not turn up for it. Thus the payment made to the trainers can be futile and a bad expense for the company.

4.4 Possible benefits of each change

Every change that is implemented by the management is to offer some benefits to the company. Let’s see the probable benefits of these changes:

  • Installing PDA and GPS systems can allow fast delivery of products as drivers can come to know about the shortest routes or which route has what amount of traffic. It also helps the staff to analyse what difficulties are faced by the employees and whether or not the resources are being utilised optimally.
  • Implementing the policy of one person per truck can improve the performance efficiency of the truck drivers and help them concentrate on their work.
  • Installing automatic lift gates allow easy and quick loading and unloading of the goods.

4.5 Assessment of benefits against cost and risks

Though these changes implemented in the company provide a good deal of benefits to the company but there is always the issue of whether the benefits are complementing the cost incurred and risk involved. Let’s assess the benefits against the cost and the risk.

There can be two scenarios – the workforce accepts the changes and vice-versa. In scenario one where the workforce accepts the change, the cost and risks are justified by the benefits the changes provide. Since the staff will take the training programs they will know how to use it which will reduce the chances of destroying the devices, thus saving the repairing costs.

However in scenario two, though the changes will offer the same benefits but the staff might not feel comfortable using the devices and may not be proficient in using it which could increase the cost of repair and replacement.

4.6 Categorise changes as Feasible, Not feasible and may be feasible

Feasible changes are those that are willingly accepted by the employees – installing automatic lift gates.

May be feasible changes are those where the management is dicey whether the employees will accept it or not – installing PDA/GPS systems

Not feasible changes are those which are resisted by the employees – one person per truck policy.

  1. Risk Analysis

Change is synonymous with risk. With every change there are certain risks involved which you cannot afford to ignore. Let’s analyse the risks involved with the aforesaid changes made in the company.

4.1 Identification of Risks

Risks identified with these changes can vary from resistance to change by employees to far more sever risks of strikes.

  • Installing PDA devices on the truck fleet can result in drivers thinking that the management doesn’t trust them, hence resist the change
  • Enforcing the policy of one person per truck will result in severe consequences as the drivers can go on strike because the company is trying to take away their companions on the wheel to increase their benefit.
  • They might not feel that the training methods involved are fruitful and would not participate in them.

4.2 Analysis and Evaluation of Risks and Barriers

The above mentioned risks can result into losses for the company, especially if the truck drivers go on strike. The company has incurred so much on these changes and if the employees are not accepting it willingly they might have to force the changes into the system. This may result in loss of staff thereby loss of business.

4.3 Identify Mitigation Strategy

In order to overcome these risks, the management should consider what the employees prefer. As far as the risk of truck drivers believing that PDA devices are to keep a check on their whereabouts, the management can communicate with them and tell them the need of the devices and how beneficial it could be for them too. As far as the risk of strike is considered due to the new policy of one person per truck, this change can be forced on to them or give them some benefit to mitigate the policy. Coming on to the risk of attending training programs for understanding the different devices installed, the management can offer them some incentives and make the program entertaining as well as informative for them.

  1. Development of Change Management Project Plan

Change management is a process employed by the management to make sure that the changes decided by the board are implemented in a proper order and in an administered and systematic manner to effect the organizational change.

The ultimate driving force for the success of organizational change can be the change management theories. There are various models and theories propounded by many theorists regarding change management like ADKAR Model, Six Change Approach and many others.

Let’s discuss the Six Change Approach propounded by Kotter and Schlesinger. This theory is designed in order to prevent or reduce the resistance of change by the employees. This model is beneficial for any sized organization as it helps in covering issues many organizations might not have even witnessed. According to this model, the approaches react to the four vital factors of employee resistance – misunderstanding, self-interest, low tolerance for change and employee disagreement with reasoning.

The approaches formulated to deal with the changes are:

  • Educating and communicating the employees to see the logic behind the change
  • Letting the employees participate and involve in the change so that they feel valued and important
  • Support of the management to the employees to help them deal with the anxiety and fear of change
  • Offering incentives and negotiating with the employees so that they willingly accept the change
  • Manipulating or co-opting by bringing a third person into the change management group
  • The last and not so commonly approach is to force the employees to accept change whether explicitly or implicitly.

6.1 Components of Change Management Project Plan

A change management project plan comprises of various factors like stakeholders, communication plan, training programs, and others. Let’s look into the change management project plan of Fast Track Couriers:

6.1.1 Stakeholders:

The stakeholders of the company are the board of directors, the general manager/CFO, HR manager, Sales manager, Office manager and Truck manager. Each of them has their own particular responsibilities.

The general manager oversees the company and plans all the strategic goals and changes required; the HR manager is responsible to oversee and implement the change implemented in the company, collects feedback from the employees and customers and assess the results; Sales manager is responsible to coordinate with the sales team and provide them the necessary training for effective performance; the office manager is responsible to coordinate the activities of the accountant as well as administration and the truck manager is responsible in coordinating the activities of the trucking team and manage their performance.

6.1.2 Communication Plan:

The communication plan should address to truck drivers and the office staff with a message to tell them about the implementation of the PDA/GPS systems, one person per truck policy and implementation of automatic lift gates. The communication should be forwarded to the respective employees as soon as the management decides to implement it via newsletter and face-to-face communication. The person responsible to make this communication should be the HR manager, office manager and truck manager.

6.1.3 Education/Training Plan:

The participants required to take the training and education programs are the truck drivers and the office staff and sales team. The skills imparted via this training program will be the way the PDA and GPS systems will be used effectively and how to use the automatic lift gates. This training program shall occur once the employees have accepted the change implemented by the management. The training shall be delivered by a PDA/GPS trainer and a Lift trainer in a classroom as well as on-the-job.

6.1.4 Measurement/Reporting Strategy

The HR manager will measure the success of the project plan by using a mandatory project management template where the green colour indicated completes, amber indicates in progress and red indicates incomplete. The reports shall be produced fortnightly and the General Manager, HR manager, Sales manager, Office manager and the Truck manager.

  1. Conclusion

Fast Track Couriers should implement these changes so that the company can achieve success in a longer run. Even if the workforce is resistant to the changes, the management should explain them how these changes can benefit them as well as the company. they should make sure that the changes do not occur in any kind of job dissatisfaction else they could lose their most valuable asset- the employees. Managing and reporting the effects of the change is an essential aspect of the change management project plan.

  1. References

Case Study: Develop a change management strategy

P Kotter, LA Schlesinger – 1979: Choosing strategies for change

JP Kotter – 1996: Leading change

CD Ruta – Human Resource Management, 2005: The application of change management theory to HR portal implementation in subsidiaries of multinational corporations







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Management of Facility Management in Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital-Answer


Management of Facility Management in Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital


Table of Contents

  1. Summary: 2

2: Facility management in Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital 2

2.1 Transformational initiative. 2

2.2 Preventive measures. 3

2.3 Internal and external Customer services. 3

  1. Implementation of Facility management in GMC hospitals. 4

3.1 Transformational initiative. 4

3.2 Preventive measures. 4

3.3 Internal and external Customer services. 4

Reference List : 5



1.  Summary:

The Hong Kong special Administrative region outsourced the need of facility management in the clinical services which are by the means of hospitality services. There are some of the departments that help in the repairing of the structural defects of the organization. The electrical and Mechanical service department (EMSD) and the architectural service department (ASD) are the organisations that help in the repairing of the damaged buildings and scientific equipments. The heads of the repair and maintenance section in the hospitals are responsible for identification of some of the lacking in the internal and external environment. Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital under took an initiative to mend the transformational changes which revolves around topics like improving the communication system between the professionals and also with the patients. The rules and regulations of the organisation are customer centric which believes in  providing quality services in terms of clinical assistance, medication, housekeeping and infrastructural facilities. Preventive measures revolve around the damages caused to the floors of the hospital and its urgent report to the concerned authorities. Along with that the complain box will enhance the process of facility management which will be complimented with the training sessions of the professionals. GMC hospitals in UAE have been suggested to undergo the mentioned services to improve its present status in the society. The mission, vision and regulations of the hospital is assured to be improved with the introduction of ICT system, collaboration with the technical agencies and practicing the feedback policies.

