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SUPPLY CHAIN STRATEGY OF SWIFT TYRES

STRATEGIC PROCUREMENT & INVENTORY MANAGEMENT

RISK ASSESMENT, MITIGATION, AND CONTINGENCY PLANNING 

1. Supply chain map 

The supply chain mapping is necessary to consider for the “swift tires” company. As the company mainly manufacture the different components of the bicycle tire, including the foam used in the tubeless tire, it is necessary to construct the supply chain without having a breakdown. The breakdown within the disruptive supply chain may cause a failure in the resourcing and manufacturing process.

Here, the “supply chain mapping” will help to determine the factors upon which the suppliers are dependent. Along with that, it will also require to evaluate the possible location for proceeding further expansion of the manufacturing unit of tires (Lyngso, 2017). It is also possible that disrupt or breakdown in any stage of the supply chain may cause the overall mapping process, which will determine the efficiency of the managing process of manufacturing.

2. Critical path analysis 

The “critical path analysis” (CPA), for the swift and sure company, will help to understand the most crucial task that needs to be done for the growth of the company. From the study, it has been assumed that the business model ultimately provides value by manufacturing tires with the foaming system. It also observed that the technology, machine, and foam used in this project are made at a medium scale. Not only that the statistics say that more than 80% of manufactured units are exported to foreign countries. This implies that the future expansion of the business and disrupt the free supply chain process is required to be in a simple form. The CPA is, therefore, the most crucial task that the “Swift tires” company needs to adopt to expand the market (De et al. 2017). The task for the CPA are given below:

  • Increasing the manufacturing unit for producing the tire foam
  • Importing or manufacturing the foam at a higher rate
  • Increase in installation of the machinery required for the manufacturing
  • Pricing strategy for the project.
  • Developing a well-organized marketing strategy to enhance the global presence of “Swift tires”
  • By negotiating the freight cost/custom clearance and Inland Haulage Charges.
  • Finding more suppliers for tires raw material to help get competitive prices as well as short lead time to help meet uncertain demands.

For the advancement of the company manufacturing of tires, this company Swift Tyres needs to incorporate manufacturing and production strategies that are better than the imports of tires from other manufacturers. This increases the company sales as well because of the company’s unique manufactured products. This implementation of palmed strategies by this company to decrease the bargaining power of suppliers and increasing their production as well as machinery capacity is done by Matt. Along with that, the company may also need to look out on setting the time and budget, as the measure of achieved goal with respect to the time will help to identify the efficiency of the business plan and CPA (Flammer, 2018). The time duration is also needed within the CPA, and the company assigns a specific time duration for all the given tasks.

2.1. Failure mode and effect analysis 

The failure of the tire manufacturing company mainly deals with the negative aspect that may impact the growth of the company. The first aspect of the failure mode is to identify the issue included in the plan that may go against the company’s growth. After observing the case study, it can be observed that the company “Swift tires” has already planned to expand its service to foreign countries. Though the uniqueness and usefulness of tubeless tire have largely impacted the tire industry. Due to high value, the company has seen a growth in its market, but a recent study states that the company has failed to maintain the product quality to a foreign country. Therefore, the product quality of the tire may do poor performance in the overseas market.

The second major problem occurring due to the import and export charge of the material is the high price of the product. Along with that, the price of the tire is also not consistent. Due to inconsistent in the import charges and value of the money in a foreign country, the pricing strategy for the company is not simplified yet.

The third factor included in the failure mode is the work environment. From the official source of the company, it has been observed that the behavior towards the workers and employees are not satisfactory (Isaksen, Tödtling & Trippl, 2018). This may harm the organizational structure in the future due to a lack of employee satisfaction.

Supply chain map

                                                  Fig 1: “Supply chain mapping”

                                                      (Source: Creately.com)

2.2. Critical path map 

Fig 2: Project duration

(Source: Project Libre) I want it in a chart form

NameDurationStartFinishPredecessors
Critical path analysis62 days?11/16/19 8:00 AM2/11/20 5:00 PM
Problem identification3 days?11/16/19 8:00 AM11/20/19 5:00 PM
Determination of possible solution5 days?11/21/19 8:00 AM11/27/19 5:00 PM2
Installation of manufacturing unit15 days?11/28/19 8:00 AM12/18/19 5:00 PM3
Improving the DPT technology15 days?12/19/19 8:00 AM1/8/20 5:00 PM4
Expansion of distribution network6 days?1/9/20 8:00 AM1/16/20 5:00 PM5
Pricing strategy8 days?1/17/20 8:00 AM1/17/20 5:00 PM6
Execution of marketing at global level8 days?1/29/20 8:00 AM2/7/20 5:00 PM7
Analysis of the result2 days?2/10/20 8:00 AM2/11/20 5:00 PM8