2: Facility management in Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital

2.1 Transformational initiative

The management of Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital has started the facility management with a common belief of better customers service and satisfaction of internal customers. The people in the hospital started the transformational programme with the improved communication level with the hospitality professionals and the patients as well. Along with that the international practices for proliferates the services are another transformational activity of the hospital (, 2015).

Alexander (1994) stated that to practice the best services for the service users and the service providers there needs to be a good organisational structure to accommodate the internal and external customers. In this manner the rules and regulations of the hospital will be spread to the associates and there will be a practice of the centralized decision making process. Another suggestion suggests that there needs to be a balance between the internal and external environment. For this cause the strategic development procedure is followed which includes the updates of the external service uses, financial constraints, expected skills in the work place, cost efficiency of the resources (Chandler, 1962).

2.2 Preventive measures

As suggested by Brech (1957) there must be awareness about the facilities provided by the competitors. After the hospital got a review about the negligence appeared by public hospitals it appointed some of the professional to regularly check the conditions of the building. The areas included floors, electrical, toilets, ceilings and the entrance pathways. It also decided to contact the electrical and mechanical service development at the time of extensive care. The artisans appointed for this job were facilitated with tool box. With these steps the identification of the deficiencies became traceable and easily mended. The establishment of these practices has been a result of the buildup partnership with the Architectural Service department and Electrical and Mechanical service department. To omit the barriers of communication between the technical professionals and hospital professional, the organization appointed a contractor who works as a intermediate between the two entities (Gilleard et al. 2001). To ensure the quality management the relationship between them were build on the base of trust for the delivery of services treating the deficiencies properly.

2.3 Internal and external Customer services

The use of internal housekeeping has been undertaken by the hospital with the help of the Service Master to satisfy the professional and the service users. The problems like absenteeism and low work quality were resolved with the training and motivational activities. To satisfy the external customers the hospital enabled a system of feedback and complains (Do et al. 2009). Along with that the pest control system was introduced to produce customer friendly environment in the hospital. Along with the monitoring services beautification of the environment was also done (Wan Yeung KamaeShim, 1999).

3. Implementation of Facility management in GMC hospitals

3.1 Transformational initiative

The hospital follows the core values of its organisation which depends upon the excellence and ethics. The ethics are the practices emphasizing the dignity and respect for the service users. The communication levels between the service providers like the doctors, nurses and the house keepers need to be in direct contact with the service users. GMC group follows the concept of team work but it can be improvised with the integrated communication system through ICT (Mintzberg, 1979).      

3.2 Preventive measures

The patient safety and cost effective services is the mission of GMC hospitals. The research centre of the hospital can be equipped with new technological machines and latest learning. There can be a set up of a separate team for the maintaining the regular check on the infrastructure deficiencies that can be soon identified and at major cases can be shifted to the Electrical and Mechanical departments (Smith, 1995).  The partnership with the concerned bodies can be a plus point for the organisation as it will be supporting financially and ethically by giving professional suggestions for the betterment (, 2015).

3.3 Internal and external Customer services

To excel the services a continuous learning system need to be implemented in the organisation. The clinical practices that are clinically proved need to be brought into mind of the researchers in the research department. Proper training and incentives on performances can boost the process of quality service by the professionals. To satisfy the external customers a separate complain panel can be introduced in the floor of the hospital as well as online. Surveys can be a part of the facility management in which it would be able to gather dissatisfactory comments from the patients which can be resolved in future (Yik et al. 2012).

Reference List :


Brech, E. (1957). Organisation, the framework of management. London]: Longmans.

Chandler, A. (1962). Strategy and structure: chapters in the history of the industrial enterprise. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press.

Mintzberg, H. (1979). The structuring of organizations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.


Alexander, K. (1994). “A Strategy for Facilities Management”. Facilities, 12(11), pp.6-10.

Do Carmo CacciaaeBava, M., Guimaraes, V. and Guimaraes, T. (2009). “Testing some major determinants for hospital innovation success”. International J Health Care QA, 22(5), pp.454-470.

Gilleard, J. and Wan Yeung Kamaeshim, M. (2001). “Putting the yin and yang into performance contracting”. Facilities, 19(5/6), pp.186-194.

Smith, D. (1995). “Changing roles and responsibilities in healthaecare facilities management”. Facilities, 13(1), pp.11-15.

Yik, F., Lai, J. and Yuen, P. (2012). “Impacts of facility service procurement methods on perceived performance of hospital engineering services”. Facilities, 30(1/2), pp.56-77.

Wan Yeung KamaeShim, M. (1999). “Managing change: facilities management at the Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital”. Facilities, 17(3/4), pp.86-90.

Websites:, (2015). Corperate Objective-GMC Hospitals in UAE. [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Mar. 2015]., (2015). Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital. [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Mar. 2015].

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Table of Contents

Assessment 1: 3

Assessment 2: 4

Q1. Serving as a positive role model in workplace: 4

Q2. Different technologies used to manage work priorities: 4

Q3. Benefits of business networking: 5

Q4. Meaning of SWOT analysis and its usefulness: 6

Q5. Principles and techniques involved in performance measurement: 6

Q6. Honey & Mumford’s Activist, Pragmatist, Reflector and Theorist: 7

Q7. Benefits of goal setting and its application: 8

Q8. Different learning styles: 9

Q9. Different legislations which affect personal work priorities: 9

Q10. Techniques for effective time management: 10

Q11.Personal factors which affect managing personal work priorities and professional development: 10

Q12. Scenario based time management process: 11

Reference List: 13

Assessment 1:

Being a business administration student, I have certain predetermined professional aims. As far as my short term professional aim is concerned, I want to place myself in a leadership position in any reputed business organization. I have a long term aim of achieving a management position in the same organization within the next 5 years of time. Presently I am working as a team leader in my present organization. My organization reflects a lucrative opportunity for me in which I can place myself in the management position of the company within the next 5 years of time. As far as my financial goal is concerned, I will try to get a salary hike in this organization within the next two years of time and will draw a handsome salary from the company. As a part of my personal goals, I have decided that I will not allow my professional life to devour my personal and family life. Within the stipulated working hour, I will try to finish all my organizational responsibilities and the rest of the day’s life I will save for my social and family life. I will also pay heed to my health condition. In order to perform my organizational duties with success, I will surely not compromise with my health conditions.

By conducting a 360 degree feedback performance evaluation process amongst my employers, colleagues, and subordinates from whom I can gather valid feedbacks about my performance in the organization, I will be able to identify the areas where I have certain limitations and I need to develop myself. Following the feedbacks, I will be able to design a professional development plan for myself. The development plan will include the goals that I need to reach, specific career options attached with those goals, resources and strategies employed for attaining those goals and specific time frame assigned to those goals.

Goals to achieveResources or strategies employedSpecific time frame to achieve goalsFuture career option
Learn effective listening skillsInvolving more in team works

More involvement in decision making and problem solving sessions

6 MonthsWill be able to extract innovation from my team members
Learn team handling skillsEncouragement to work in teams

Assigning leadership roles

1 YearWill be able to work in teams and be able to lead others towards organizational objectives
Learn time management skillsPrioritizing work

Creation of checklist

Goal setting

3 monthsWill be able to complete organizational responsibilities within stipulated time

Table 1: Professional Development Plan

(Source: Created by Author)

Assessment 2:

Q1. Serving as a positive role model in workplace:

A positive role model always plays the role of a catalyst for a business organization. It is the responsibility of the role model to inspire and motivate others working in the same organization in such a way that the overall productivity and efficiency of the organization can be improved to a great extent (Varga, 2011). A positive role model should reflect his/her own performance as a standard performance following with other employees in the same organization should try to improve their own individual performance. A role model should always be positive minded, diligent, work centric and inspiring.

In my own organization, I want to inspire my colleagues, subordinates and others in such an effective way that the overall productivity of the organization can be improved by a considerable margin. For this, I have to fit myself in the position of a positive role model in front of my colleagues, subordinates and others in the organization. I always try to infuse in them the required confidence and motivation with which they will be able to perform their organizational responsibilities with success. I always pay acute attention to their opinions and try to include a reflection of their opinions in the organizational process.

Q2. Different technologies used to manage work priorities:

PDA (Personal Digital Assistance): PDAs in today’s time are found in the form of Smartphone or similar kind of a gadget with internet connection and personalised organizer. In PDAs, an individual can perform many activities apart from making and receiving calls. In this gadget, an individual can compose, send and check emails, fix reminders, organize schedules and keep a well structured address book. These facilities will undoubtedly help an individual to manage work priorities.

CRM Database: customer relationship management database is an effective technology with which customer related data can be successfully collected and analysed. With the help of very technology, an organization will be able to successfully manage customer needs, demands and grievances.

Email: the ‘electronic mail’ services successfully replace the paper based organizational correspondence system. With this very service, an individual can compose, send and receive mails. The very service also allows sending and receiving important organizational documents, pictures and video files.

Internet: Internet services provide a large array of facilities to the individuals with which they can efficiently manage work priorities. Individuals will be able to surf the webpage of various other organizations, collect relevant information and utilize them in their own organization.

Project Management Database: it is an important technology thorough the different elements or information related to a project is illustrated in different models (hierarchical or flat). With the help of this very database, different works related to the project can be successfully managed.

Financial Programs: there are various financial programs available in the market like Intuit QuickBooks Pro 2010 which successfully manages the financial resources of a business organization and provide effective financial recommendation following which an organization will be able to prioritize its financial work activities (Muldoon, 2008).    

Q3. Benefits of business networking:

Among the major benefits of business networking, the mentionable ones are the creation of strategic partnership, easy access to necessary products and services, gaining comments from experts in order to improve business performance, sharing of effective ideas, formulation of mutual support mechanism and gaining ample stimulation to grow bigger and better. Among various effective business networking, customer centric business networking is probably the ideal one for me to join. Through this networking, I will be able to collect referrals from my existing customers who will be able to provide the personal details of those individuals who can be potential future customers.

Q4. Meaning of SWOT analysis and its usefulness:

SWOT analysis is an effective planning tool structured in order to highlight the potential strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that a particular project or a business venture posses. It is often argued that the very method uses to conduct both internal as well as external environment analysis of a business organization or sometimes that of an individual. The Strengths and Weakness of the very model reveals the internal environment of a business organization, whereas the opportunities and threats expose its external environment.

Figure 1: SWOT Analysis

(Source: Boyes, 2004, pp.114)

Q5. Principles and techniques involved in performance measurement:

The primary principles of performance measurement include that the measurement process should be in line with the organization mission, vision and objectives. The measurement parameters should be balanced and standardized. The measurement process should be relevant, dynamic and timely. Finally, it is really important that the measurement report should be communicated and documented (Ferguson, 2007). There are various performance measurement techniques available, amongst which the mentionable ones are Management by Objectives (MBO), 360 Degree feedback system and Graphic rating scales.

Q6. Honey & Mumford’s Activist, Pragmatist, Reflector and Theorist:

Honey and Mumford has successfully identified four specific learning styles usually adopted by different individuals. The duo has named those learners who prefer to adopt different learning styles as activist, theorist, pragmatist and reflector.

Activists: they prefer to learn by involving them in actions. They believe that only by experiencing real life facts, individuals can learn their lessons. It is necessary to involve activists in various brainstorming, role playing and problem solving sessions. These will help them to learn things easily.

Theorists: these learners prefer to find out the background theory behind every action. They use to show added reliance on the theories, models and conceptual frameworks (Muldoon, 2008). Theorists have a tendency to analyse collected information in a systematic pattern and synthesis the information in a logical theory. The learning patter for the theorists must include applications of various models, statistics and quotes.

Pragmatists: these learners prefer to find a reflection of their learning in practice. They use to reject abstract ideas until and unless a reflection of those ideas is evident in real life actions. Pragmatists love to experiment with new ideas. They are very good in case study analysis.

Reflectors: these learners prefer to learn by observing things which are taking place in their surroundings. Reflectors do not wish to participate in real action; instead they stand in the sideline to gather experiences from the action from others. Reflectors need to involve in paired discussions and in observing activities.

Figure 2: Honey & Mumford’s Activist, Pragmatist, Reflector and Theorist

(Source: Isemonger and Sheppard, 2003, pp.212)

Q7. Benefits of goal setting and its application:

Among the potential benefits of goal setting, the mentionable are:

  • Clarity in the focus of the organization
  • Effective use of available organizational resources
  • Efficient management of time
  • Conspicuous decision making process
  • Measurement of individual achievement using SMART objectives
  • Effective communication process between the various parts of the organization

In my organization, I use to set organizational goals by following certain specific steps. The steps can be arranged in the following numerical order:

  1. Final expectation from the process
  2. Fixing up a deadline for the process
  3. Locating the impediments that may come during the process
  4. Analysis of knowledge, skills and information required
  5. Selection of competent human resources
  6. Formulation of a plan including activities arranged sequence and priority wise
  7. Implementing a monitoring process and impart rectification
  8. Fulfilment of the target within the stipulated time frame.

Q8. Different learning styles:

There are three major types of learning styles available. The types are visual, auditory and kinesthetic.

Visual learning style: in this learning style, learners are taught through various visual objects like charts, diagrams, pictures and graphs. The picturesque presentation of the learning material helps learners to memorise the information easily (Cunningham et al. 2000). In this learning style, the learners use to grasp lectures through watching at the presentations of the study material.

Auditory learning style: in this learning style, the learners use to collect information through their effective speaking and hearing. By following auditory learning style, the learners use to record the lectures, mug up the study material by reading the notes loud. These learners prefer to study in groups.

Kinesthetic learning style: the learners who use to show added faith in this learning style prefer to move during learning. The best features of a kinetic learner include effective hand-eye coordination, effective reception power and excellent experimentation power (Dyrud, 1997). It is observed that kinesthetic learners use to be quite good at performing arts.

 Q9. Different legislations which affect personal work priorities:

Among the major workplace related legislations designed by the government of Australia, the Fair Work Act 2009 is perhaps the most important legislation which has a direct impact on my own work priorities. The act specifically mentions the minimum employment standard for all the workers of Australia (, 2015). The way, in which the very act raises its voice against discrimination at workplace, I often have to maintain a strict look on my workplace in order to ensure the equality amongst the employees is properly maintained. The very act categorically fixes maximum working hour for the workers, by following which I am forced to accomplish my organizational responsibilities within the stipulated time frame. Again, the instructions of the Work Health and Safety Act, 2011 compel me to give utmost priority to workplace health and safety in which I try to ensure that my colleagues and subordinates are not susceptible to any workplace risks and hazards. The Corporations Act 2001 critically reveals the urgency of maintaining a proper financial record for business organizations. By following the rules of this very act, I prefer to give priorities to the financial issues of the company even if any other business activity of the organization has urgency.

Q10. Techniques for effective time management:

Among various effective time management techniques, goal tracking, creation of checklist and priority setting can be considered as the most effective ones. Goal tracking allows individuals to fix specific goals in front of them and attach specific time frame for the fulfilment of each and every goal (Rivera, 2007). In this system, an individual can fix both long term and short term goals. It is essential to note that the goals fixed by the individual should be quantifiable. To effectively utilize the time, an individual needs to keep track of the goals fixed by him/her. Listing of activities is an effective time management technique in which an individual can create a list of activities that he/she has to complete within a stipulated time frame (MacKellar, 1991). In this technique, the individual will be able to put a check mark beside those activities which he/she can complete within the stipulated time. Setting up priorities is another effective time management technique with the help of which an individual can conduct a filtering process. Through this process, only those activities will be identified which needs to be conducted urgently. The prioritization of activities will enable an individual to successfully utilize the stipulated time.