Fig 2: Project duration

(Self-created)

2.3. Risk mitigation table 

Failure No.ActionTarget completion dateResponsibility takerResidualL(1-5)ResidualS(1-5)ResidualD(1-5)ResidualCN
1installation of the machinery for the manufacturing process2.1.2020GM14520
2Improving the DPT technology to enhance the quality of the tire10.2.2020Designing team24324
3Increasing the distribution network11.3.2020Chief officer13618
4Developing a business model including the proper pricing strategy
Wait for budget
Marketing department15525

Table 1: Risk mitigation table

(Source: Self- created)

3. Risk mitigation and contingency planning 

In this case study, the risk mitigation gives a clear idea regarding the risk exposure or the future risk that may impact the distribution and importation of the raw materials for the tire. The mentioned table of the risk mitigation describes the possible risk exposure that could be prevented within the approximate time duration. From dealing with the installation of the manufacturing unit to develop a pricing strategy, the risk mitigation also expresses the exposure level in the form of the Residual data of CN. [Referred to Appendix 1]

Again the contingency planning reflects the problem that may occur in the execution process (Patrucco, Luzzini, & Ronchi, 2016). Since the company is suffering due to the importation of the raw materials as the charge and quality of the imported material is inconsistent, it is essential to prevent the low pricing strategy.

3.1. Recommended action plan for each risk 

The first recommendation of the pricing strategy is that the “Swift tires” company may look to develop a manufacturing unit of the foam instead of importing the materials. This will also solve the issue regarding inconsistent in quality and pricing of the products. [Referred to Appendix 2]

The second recommendation for the company is to focus on expanding the distribution network, as the majority of the business based on foreign countries (Piirainen, Tanner, & Alkærsig, 2017). Along with that, the company also needs to focus on improving the internal structure of the organization. It has been studied that, due to the lack of proper managing systems in the organization, many employees have resigned from the organization. Therefore improving the organizational structure will help to solve the issue regarding employee job satisfaction. Another thing that the company may look to improve is the improvisation in technology. It has been noted that the company has previously suffered due to the low quality of the product. The product quality such as tire quality includes various factors such as inconsistent in the importation; low quality imported foam and more. Therefore, by improving the DPT technology and developing the distribution network, “Swift tires”. The company may improve the overall efficiency and performance.

Fig 4: Recommendation for swift tyres company

(Source: Self- created)

3.2. Residual risk assessment table

Failure NoProblemL likely hood of occurrence(1-5)Effect of failureS Severity of effect s(1-5)Cause of failureD Likelihood of Detection(1-5)CN (Criticality No.)s= L*S*D
1The quality issue in the tire4Negative impact on the Brand reputation5Quality of the imported foam and other materials365
2Import of the raw materials2High pricing and delay in manufacturing3Due to lack of proper supply chain process453
3Pricing strategy3Unclear business plan5Loss and unclear revenue model of the business541
4Inconsistent in price1Lack of Customer loyalty5Due to lack of proper importation of materials532

Table 2: Risk assessment table

(Source: Self- created)

PROPOSAL FOR MANAGEMENT OF CUSTOMER MARKET

1. Analysis of manufacturing process

The engineering steps that are followed by a company for the manufacturing of a product is referred to as the manufacturing process (Tang et al. 2017). Several steps and qualitative raw materials are used by the manufacturers to produce the final product with proper designing and specification of material.  Rubber is mainly an essential raw material that is used by tire manufacturers to produce tires. Both synthetic, as well as natural rubbers, can be selected and used by the tire manufacturers for the production of tires (Mangan and Lalwani, 2016). Natural rubbers are found in the bark of a tree named Hevea Brasiliensis. Polymers in Crude oil are the origin of synthetic rubber.  