Q11.Personal factors which affect managing personal work priorities and professional development:

A discussion on the personal factors which can impart a negative impact on the management of work priorities and personal as well as professional development reveals that the following factors have the potentiality to do harm to the work priority management and professional development process:

  • Congested work schedule
  • Physical disability
  • Substance abuse
  • Inadequacy of proper skills and knowledge
  • Idleness
  • Having difficulty in facing unfavourable outcomes

Q12. Scenario based time management process:

In order to relieve her stress, Vicki can successfully adopt effective time management techniques and goal setting process. In order to effectively manage the time, Vicki can prioritize her pending activities by sequencing the activities staring from the most urgent activity to the least important activity. She can even think of preparing a to-do list which she will maintain and will place a check mark against each activity once the very activity gets completed.

Importance TaskCompleted
1Respond to 6 customer enquiries
2Answering of the incoming calls and  attend the walk-in customers
3Prepare the banking and reconcile the end of day takings
4Prepare the mail for dispatch
5Bind reports for the sales department
6Finish the minutes of yesterday’s meetings
7Arrange for the staff break-up for next month
8Order the weekly stationary supplies
9Finish the filing

Table 2: To-Do List for Vicki

(Source: Created by Author)

Reasons for prioritizing the activities:

Respond to 6 customer enquiriesThe primary concern for any business organization is its customers
Answering of the incoming calls and  attend the walk-in customersAttending walk-in customers is necessary as it helps to generate sales
Prepare the banking and reconcile the end of day takingsThe Corporations Act 2001 gives utmost importance to the maintenance of proper financial records for any business organization
Prepare the mail for dispatchOrganizational communication is essential to ensure smooth operational process
Bind reports for the sales departmentSales is an integral part for any business organization which provides financial profit to organizations
Finish the minutes of yesterday’s meetingsKeeping track of organizational meeting is important
Arrange for the staff break-up for next monthThis is not an immediate activity and thus can be done later on
Order the weekly stationary suppliesThis is also not an immediate activity and can be done later on
Finish the filingThis is important to wrap up the day’s job

Figure 3: Reasons for prioritizing activities

(Source: Created by Author)

Reference List:


Cunningham, I., Bennett, B. and Dawes, G. (2000). Self managed learning in action. Aldershot, Hampshire, England: Gower.

Ferguson, K. (2007). Personal and Professional Development (PPD) Facilitators’ Guide. London : MedEdPORTAL Publications.

Muldoon, N. (2008). Self-direction and lifelong learning in the information age. Rockhampton, Qld.: Central Queensland University.

Rivera, C. (2007). Time management. Chandni Chowk, Delhi: Global Media.

Varga, A. (2011). Time management. New York: Nova Science Publishers.


Boyes, C. (2004). ‘Discourse analysis and personal/professional development’. Radiography, 10(2), pp.109-117.

Dyrud, M. (1997). ‘Learning Styles’. Business Communication Quarterly, 60(2), pp.124-125.

Isemonger, I. and Sheppard, C. (2003). ‘Learning Styles’. RELC Journal, 34(2), pp.195-222.

MacKellar, G. (1991). ‘Time and resource management: the time plan’. Engineering Management Journal, 1(2), p.77.

Website: (2015) National Employment Standards, Available at: [Accessed on 26th February, 2015]

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Table of Contents

Introduction. 3

Asessment1: Developing Recruitment Paperwork. 3

Job Description 1. 3

Job Description 2. 5

Assessment2: Staff Recruitment Role-Play. 7

Selection Criteria. 7

Candidate 1 (Post – Project Manager) (Interview). 7

Candidate 2 (Post – Project Manager) (Interview). 8

Selection. 8

Negotiation of the Salary and Employment Conditions. 8

Result in Writing (Successful). 9

Result in Writing (Unsuccessful). 9

Assessment3: Written Test. 9

Q1. Supervision of the management of the Probational Employees. 9

Q2. Description of Principles. 10

Q3. Detailing Three Different Specialist. 10

Q4. Employee Contracts. 10

Q5. Work Cover Payments. 11

Q6. Ways of Employing Someone. 11

Q7. Psychometric and Skills Testing Programs. 12

Q8. Refusal of Reference checks. 12

Q9. Encouraging Candidate to reference check. 12

Q10. Encouraging Employer to reference check. 13

Q11. HR Life Cycle. 13

Q12. Discussing the Various Principles. 13

Conclusion. 14

Reference list. 15


The recruitment process and the selection process is a very important part in the activities under the HRM (Human Resource Management). This is a process through which the managers working under the HRM selects new candidates that will be working in the organization. This process involves a lot of process through which the candidates are selected. In the recent times, the competition levels have gone very high globally and therefore, the HRM managers are always involved in recruiting and selecting new individuals for the company they are working for. This is an ongoing process that helps to keep effective people in the organization that will perform in the best possible ways which will result in the betterment of the company. The man power of a company is very important to maintain for better results in terms of businesses (Dale, 2003). The different concepts, roles and theories are discussed in this assignment.

Asessment1: Developing Recruitment Paperwork

The new business that I want to develop is a website development company that will be designing and developing websites for the customers throughout the globe. The main work that will be involved within the organization will be the marketing that will fetch new customers from the different places in the world. A team will be there who will be designing and developing the websites in relation to the requirements of the client or the customer. There will be individuals who will be working as the customer relationship managers. Lastly, there will be a project manager who will be supervising the designing and the development teams within the company.

The job descriptions for the two different positions that are required in the organizations are mentioned below.

Job Description 1

Job Title – Project Manager

Skills and Competencies – Communication Skills, Interpersonal Skills, Knowledge of Web Design and Development, Leadership skills and conflict management.

Responsibilities – The individual should carry out all the work that has to be done through the designers and the developers until the websites is finally hosted in the domain. In between, any issues that arise should be sorted out and at the same time the customer should be kept satisfied. The individual should adopt strategies that will make the team work more efficiently and productively. The deadline given by the client should be met positively.

Job Experience:  2 to 3 Years

The individual opting for the post of the project managers should have every good communication skills as he has to interact with the team members including the web designers and the web developers. The individual should have proper and clear knowledge on the different languages of the web development and at the same time should know how the web designing is done. The individual should have a presentable behaviour and attitude that will help in maintaining the inter personal relationship with the team members of the company. A HR consultant may be consulted me in order to strategize the different plans related to the recruitment (Edenborough, 2005).

The advertisement that will be published should be smart and to the point. It should be short and effective. I will be using the newspaper advertisement as this would be highly effective in getting calls and emails. This is indeed a quicker process and that is why I have chosen it. In order to place the advertisement in the newspaper, I will have to talk to the newspaper agencies that will be helping me out in publishing the ads.

Once the ads are placed, I will be getting many calls and at the same time the emails will be sent to my email id that will have their resumes. There will be many candidates who are relevant to the job description and position while the others will not be relevant and the screening should be done in order to conduct the interviews of the relevant candidates. Once the candidates are sorted out, they will be called in for their interviews where the following questions will be asked and they are as follows;

Interview Questions

Q1. Why are you interested in working with us?

Q2. Tell me something about your past jobs and how you liked it and what was your performance?

Q3. What do you know about websites and the process of their development?

Q4. What will you do when conflict will arise among the employees working under you?

Q5. How will your presence help in enhancing the revenues of the company?

Q6. Are you comfortable with relocation in the future?

Print Media Advertisement

“We require professional and skilled project managers who are working for more than 2 years in the website development industry”

Online Media Advertisement

“Job Position – Project Manager

Job Type – Website Design and Development

Job Experience – 2 to 3 years

Joining – Urgent


Email ID. [email protected]

Job Description 2

Job Title – Customer Relationship Manager

Skills and Competencies – Communication Skills, Client Interaction, Internet and Typing Skills, Knowledge on website designing and development.

Responsibilities – The individual should be communicating with the customers and the clients who are existing ones and have problems with their websites. The individual should be more focused on the after sales support and help that the customers will require.

Job Experience:  1 to 2 Years

The one who is applying for this post should have very good communication skills and at the same time she should have a good grasp on the language of communication (Pollitt, 2007). The attitude should be acceptable and should be well behaved. The individual should know the different ways in convincing the customers. The person should possess some knowledge of website design and development. I may consult a customer care consultant in order to implement different strategies that are related to the recruitment and the selection process.

I would like to do the advertisements through the print media and that is the newspapers which is very effective in terms of getting calls and emails at a faster rate. The ads will be short and at the same time should be to the point. In order to place the ads in the different newspapers I would be consulting the different newspaper agencies that will surely help me in doing this.

After the ads are published, I will get a lot of calls and emails from the interested candidates. I will be doing the screening of the candidates which will remove the irrelevant candidates from the list. This is be followed by the conduction of the interviews of the relevant candidates and then the final screening will be taking place. The questions that will be asked are as follows;

Q1. Why are you interested in working with our company?

Q2. Tell me something about your past job experiences and how you liked or disliked it?

Q3. How was your performance in the last company that you worked with?

Q4. What are the ways through which our company can develop good customer relationship?

Q5. Do you have any issues with relocation that can happen in the future?

Print Media Ads

“We require a professional customer relationship manager for our organization that is based on the website design and development”

Online Media Ads

“Job Position – Customer Relationship manager

Job Type – Website Design and Development

Job Experience – 1 to 2 years

Joining – Urgent

Contact No. +12-3456789XXX

Email ID. [email protected]

Sample for Successful Letter

“On behalf of our company, we are glad to offer you the position of Project Manager or Customer relationship manager. Please come down to our office at XYZ and collect your appointment letter. The date of joining is on the 23rd of April, 2015 or otherwise the offer will be terminated.”

Sample for Successful Letter

” We are sorry to inform you that due to some unavoidable reasons we could not select you. Best wishes for your future.”

Induction Checklist

Personnel SpecificationsYes        No
Role of the JobYes        No
Key Point Indicators / BenchmarksYes        No
Organizational rules and policiesYes        No
Company LegislationsYes        No

Assessment2: Staff Recruitment Role-Play

Selection Criteria

The selection criteria are that the interviewee must be good in communication and should have sound knowledge of the field. The interviewee should have effective skills and competencies as far as the work is concerned. The interviewee should be confident in what he says during the interview.

Candidate 1 (Post – Project Manager) (Interview)

I have asked many questions that are mentioned in the assessment 1 and have seen that the candidate is confident with the job descriptions and has a good and a clear knowledge on website design and development. The leadership quality is also there but at the same time he is not responding to twisted questions. This may be due to the stress and lastly has a very good and a positive attitude towards the work. I have asked him about the different languages that are used in the development of the websites and he has answered that is a very structured manner which made me feel great about him. He also added that through past experiences he has learnt effective ways of client handling. This is an added advantage that I will be enjoying because there are many situations where client handling becomes very tough. The only problem that is there is the fact that he has been terminated from the last job due to some work oriented misconduct but I feel that this wouldn’t cause any problem for my company. He mentioned that he went through some problems regarding the behaviour of the managers in the company and therefore, he over reacted and thus, lost his job. These are common in many organizations and can be dealt with very effectively.

Candidate 2 (Post – Project Manager) (Interview)

This candidate is very nervous and is fumbling when questions are being asked. The answers are mostly in depth but he is deviating from the answers on a few questions. He speaks well and at the same time has a very good way of placing words. He has more than three years of experience in this field with a very good behaviour. The only problem with this candidate is that he is very nervous and the confidence levels are low. When I asked questions about the website design and development he tried to answer them with confidence but the answers did not have a good finishing. I also asked some twisted questions and by the way he answered I felt that his concepts are not that clear and does not have the in depth understanding. I tried to give him some time to think and answer but he answered in a way that showed that the answer is right but it was actually not. The leadership qualities did not exist within him which is a big issue as his work is to manage the team in the most effective manner.


I will be choosing the first candidate for this job because he has good knowledge on the related field and he is very confident with the work he will be doing. As an added advantage, he has leadership skills which I can easily make out from his attitude. He is good at communication and therefore, can run the team in an effective manner.

Negotiation of the Salary and Employment Conditions

The salary that I will be paying him has been discussed and at the same time the conditions of the work or the job is discussed with him. The accepted the rules and the regulations. Lastly, he wanted to increase the salary but I said that within the course of time I will and therefore he looked happy and convinced.

Lastly, I informed him about the different documents that I will be requiring in order to process the appointment of the candidate. The date of joining has been mentioned he has been informed about the time he should be coming to office.

Result in Writing (Successful)

“As per the discussion that took place in the interview, we are putting forward to you an offer to join our company as the project manager from the 1st of May, 2015. We would be looking forward to hear your acceptance within the next 14 business days or else the offer will be terminated permanently.”

Result in Writing (Unsuccessful)

“We are sorry to inform you that we cannot offer you the position of the project manager in our company due to some unavoidable conditions. We look forward to work with you in the future. Best wishes for your career.”

Assessment3: Written Test

Q1. Supervision of the management of the Probational Employees

The ones that are selected through the interviews will be kept in probation periods of three months or six months. This is the time when the managers understand that their selection has been right or wrong through the performance of the Probational employees. The basic behaviour and the attitude of the employees will be the main focus of observation. The communication skills in the real life will be observed and I will be getting the idea of what level they belong to. I will also look into the adapting capacities that the employees have as far as the work or the job is concerned. The time factor should also be an important aspect as far as the job is concerned. It is impossible for any company to retain employees who take a lot of time to work (Sparrow, 2006). The key point indicators and the benchmarks will be stated to the employees and thus, their effectiveness and efficiency can be understood.

Q2. Description of Principles

The principles are related to the Equal Opportunity, Industrial Relations and Anti-Discrimination.

Equal Opportunity: Equal Opportunity is something that should be given to each of the individuals and Probational employees in the company. Biasness should not be there at all as this leads to inequality and at the same time hampers the culture of the company. All the applicants and the employees should always be given equal opportunities in order to make the company environment healthier.

Industrial Relations: Industrial Relations is the relations between the different people involved with the employment. In the recent times, the Industrial Relations being called as the employee relations. This actually deals with the inter personal relationships within the organization and may be outside the company (Sweeny, 2008).

Anti-Discrimination: Anti-Discrimination is a way through which the discrimination factor is eradicated. No one in the company should discriminate others in relations to the language, looks, religion, culture etc. This leads to a healthier working environment.

Q3. Detailing Three Different Specialist

Recruitment Agencies: These agencies actually help the companies in recruiting different candidates. In many places it has been seen that these agencies have tie ups with different companies and these agencies help the candidates to get jobs. These agencies help both the companies and the candidates (Villani, 2006).

Remuneration Specialist: These specialists help the employer to manage what remunerations should be provided to the candidates related to the different job title and description. These are actually the consultants that help in formulating the remuneration.

Security Checks: These are checks that are related to the security and mostly happen in cases where the employees will be working on long term jobs, will be dealing with the different assets of the company which is secret in nature.

Q4. Employee Contracts

The employee contracts are contracts that state the jobs and the responsibility of both the parties. Both the parties mean the employer and the employee. This state what the employee has to do and in return how much money the employer will pay. The breach of this contract may take place through both the parties. At the same time the other party may file a case in order to get things right. In most of the cases it has been seen that the employer may terminate the employee if he or she has breached the contract. These contracts are available in all the companies that are doing business in this globe. The employee contract is the offer letter and the appointment letter that the companies and the organizations provide to their employees (Dessler and Teicher, 2004).

Q5. Work Cover Payments

I need to pay the work cover to the employees if they face issues related to the health and safety. In case of health hazards of the employees the company is liable to pay certain compensations to the employees when they are off the work. These are the benefits that the labours of the company also enjoy. This does not mean that the employees or the labours will enjoy this whenever they want to without any specific issues that they are facing. The labours and the employees should keep in mind that claiming for the work cover will not fetch them the amount of money. The company should well analyze the situation before taking the decisions on the work cover (Bahn and Barratt, 2012).

Q6. Ways of Employing Someone

The four different ways of employing someone are as follows;

Contractual – I can employ someone that is contractual in nature. For example I can hire a web designer who will be working on one project only that will run for no more than 6 months.