This includes a step of collecting raw material that is rubber according to the demand. The liquid form of the rubber that is collected is mixed with certain acids that solidifies the liquid latex of the rubber. Excess water is squeezed out from the resulted rubber by pressing. This results in the formation of rubber sheets.  Drying of the rubber sheets is done in the smokehouses that are big enough for big productions in the manufacturing processes of Swift Tyres (Fernie and Sparks, 2018). After the death, the material achieved is pressed into huge bales. The end product now gained is a rubber tire. This is then transported to the tire factories that include “Swift Tyres” as well. 

The production of tires is basically by the design that is focused on during the manufacturing process. Different designs are required for the designing of tires for different vehicles. 

In the case of Swift Tyres, this tire design that is focused on the bicycle. This tire company manufactured tires by the use of foam. The foam after injecting into the tires results in the manufacturing of tire that has a foam core. The foam was used by Matt instead of water pressure for squeezing the tread pattern of tires. 

  1. Possible sources for agility and complexity reduction

There are several possible resources that act for the reduction of agility as well as complexity. Complexity in the business models owned by the Swift Tyres can be made simple by the restructuring of their business models. This can result in the increasing of customer demands as well as sustainable production of the company’s products (Wang et al. 2016). This includes controlling and managing suppliers, operators, technology as well as organizational procedures by the management of Swift Tyres by strategic decisions. The decision-making process involves monitoring the workplace practices of workers in the company to assess their involvement in the company productions. Therefore, Matt needs to change some of the operations based on the short-term goals for the reduction and avoiding of agility as well as complexity (Isaksen, Tödtling & Trippl, 2018). The practices that Matt needs to include consists of:

Focusing on the customers: It is important for the production company to be more focused on the needs and wants of the customers along with their advantage. The preferences of customers from the research on the market can result in a detailed report of the changes that are needed in the procedures.  [Referred to Appendix 3] (De et al. 2017)

Planning for long term goals and objectives with short term goals: Short term decisions and goals are always helpful in the completion of longterm goals and objectives in an organization (Stadtler, 2015). The accomplishment of short-term goals for achieving aims, missions, and visions of this tire company is a helpful resource to the agility and complexity in Swift Tyres. 

The adaptability of the supply chain: Maintenance of supply chain and its management for sustainable production is necessary for the implication to be reduced. The right balance of the production and the demand from customers are to be managed properly for the reduction in complexity and agility in Swift Tyres. (Stadtler, 2015)

  1. Bottlenecks in the manufacturing process

In the current market size and competition, production companies need to improve their productivity for improved manufacturing. This includes the improvement of quality of productions along with improved raw materials from suppliers. To gain a competitive advantage in the competitive industry, improvement in the quality of products along with the meeting of demand from customers with appropriate quantity is necessary. The chain processes in the Swift Tyres that are responsible for reducing and limiting the capacity of the whole supply chain in the production of Swift Tyres. This problem is to be mitigated as it can lower employee involvement in the company productions (Fan & Stevenson, 2018). The bottleneck that is likely to occur in this tire production company may involve:

Production rate: The production rate that is most likely to occur in a production company is fluctuating production rate. In some cases, it can be possible that the production of a company is low, but the demand of customers is high. This results in the main problem. In some cases, there can be much production by a company, but the customer demand is low. This can lead to a huge wastage of production as well as loss. Material requirements and a low-quality supply chain can act as the increasing of the bottleneck in the manufacturing process as well. (Fan & Stevenson, 2018)

2. Proposals for management of customer market demand uncertainty analysis

This is a phase that is faced by many companies in their production and manufacturing processes. This is a phase when the business organizations are not certain about the demand for their product in the future years. This is due to the decreasing and increasing the demand for the same product over a certain period (Nie et al. 2017). This results in the fluctuation of demand and demand uncertainty. For the context of the supply chain of the same product, this tire company is uncertain about the demand for its products after some time. The uncertainty of their sales in the future years results in these steps by Swift Tyres. However, this can be managed as well. The management of customer markets can be resulted in the management of production according to customer demands and preferences. This can change and influence the positive reactions of customers by strategic supply chain management. This includes approaches and strategies to increase flexibility in the demand of the supply chain (Nie et al. 2017). The approaches include:

Safety stock: This is the most effective and efficient strategy that can be incorporated by a business company in terms of its productions. This results in the reduction of problems during the huge demand of customers regarding their products. (Fan & Stevenson, 2018)

Backup for suppliers: This is also an important step that can be used by production companies by arranging and managing backup for suppliers. This also is working with multiple suppliers to increase their input and output as well (Vaidya and Campbell, 2016). 