Permanent – I can appoint candidates who will be working in my company on a permanent basis. For example, I can hire a web developer who will be working with me permanently on a fixed salary. But if breach of any policy and rule takes place then I am authorized to terminate him from all his services.

Freelancing – I can appoint candidates who will be working with me as a freelancer on a contract. I will be paying them off after completion of each projects that are website oriented. In today’s market scenario, it has been seen that the number of freelancers are many in number. These are very cost effective for both the employers and the freelancers.

Work from home – I can appoint candidates who will be permanently working with me but not in the office premises but from home. This happens in many companies where the candidates have specific issues in coming to the office premises (Huber et al. 2011).

Q7. Psychometric and Skills Testing Programs

These programs are programs that are highly required during the time of interview. These tests are being used from the last decade and have been used in order to understand the psychology of the candidate who has been recruited. Most of the companies have these tests and these tests are conducted by the psychological experts that are there in the company. Through this method the company gets benefitted through absorbing the most suitable person for the company. These tests are actually done in order to measure the different factors of the employees like the intelligence, the adaptability and at the same time the personality. Through these tests the management of the company gets to know how much stress the recruited individuals can handle, the mentality to work with the different people in this company and whether the individual can adjust with the different demands of the company. The skills testing programs gives the management of the company an overview on the skills that the recruited people have and what they can deliver in the future. These programs have turned out to be very effective for the different companies in order to make the recruitment and the selection process a huge success (Kennedy and Matthews, 2012).

Q8. Refusal of Reference checks

Reference checks are the ways through which the employer checks on the newly recruited employee’s past backgrounds (Ruiz, 2010). These are very important factors that the company should always practice in order to carry out the recruitment and the selection process. Through the reference checks the information that the candidate gives are verified to a greater extent. All the details that the candidates provide may be wrong up to a certain extent but through the reference check the wrong information will be identified and necessary actions will be taken by the company.

It may be such that the candidates has given wrong information in the CV and do not want the employer to know about that fact. In a different case, it has been seen that the candidate as an employee did not have a  good relation with the employer of the previous firm and feels that the reference check will not allow the candidate to crack the interview and work in the present company.

Q9. Encouraging Candidate to reference check

I will make the candidate understand that the reference check of the candidate will help me to understand the positives and the negatives that the candidate has and at the same time I will be working on it so that the candidate can perform better in my company. This is good for both of us as far as the business generation is concerned. I would also make him understand that the reference check helps to maintain the transparency between the both of us.

Q10. Encouraging Employer to reference check

I would like to state to the employer that through reference checks I will be in a better position as far as the validity of the candidate’s information is concerned. I would also suggest that the reference checks should be always done for making the recruitment and the selection process a success. Co-operation should be always there in between the two employers of the company (Yang, 2009).

Q11. Human Resource Life Cycle

The HR life cycle starts with the recruitments and the selections followed by the Benefits and the salaries given to the employees which is again followed by the training and the development of the employees which is again followed by the performances of the employees.

The recruitment is the initial stage and involves absorbing the candidates that are relevant to the job or the requirement of the company. Benefits involve different types of motivation like the salaries, travelling allowances, dearness allowances, bonuses and incentives. This helps the employees to work better and be more productive. Trainings take place when up gradations take place on the techniques and the different technologies (Xu et al. 2014). Development programmes are initiated by the company in order to make the employees more skill full. The Performance is measured in the last stage and the ones who are performing well are retained by the company and at the same time, the ones with very low performance are terminated. This is called the HR life Cycle.

Q12. Discussing the Various Principles

Anti Discrimination Legislation – This is related to the legal aspect where the discrimination of the employees will be treated punishable. In the recent times, it has been seen that the discrimination is a punishable offence in most of the areas throughout the world.

Ethical Principles – As far as the recruitment and the selection process is concerned, the employer should abide by some ethical principles. The employer should respect the interviewee, the factor related to the biasness should not be there and equality should be maintained. The employer should not discriminate the interviewee.

Codes of Practice – The applications for the job should be mentioned in a proper manner. The selection of the candidates must go through activities that involve equality and no discrimination. Selection should be done in a non biased manner. Reference checks should take place in order to maintain the transparency.

Privacy Laws – There are many personal information that the employers have that is related to the documents that the interviewee submits. These information in the documents should not be misused under any circumstances and at the same time the confidentiality of these documents should be maintained.

Occupational Health and Safety – The health and safety should be maintained by the employer. Safety precautions should be initiated by the company in order to maintain the welfare of the people who are engaged in the work within the company.


It can be concluded that the recruitment is a very important part of the human resource management. The absence of the leadership quality within the candidates may become a problem in the future where no one will listen to them and this will affect the performance which is a loss for the company. It can be also concluded that there is a lot of responsibility on the interviewer in recruiting the most suitable employee otherwise it will cause harm to the company.

Reference list


Dale, M. (2003). A manager’s guide to recruitment & selection. London: Kogan Page.

Edenborough, R. (2005). Assessment methods in recruitment, selection, and performance. London: Kogan Page.

Pollitt, D. (2007). Recruitment. Bradford: Emerald Group Press.

Sparrow, P. (2006). International recruitment, selection, and assessment. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Sweeny, B. (2008). Leading the teacher induction and mentoring program. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Villani, S. (2006). Mentoring and induction programs that support new principals. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Corwin Press.

Dessler & Teicher., Dessler, G. and Teicher, J. (2004). Recruitment & selection. Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson Education Australia.


Bahn, S. and Barratt-Pugh, L. (2012). “Evaluation of the mandatory construction induction training program in Western Australia: Unanticipated consequences”. Evaluation and Program Planning, 35(3), pp. 337-343.

Huber, E., Hoadley, S. and Wood, L. (2011). “Teaching Induction Program: Framework, Design and Delivery”. ASS, 7(11), pp. 165-179.

Kennedy, E. and Matthews, D. (2012). “NIHR Diabetes Research Network: recruitment, recruitment, recruitment”. Practical Diabetes, 29(9), pp. 369-370.

Ruiz, J. (2010). “Plant Recruitment Limitation”. Encuentro, 42(85), pp. 291-305.

WeiWei Yang, (2009). “Evaluation of teacher induction practices in a US university English language program: Towards useful evaluation”. Language Teaching Research, 13(1), pp. 77-98.

Xu, Y., Xia, X. and Zhong, J. (2014). “Induction of ganoderic acid biosynthesis by Mn 2+ in static liquid cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum”. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 111(11), pp. 2358-2365.

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Manage Risk: A Competency Assessment-ANSWER

Manage Risk: A Competency Assessment

Table of Contents

Assessment 1. 4

  1. Report on the Work Health and Safety Act in the hotel industry Marriot Hotel of UK. 4

1.1 Harassment Free Workplace. 4

1.2 Maintenance of health, safety and security in the organization. 4

1.3 Privacy of the customers and the associates. 5

1.4 The current risks in Marriot hotel 5

Assessment 2. 7

  1. Risk management plan for Marriot Hotel 7

2.1 Stakeholders of Marriot Hotel 7

Risk contexts in Marriot Hotel 9

2.2 Evaluation of the risks: 9

2.3 Action Plan for risk management: 9

2.4 Possible risks: 10

Assessment 3. 10

Q.1 Define Legislation and how it affects you as a manger. 10

Q.2 Define Code of Practice and its affect on the manager. 10

Q.3 Define Advisory standards and its affect on the manager 11

Q.4 what steps can you take o ensure the awareness of WH&S information in the people of different cultures?  11

Q.5 Three ways to alert the people about the potential hazards in the work place. 11

Q.6 Evaluate the benchmarks of evaluation of the system with specific legislative and legal requirements  11

Q.7 Outline a strategy to implement the interest of the people in WH&S legislations. 12

Q.8 Outline a strategy to ensure the participatory arrangements are established and maintained with the employees of the small businesses. 12

Q.9 Outline the process used to ensure the issues raised through participative arrangements and consultations are dealt with and resolved effectively. 12

Q.10 Outline the way to identify the intervention point for expert WH&s advice with examples. 12

Q.11 Outline WH&S hierarchy of Control and its affect on WH&S. 13

Q.12A What are the duty of care components applicable?. 13

Q.12B Is duty of care breach evident here?. 14

Q.12C What are the likely repercussions under WH&S legislations in regard to worker and customer reactions?  14

Q.12D Was this foreseeable accident?. 14

Q.12E What could be the preventive measures?. 14

Q.13A What do you think is likely to happen?. 14

Q.13B List the hazards. 14

Q.13C how would you rate them in terms of risk?. 15

Q.13D What behaviors and problems are contributing to it?. 15

Q.13E At what level should it be addressed?. 15

Q.13F who holds the duty of care?. 15

Q.13G What actions should employees take?. 15

Q.14 Describe risk management 16

Q.16 List 3 risk insurances. 16

Conclusion: 17

Reference List 18

Appendix. 19



In industries people are engaged in different kinds of job in kitchens, pubs, clubs and other outlets.  Hotel industry in common has developed the risk management procedure for the hotels in the UK. The risks arrive with the safety and security issues of the customers and the guests. Along with that the strength of the brand operational is the key in the management of the risks in the hotel industries. Another risk arises with the maintenance of the reputation of the companies in the industries (Bellalah, 2010).