Safety of workers: The safety of workers is also an important step that is to be maintained by every business entity for the safety of their employees. In the manufacturing of tires, several processes are included that can result in the accident of employees. In Swift Tyres, Maintenance of these points is necessary for the better involvement of employees in the company production. 

Design processes: The design that is required for the preferable vehicles are to be included in the production of tires. This results in the production of the most demanded tire and can reduce the demand uncertainty as well. (Nie et al. 2017)

Preference of customers to be valued: Preferences of customers according to the vehicle is necessary. Besides, the customers must be able to pay for the exclusive price range that will be included in the rate of the buying of tires for customers. This is a strategic step to decrease the demand uncertainty. (pdfs.semanticscholar.org, 2015)

2.2. Sources of uncertainty in terms of demand and supply 

The case study of the tire company illustrates the issue regarding the supply chain and distribution of the product. It has been seen that the company mainly focuses on importing and exporting raw materials and products. The major issue of importing products is the inconsistency in the quality of the products such as foam. The recent case study describes that the company has suffered due to a quality issue (Walsh & Dodds, 2017). Not only that the foam quality, but the durability of the tire is also a major concern that needs to be fixed as soon as possible. Along with that, the durability of the tire needs to be consistent in all the countries. From the study, the sources are defined as poor distribution and the lack of a proper supply chain. The supply chain within the organization is found poor as more than 80% of the products are imported, which increases the overall pricing. The company could fix the issue by installing the manufacturing unit in the same country. This will also help to enhance the product durability and quality. Another uncertainty of the company is found as the lack of a “supply chain management” system. It has been observed that the supply chain system, including the resourcing sources and manufacturing unit, lacks consistency and productivity. As a result, the company fail to maintain the overall standard of the product 

3. Strategy for managing demand and uncertainty formulation

Strategic planning processes are required for the management of the demand uncertainty that can be faced by the manufacturing companies in their business productions. Fore such uncertainties, several approaches that include traditional and professional approaches are important. Predictions of the market of the future by detailed market research helps make strategic plans for the elimination and management of demand uncertainty. Well, certain strategic steps are included by Matt for the reduction of uncertainty of demands in Swift Tyres 

The strategic techniques include:

Detailed market research: This is a step that is required by manufacturing companies to get an outline as well as an overview of the intended product among the customers in the current market. This research is based on national as well as international market sizes. 

Competitor analysis for strategic cost and capacity: An analysis of the competitors, their productions, their production companies, as well as their unique specifications are necessary to make strategic plans (Bakar et al. 2016). This can result in the strategic advancement and gaining of competitive advantage among the industry rivals.  

Value chain analysis: The internal activities of this business firm are to be analyzed well by Matt to reflect a good influence on the production of this company. This recognizes the essential activities that are worked on by the company and employees to gain an advantage in cost and differentiation. (Walsh & Dodds, 2017)

The framework of five forces: Competition in the business owned by Matt that can affect the improvement of Swift Tyres are important. This also acts as a planned strategy to eliminate the demand uncertainties that can be faced by this company (Christopher, 2016).

3.1. Describe changes in processes both inside the company and along the supply chain

For gaining competitive advantage, the production of tire manufacturing companies is to be maintained and advanced as well. This is an important step that is required for the improvement of company productions.  The production of tires by the Swift Tyres, therefore, involved manufacturing by themselves only using Foam core instead of water pressure. Using qualitative supply chains are also important for the improvement of company productions (Pan and So, 2016). The application of Six-sigma is also an important step that can be incorporated by Matt to gain a competitive advantage. This included the involvement and incorporation of the five phases of six sigma in the manufacturing process of tires by Swift Tyres (nrcresearchpress.com, 2019). 

The phases named as the DMAIC are described below.

Define: Defining of the short term and longterm goals

Measure: Measuring of the attributes that are based on performance

Analyze: Identification and analyzing the possible ways that are necessary for accomplishing the goals, missions, and objectives. 

Improve: Alternative ways and strategies are planned for the improvement of manufacturing processes by Swift Tyres. (spendmatters.com, 2019).

Control: Maintenance of the success of Swift Tyres by incorporating the steps as changes in company processes. 

3.2. Describe implementation steps

Implementation of Six Sigma requires planned strategies that are to be incorporated in the introduction of the new and improved changes in the company productions. 

Project: The most important as well as essential steps to implement Six Sigma in the production of Swift Tyres are the steps of starting with a planned project. (Richards and Grinsted 2016)

Training: The employees of the organization that are going to be involved with the new and improved changes in the company procedures and manufacturing needs to be knowledgeable. This requires training from trained personnel. 

Teaming up: Teaming up of all the employees along with a skilled and highly qualitative team leader is the next step towards this strategic step of this company. This ensures high employee engagement in the manufacturing of tires according to the new policies. (Tradeready.ca, 2019)

Planning: The whole planning and applying the strategies requires good and qualitative leaders as well as company management. 

Executing: Executing the project that is planned by the management for the initiation of the necessary changes is an important step of the whole implementation process.

Evaluating: Evaluation of the whole incorporation by this company raised the last and essential step that requires evaluation of all the parameters as well as criteria. (Richards and Grinsted 2013)

3.3. Improved supply chain

Fig 5: WBS

(Source: Project Libre) make it more clear ,the words are hidden in the chart.make it more readable

The presented analysis map for the swift and sure company illustrates the critical task that needs to be either improved or changed for the betterment of the growth. The critical map shows the first critical task as problem identification. From the case study, many problems and issues have been notified, which needs to be solved with a better-planned business strategy. Along with that, the critical map also described the need for improving the manufacturing rate. Due to the highly dependent business model, it is important to improve the manufacturing rate by installing more manufacturing units. 

This will prevent the company from delivering inconsistent product quality. At the same time, the product cost will also be controlled as the import of foam used in the tire will be manufactured within the country. The updated critical path helps to deliver an improved and better quality of the tire (Piirainen, Tanner & Alkærsig, 2017)

Reference List

Books

  • Fernie, J. and Sparks, L. eds., 2018. Logistics and retail management: emerging issues and new challenges in the retail supply chain. Us: Kogan page publishers.
  • Lyngso, S. (2017). Agile Strategy Management: Techniques for Continuous Alignment and Improvement. US: Auerbach Publications. Retrieved from: http://www.ittoday.info/Excerpts/Team_Building_for_a_Strategic_Initiative.pdf [Retrieved on 3.11.2019]
  • Mangan, J. and Lalwani, C.L., 2016. Global logistics and supply chain management. US: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Christopher, M., 2016. Logistics & supply chain management. Pearson UK.
  • Richards, G. and Grinsted, S., 2016. The Logistics and Supply Chain Toolkit: Over 100 Tools and Guides for Supply Chain, Transport, Warehousing and Inventory Management. Kogan Page Publishers.
  • Richards, G. and Grinsted, S., 2013. The Logistics and Supply Chain Toolkit: over 90 tools for transport, warehousing and inventory management. Kogan Page Publishers.