Assessment 1

1. Report on the Work Health and Safety Act in the hotel industry Marriot Hotel of UK.

The organizational culture of Marriot hotel aims to benefit the associates, share holders and the relevant public in the work place environment with specific rules based on the human rights and beliefs.

1.1 Harassment Free Workplace

The first propriety of the top level management is to foster mutual respect and bonding among the employees of the company. There are basic two principles of Marriot that aims to blend the different cultures in the same plate by sharing the common objectives of the company. Firstly the unique skills and perspectives are identified and secondly the equal contributions of the ideas from all the members of the community.

Employment opportunities are distributed in the company regardless of the sex, religion, economic status, identity and culture (Dionne, 2013). Along with that Marriot takes care of the disabled persons working in its floor with extra accommodation facilities.

1.2 Maintenance of health, safety and security in the organization

The guests in the firm are the main focus of the providence of security measures. The protection and proper assistances is given to the associates of the company and the regular visitors.

Employers under the act of Health and Safety act 1974 have a responsibility to entertain the visitors in the domestic environment. In the regulation 2(3) it is clearly mentions that clean arrangements need to be made for the disabled people in the premises.teh areas that needed specific improvements are the doors, stairs, basins and the passage ways corridors (, 2015).

1.3 Privacy of the customers and the associates

Marriot hotel has been concerned about the privacy of the information carried out regarding the guest, associates, employees and the customers of the organisation. The amendment of Personally Identifiable Information (PII) is accepted the hotel authority, in which the name, address, social security number, health records and other important documents are stepped apart from revelation (Hopkin, 2010).                              

1.4 The current risks in Marriot hotel

During the process of food making the hotel faces the risks of slips and trips in the kitchen area due to the harmful kitchen equipments like the knives, soap and other fluids. Other than that the existing diseases in any employees can get contaminated to the other employees and the consumers. Dermatitis can be a common disorder that can affect the employees working regularly in the premises.   (Kim et al.2013) has proposed the framework for risks in the safety and security of the hotels and the management of the arriving risks.

Figure : Safe Hotel

(Source: Kim et al.2013)

In order to maintain the risks of the hotels (Kim et al.2013) has proposed the following figure which describes the possible risks and the possible ways to overcome it.  The wheel illustrates the identified risks by the managers of the hotel industries around the world. To keep the hotel safe and secure the yellow wheel is being followed.

Figure : Managing Risk

(Source: Kim et al.2013)

As a part of the holistic technique risk management strategies are being chalked out by the management of Marriot hotel. The risks in the Marriot hotel is identified Monthly meetings for  the safety of the employees and the associates are done in the Marriot hotel.

Assessment 2

2. Risk management plan for Marriot Hotel

2.1 Stakeholders of Marriot Hotel

The internal stakeholders of Marriot hotel are the employees of the hotel who are a part of the internal organisation. (Nielsen and Einarsen, 2012) believes that there are certain risk factors that affect the operations of the stake holders of an organization that are society, domestic and global economy, technology and the legal environment of the host country. The stake holder map drawn below has been described by (Zhang, 2012) who has also given three perspectives for the strategic management of the risks that are stake holders, resources and the traditional.


Figure : Stake holder map

( Source: Nielsen and Einarsen, 2012)

Risk contexts in Marriot Hotel

There are certain risk factors in the group that are liable to the laws and social status of the group.

Critical success factors are some of the critical points that need to access in the hotel industries for the propagation of the jobs in the medium. Firstly it is the identification of the external factors like the economy and the political pressures. Secondly is the past history of the works of the company that involves the menu in the hotel, accommodation facilities and the services to the guests. Third it is the sharing of the success criteria for the share holders internally and externally. Next it is the training strategy in the organisations which involves the interns in the organizations which work under the guidance of the experienced professionals. Next it is the equal distributions of the duties and power to all the employees of the company (McLaughli et al.2012). A major involvement is the leadership quality of the managers of the company. (Refer to the appendix).

Monitoring the risk management strategies Includes the three steps that is to monitor, manage and improve. The growth profit continuity is the core value behind the monitoring of the risk management plan.

2.2 Evaluation of the risks:

Firstly the risks need to be curtailed in case of technological complexities. The impact of the technological risk can be on the number of customers associated which have a direct affect on the overall sales of the company.

2.3 Action Plan for risk management:

For the technological risks, management of Marriot hotel has checked upon some of the actions plans for the assessment and resolution. Firstly to avoid the crowd in the websites the company has come up with the meta website which accommodates the extra crowd of the bookings in the peak months of the year. The global technology of the hotel has also acted as an action plan for increasing its revenue difference in the global platform (JordaÌ and Sousa, 2010).

2.4 Possible risks:

First it is the protection issues of the intellectual property of the Marriot Hotels. Other than that (Huber and Scheytt, 2013) has pointed some of the other factors that has influenced the risks in the hotel. These are commoditization in which the involvement of the third party is more influential than the price and quality of the products. Another factor can be the preferences of the consumers and the perception of the group members.

Second it is the risks of political  and economic risks in the society. (Ghahramani and Khalkhali, 2015) opines that hotel industry in a global platform is liable to face a lot of problems like the inflation, recession, credit and the affordability of credit and the fluctuations of the currency.

Third is the risks of natural events that affects the domestic paradigm of the industry. (JordaÌ and Sousa, 2010) stated that the terrorist attacks, accidents, increase in fuel costs, natural calamities and some other internal issues of the hotel may arrive to disrupt the regular programmes of the hotel.

Fourth is the technology risks that arrive in most of the hotel industries as stated by (Nielsen and Einarsen, 2012). Although Marriot hotel has installed IT systems in its technological infrastructure it might be averse to dysfunction of the machines.

Assessment 3

Q.1 Define Legislation and how it affects you as a manger.

Legislation is the act of enacting the law and orders of the Government (Bellalah, 2010). As a manger of the company a manager needs to aware of the legislation meant for the welfare of the company. A manager needs to abide by the rules and regulations of the laws of the employment and workplace responsibilities.

Q.2 Define Code of Practice and its affect on the manager.

The codes of practices in the work place are the different legislations meant for the employability of the organization. The manager of a company needs to maintain the ventilation, cleanliness, seating and the proper infrastructure of the building. The traffic routes, sanitary conditions are also coming under the codes of practices that need to be understood by the manager of a company.

Q.3 Define Advisory standards and its affect on the manager

The advisory standards of a company ensure the consultation with the finance body to invest in the investment changes of the organisation. The advisory managers of a company handle the different areas of investment. On the other hand they are responsible to provide guidance to the change of the specific situation of the individuals in the organist ion.

Q.4 what steps can you take o ensure the awareness of WH&S information in the people of different cultures?

Firstly there needs to be the complete knowledge of the workplace health and security in the top level management which need to be conveyed to the other members of the company (Dionne, 2013). Formal meetings can be held to communicate the laws. Along with that orators for that reason can be hired to give the positive benchmarks of the issue in order to motivate the people.