Journals

  • Bakar, N.A., Peszynski, K., Azizan, N., Sundram, K. and Pandiyan, V., 2016. Abridgment of Traditional Procurement and E-Procurement: Definitions, Tools and Benefits. Journal of Emerging Economies & Islamic Research4(1). Retrieved from: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/148367306.pdf
  • De Araújo, M. C. B., Alencar, L. H., & de Miranda Mota, C. M. (2017). Project procurement management: A structured literature review. International Journal of Project Management35(3), 353-377. Retrieved from: https://fardapaper.ir/mohavaha/uploads/2017/11/Project-procurement-management-A-structured-literature-review.pdf [Retrieved on 3.11.2019]
  • Fan, Y., & Stevenson, M. (2018). A review of supply chain risk management: definition, theory, and research agenda. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management48(3), 205-230. Retrieved from: https://e-space.mmu.ac.uk/621434/1/_system_appendPDF_proof_hi-2.pdf
  • Flammer, C. (2018). Competing for government procurement contracts: The role of corporate social responsibility. Strategic Management Journal39(5), 1299-1324. Retrieved from: http://sites.bu.edu/cflammer/files/2018/09/Flammer_SMJ2018_inclAppendix.pdf [Retrieved on 3.11.2019]
  • Isaksen, A., Tödtling, F., & Trippl, M. (2018). Innovation policies for regional structural change: Combining actor-based and system-based strategies. In New Avenues for Regional Innovation Systems-Theoretical Advances, Empirical Cases and Policy Lessons (pp. 221-238). Springer, Cham. Retrieved from: https://epub.wu.ac.at/5225/1/sre-disc-2016_05.pdf [Retrieved on 3.11.2019]
  • Kim, M., Suresh, N. C., & Kocabasoglu-Hillmer, C. (2015). A contextual analysis of the impact of strategic sourcing and E-procurement on performance. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing30(1), 1-16. Retrieved from:  http://apps.olin.wustl.edu/faculty/zhang/Zhang-Journal/delegation. pdf  [Retrieved on 3.11.2019]
  • Nie, X., Boyacı, T., Gümüş, M., Ray, S. and Zhang, D., 2017. Joint procurement and demand-side bidding strategies under price volatility. Annals of Operations Research257(1-2), pp.121-165. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/328e/9d1bb74c6dece2679e6eb890ba681fec1bae.pdf
  • Pan, W. and So, K.C., 2016. Component procurement strategies in decentralized assembly systems under supply uncertainty. IIE Transactions48(3), pp.267-282. Retrieved from: https://cloudfront.escholarship.org/dist/prd/content/qt5f79n4wj/qt5f79n4wj.pdf
  • Patrucco, A. S., Luzzini, D., & Ronchi, S. (2016). Evaluating the effectiveness of public procurement performance management systems in local governments. Local Government Studies42(5), 739-761. Retrieved from: https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/51177825/PUBLISHED_Evaluating_the_Effectiveness_of_Public_Procurement_Performance_Management_Systems_in_Local_Governments.pdf? [Retrieved on 3.11.2019]
  • Piirainen, K. A., Tanner, A. N., & Alkærsig, L. (2017). Regional foresight and dynamics of smart specialization: A typology of regional diversification patterns. Technological Forecasting and Social Change115, 289-300. Retrieved from: https://orbit.dtu.dk/files/130081973/123.pdf [Retrieved on 3.11.2019]
  • Stadtler, H., 2015. Supply chain management: An overview. In Supply chain management and advanced planning (pp. 3-28). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Retrieved from: http://www.academia.edu/download/60519716/scm-and-adv-planning20190907-38397-eh1j9.pdf#page=22
  • Tang, J. P., Lam, H. L., Aziz, M. A., & Morad, N. A. (2017). Palm biomass strategic resource management–A competitive game analysis. Energy118, 456-463. Retrieved from:  https://paper-download.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/16.pdf [Retrieved on 3.11.2019]
  • Vaidya, K. and Campbell, J., 2016. A multidisciplinary approach to defining public e-procurement and evaluating its impact on procurement efficiency. Information Systems Frontiers18(2), pp.333-348. Retrieved from: https://collaboration.worldbank.org/content/usergenerated/asi/cloud/attachments/sites/collaboration-for-development/en/groups/e-procurement/documents/jcr:content/content/primary/blog/multidisciplinaryap-guQf/Multidisciplinary-approach-to-defining-public-e-procurement-and-evaluating-its-impact-on-procurement-efficiency..pdf
  • Walsh, P. R., & Dodds, R. (2017). Measuring the choice of environmental sustainability strategies in creating a competitive advantage. Business Strategy and the Environment26(5), 672-687. Retrieved from:  https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Rachel_Dodds/publication/316176162_Measuring_the_Choice_of_Environmental_Sustainability_Strategies_in_Creating_a_Competitive_Advantage_An_Analysis_of_North_American_Hotels/links/5a6f7428aca272e425eaa7fc/Measuring-the-Choice-of-Environmental-Sustainability-Strategies-in-Creating-a-Competitive-Advantage-An-Analysis-of-North-American-Hotels.pdf  [Retrieved on 3.11.2019]
  • Wang, G., Gunasekaran, A., Ngai, E.W. and Papadopoulos, T., 2016. Big data analytics in logistics and supply chain management: Certain investigations for research and applications. International Journal of Production Economics176, pp.98-110. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Samuel_Fosso_Wamba/publication/325607788_Big_data_analytics_in_supply_chain_and_logistics_an_empirical_approach/links/5b18525ba6fdcca67b629a02/Big-data-analytics-in-supply-chain-and-logistics-an-empirical-approach.pdf

Online articles

  • nrcresearchpress.com (2019). A simulation-based optimization approach to integrated inventory management of a sawlog supply chain with demand uncertainty. Retrieved from: https://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/cjfr-2014-0373#.Xc-BNFczbcc [Retrieved on 3.11.2019]
  • pdfs.semanticscholar.org, (2015), Adoption of E-Procurement Strategy and Procurement Performance in State Corporations in Kenya, Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/e1f7/da1a1f008ba147436806bc2b874c565b7bc9.pdf [Retrieved on 3.11.2019]

Websites

  • spendmatters.com (2019). Strategies Every Procurement Professional Should Know to Reduce Inventory Levels and Cost, Retrieved from https://spendmatters.com/2017/06/19/strategies-every-procurement-professional-know-reduce-inventory-levels-cost/ [Retrieved on 3.11.2019]
  • tradeready.ca, (2019), The 7 steps of the procurement process, retrieved from http://www.tradeready.ca/2017/fittskills-refresher/7-steps-of-a-strategic-procurement-process/ [Retrieved on 3.11.2019]

Appendices

Appendix 1: Supply chain management

(Source: http://www.agilexsc.com/services/)

Appendix 2: Strategic Procurement & Inventory Management

(Source: https://www.cgnglobal.com/blog/impact-of-technology-on-sourcing-procurement)

Appendix 3: DMAIC of Six sigma

(Source: https://www.smartsheet.com/all-about-six-sigma)

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Thus, our team of experts are always there to accept your complex marketing assignments at any level. AssignmentHero provides marketing assignments all over Australia and we assure you the best quality marketing assignment. Most of our clients are from Sydney, Australia, Adelaide, Brisbane, Canberra, Queensland, Hobart, Griffith, Gold Coast, Perth and others. Our marketing assignments come with the best quality and guarantee. We provide plagiarism free assignments as we use Scribbr’s plagiarism checker, which provides plagiarism reports and helps us to make the document more authentic. 

How to Prepare a Good Quality Digital Marketing Assignment?

We along with our experts have prepared a short commotion list for your marketing assignments that will help you to draft a plan for your assignment and help you to split up your tasks. These steps are the suit for you if you want a fast and easy solution for your digital marketing assignment. Always remember that customers are the main priority in marketing and you need to choose the most effective digital marketing form. You need to run a short and effective market research of your selected product or service. Customer satisfaction is a major player in this area. You need to collect information thoroughly by means of taking feedback, interviews, reviews etc. This primary data will help you to make your paper more authentic and reliable. Draft a plan before you start working on your marketing assignment. Planning is always considered as the beginning step as it lifts half of the work. After collecting information, you will be able to match the question with the marketing concept easily. It will help you to detect the solution according to the requirements. Planning will also give you a guideline for the total work and the outcome of the study. You need to link your own concept with the established digital marketing strategies. Theories are tested and justified and make your judgment more valid. Try to relate to the theories that were discussed beforehand in your lectures and use proper referencing. Discuss the similarities and dissimilarities to make your work more specific. For maintaining the originality of your assignment, you must keep tracks of your work and use proper referencing from valid sources. To justify your own concept, add relevant journals and articles with referencing. Thus, you will be able to avoid plagiarism.  You can also include real life examples or current situations where your ideas are suitable. Compare the previous results with your drafted solution for better understanding.

Digital Marketing as Part of MBA Program in Australia

In Australia, a lot of renowned universities offer MBA programs in marketing and digital marketing is one of the major concerns. Students prefer courses on branding, advertising, social marketing, marketing strategy, understanding the consumer behavior, sales management, marketing information system, e-marketing and others. MBA degree in marketing adds an extra value to our learnings. These are the most popular marketing courses for MBA. MBA itself is a professional degree when you’re pursuing MBA in marketing you will get the chance to know more about the practical market. As it is a higher educational degree for a business graduate, you need to face many marketing assignments more often. Assignments under the umbrella of marketing requires a lot of theories, techniques, practical knowledge and proper referencing as well. You might have to submit a lot of case studies, research papers, projects and analysis on the current market. In order to compose a unique and standard marketing assignment you need to have a deep knowledge in marketing and skills to compose a paper. You need to be familiar with all the marketing concepts that are appreciated across the world. 