Q.5 Three ways to alert the people about the potential hazards in the work place

First are the preventive measures in the departments of engineering, administration, and production. Second is the identification of the equipments that can cause potential hazards to the employees and a message that  it is harmful  in the work place. Third is the education given to the people about the labels, safe guards, storage emergency responses and the disposal activities of the company.

Q.6 Evaluate the benchmarks of evaluation of the system with specific legislative and legal requirements

The work place employment Relations in 2004 employed a survey for the employees in the organisations of UK (, 2015). The benchmarks for an organization would be to recognize the trade unions in the organisation, providing equal opportunities to the employees, work life balance with ample job satisfaction and the employee information in a record keeping method.

Q.7 Outline a strategy to implement the interest of the people in WH&S legislations

The trade union recognition that comes under the Employment Relation Act of 1999 can be conveyed to the workers in positive manner. The employees will be encourages to independently put up their demands and grievances through the trade union but on the other hand the management would incorporate the informal discussions in the union in their act of improvement.

Q.8 Outline a strategy to ensure the participatory arrangements are established and maintained with the employees of the small businesses

The Disability Act can be incorporated can be in the participatory arrangements of the work place.  The employees who are physically unable to do things properly they can be given special attention and care (, 2015). This can help to create the emotional bonding with  them

Q.9 Outline the process used to ensure the issues raised through participative arrangements and consultations are dealt with and resolved effectively

The franchisee actions of the business group to compliance with the regulation of the hotel operations can also be responsible. The first safety and the life safety including the willingness of the customers in buying the branded products of the similar company affect the brand reputation.

Q.10 Outline the way to identify the intervention point for expert WH&s advice with examples

The identification of the intervention point is done by:

  • Identification of the problem
  • Get the resources
  • Ways to partnerships

Example for intervention point is as follows:

  • Development of improvement plan in SMEs
  • Involvement of skilled employee for goal reaching
  • Capacity of the employees
  • Employee confidence

Q.11 Outline WH&S hierarchy of Control and its affect on WH&S

Hazard Source


Figure : WH&S hierarchy of Control

(Source: Hopkin, 2010)

The effect on the workplace health and safety is the safe place creation due to the elimination of the hazards and the substitutions with the safe elements at the work place. Similar conditions arise with the safety of the individual in the business in the departments of engineering and the administration.

Q.12A What are the duty of care components applicable?

The Car fix owner should have replaced the damaged parts of the machinery as asked by the technician. The physical damage occurred to the employees should have been taken care of by the owner.

Q.12B Is duty of care breach evident here?

Yes duty of care breach was evident in this case in order to avoid the risks of the physical health of the technicians.

 Q.12C What are the likely repercussions under WH&S legislations in regard to worker and customer reactions?

The work place regulations in 1992 revolve around health, safety and welfare issues. The work places in the construction sites, marines and mines are excepted from these regulations.  The term workplace refers to the different parts of the buildings like the roads, estates, parks and the sites of the work place.

There need to be awareness in the firm regarding al the applicable laws in the work place in order to avoid the risks in the work place. Equal Opportunities come under the law Equal Pay act 1970 in which the proper margins if the wages are described for every sector (, 2015).

Q.12D Was this foreseeable accident?

Yes it was a foreseeable incident as the parts of the machine were damaged there was no regular checking done on the site.

Q.12E What could be the preventive measures?

The machines could have been under the supervision of the engineers and regular checking should have been done by the technicians.

Q.13A What do you think is likely to happen?

It is expected that there will be an unexpected physical harm to the ligaments of the workers due to the oil leakage. The hands, legs or backbone of the worker might be hampered in the accident. It may also result in loss of lives of either of the workers in the field.

Q.13B List the hazards

  • Physical hazard to the limbs of the workers
  • Technical hazard to the machines
  • Damage of the floor of the firm

Q.13C how would you rate them in terms of risk?

In terms of risk this incident might b called as the Accident falls and fall of the objects which signifies the loss of the workers and the working equipments.  

Q.13D What behaviors and problems are contributing to it?

The behavior of the leader of the work place was according o the leadership style of problem management but duet to Time constraint the problem excelled and resulted in nil solution to the arising problem.

Q.13E At what level should it be addressed?

It should be addressed with the development of the Psychological capital meant for both the leaders and the employs of the organization (Huber and Scheytt, 2013). The decision making process should be transferred to the skilled employee of the firm rather than leaving it to the higher authority.   

Q.13F who holds the duty of care?

Here the plant manager olds the duty of care but he is irresponsible in performing his legal duties. On the other hand the supervisor as taken over the duty of care to the initial step in favor of the employees which could not be processed further successfully.

Q.13G What actions should employees take?

The employees should protest against the Employment Protection act 2002 in which the recruitment processes of the skilled workers are up graded in right course of time. Health and Safety Act 1974 also need to be circulated in the members of the organization and the employees should ask for the compliances.

Q.14 Describe risk management

Risk management is the risks of operations in a company that need to be minimized to retain the cultural and financial status.

Q.15 Describe the following:

Duty of care – The ethical duty of a manager towards the low level people in his employment need to be taken care of.

Company law- The company law maintains all the laws in the c

Contract law- The contracts made by the employer with the employees in terms of payment, working hours, health and safety and work place conditions in a written document.  
Environment law-
The corporate social responsibility need to be maintained by the organisation to satisfy the organisations and the relevant public.
Freedom of information-
Through the trade union the employees are free to inform its upper level about the grievances and the similar things arise for the top level management to inform the employees.

Industrial relations law- In 1971 the industrial law was passed to give the legal rights to form the registered trade unions in the firm premises instead of being a part of the illegal proceedings by the group of employees

Disability legislation – Under the act of Disability Discrimination Act 1995, the rules of supporting the disables are implemented in the organizational culture of the organisation. Constructive environment for work is developed for all the employees in the hotel (Nielsen and Einarsen, 2012).

Q.16 List 3 risk insurances

  • Transactional risk insurance
  • Warranties insurance
  • Contingent risk insurance


There has been a assessment of the Marriot Hotel which is a hospitality company having its aim in creating a safe and secure environment in its work place. The workplace advancement is provided in the hotel with the opportunities for equal incentives, leaves and allowances. The maintenance of health and safety is done in the organization in respect to the employees and the frequent visitors of the firm. The operating environment of the company revolves around the stake holders that belong to the outer premises of the organization. Accumulation of all Critical success factors results in a collaborative working satisfaction among the employees of the organization. To remain competitive in the market hotel industries too need to implement the new technologies in the market.


Reference List


Bellalah, M. (2010). Derivatives, risk management & value. Singapore: World Scientific.

Ghahramani, A. and Khalkhali, H. (2015). Development and Validation of a Safety Climate Scale for Manufacturing Industry. Safety and Health at Work.

Hopkin, P. (2010). Fundamentals of risk management. London: Kogan Page

JordaÌ, B. and Sousa, E. (2010). Risk management. New York: Nova Science Publishers.


Huber, C. and Scheytt, T. (2013). The dispositif of risk management: Reconstructing risk management after the financial crisis. Management Accounting Research, 24(2), pp.88-99.

Dionne, G. (2013). Risk Management: History, Definition, and Critique. Risk Management and Insurance Review, 16(2), pp.147-166.

Kim, J., Farrish, J. and Schrier, T. (2013). Hotel Information Technology Security: Do Hoteliers Understand the Risks?. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 14(3), pp.282-304.

McLaughlin, H., Uggen, C. and Blackstone, A. (2012). Sexual Harassment, Workplace Authority, and the Paradox of Power. American Sociological Review, 77(4), pp.625-647.

Nielsen, M. and Einarsen, S. (2012). Prospective relationships between workplace sexual harassment and psychological distress. Occupational Medicine, 62(3), pp.226-228.

Zhang, X. (2012). Investigation and Analysis of Sexual Harassment in Corporate Workplace of China. Sociology Mind, 02(03), pp.289-292.

Websites:, (2015). Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 – legislation explained. [online] Available at: [Accessed 27 Feb. 2015].