Popular marketing assignments prepared by our experts

  • Strategic marketing assignments
  • Branding assignments
  • Market and consumer research
  • Advertising management
  • Online marketing assignments
  • E-marketing assignments
  • Marketing projects and proposals
  • Global marketing
  • Global media and marketing assignments
  • Production and product strategy
  • Product development strategy
  • Marketing theory
  • Applied business research
  • Market integration
  • International marketing
  • Marketing B-plans

AssignmentHero offers you the best services

Our experts of AssignmentHero are the best at composing your marketing assignments, as they are well qualified and skilled in writing. They are working in the same field for a long time. Our experts are concerned with the requirements of different universities. Their academic writing skills are unique and they are able to solve any difficult marketing problem easily. They are more concerned in fulfilling the assignment requirement as well as they make rubrics for you. We provide you a 24/7 customer care service. We are always open for you.

You just need to pay a short visit to our page and send your digital marketing assignment to us on https://www.assignmenthero.com/express.

 

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Digital Marketing Assignment Help Melbourne

Digital marketing has become one of the major concerns of marketing, as the present generation is more convinced to online marketing. This digital marketing strategy is more effective as it includes different multimedia campaigns. Marketing is one of the major subjects that is chosen by a large number of students for their different levels of degrees. In Australia, many institutions are offering marketing courses that are mostly demandable. It adds an extra value in the job sector as well. AssignmentHero is one of the most pursued assignment services for the marketing students. Many students from different universities rely on our assignment services for a better grade. AssignmentHero offers the best online digital marketing assignment help that includes practical application and examples of marketing practices. Marketing is a huge area with a dynamic equilibrium. If you are studying in any of the renown universities in Melbourne and stuck at points where you find your assignment is difficult to inscribe, do not lose hope, AssignmentHero is there to lend a hand and complete any of your digital marketing assignments just in time.

Why You Should Choose AssignmentHero for Your Digital Marketing Assignment?

AssignmentHero offers you the expert’s help in digital marketing assignments in Melbourne and throughout Australia. Digital marketing is always a challenging subject, as it requires all the updated data and practices in the market. It is all about understanding your target audience and meeting their requirements to grab your own place in the market. Your career in marketing depends highly on your understanding of the total marketing field completely including online campaign management, visual marketing, online advertising etc. As marketing is a very demandable course in Australia, you need the best and guaranteed assignment service in Australia for a brilliant result in your courses. If you find it difficult to crack the questions or not able to simplify the requirements just send it to us. We have a team of experts to solve all of these troubles. 

Get Assistance from the Experts in Your Digital Marketing Assignment!

We have experts specialized in all spheres of marketing and they are experienced in preparing any digital marketing research as they accept the challenge. They love to apply new and updated marketing techniques to make your assignment more conventional. Most marketing assignments require critical thinking more than established marketing theories. Our experts are able to work on different marketing strategies that are practiced more often and are acknowledged as the successor of a business. They are concerned about the standard of the marketing assignments and love to include real business examples. 

Thus, our team of experts are always there to accept your complex marketing assignments at any level. AssignmentHero provides marketing assignments all over Australia and we assure you the best quality marketing assignment. Most of our clients are from Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Brisbane, Canberra, Queensland, Hobart, Griffith, Gold Coast, Perth and others. Our marketing assignments come with the best quality and guarantee. We provide plagiarism free assignments as we use Scribbr’s plagiarism checker, which provides plagiarism reports and helps us to make the document more authentic. 

How to Prepare a Good Quality Digital Marketing Assignment?

We along with our experts have prepared a short commotion list for your marketing assignments that will help you to draft a plan for your assignment and help you to split up your tasks. These steps are the suit for you if you want a fast and easy solution for your digital marketing assignment. Always remember that customers are the main priority in marketing and you need to choose the most effective digital marketing form. You need to run a short and effective market research of your selected product or service. Customer satisfaction is a major player in this area. You need to collect information thoroughly by means of taking feedback, interviews, reviews etc. This primary data will help you to make your paper more authentic and reliable. Draft a plan before you start working on your marketing assignment. Planning is always considered as the beginning step as it lifts half of the work. After collecting information, you will be able to match the question with the marketing concept easily. It will help you to detect the solution according to the requirements. Planning will also give you a guideline for the total work and the outcome of the study. You need to link your own concept with the established digital marketing strategies. Theories are tested and justified and make your judgment more valid. Try to relate to the theories that were discussed beforehand in your lectures and use proper referencing. Discuss the similarities and dissimilarities to make your work more specific. For maintaining the originality of your assignment, you must keep tracks of your work and use proper referencing from valid sources. To justify your own concept, add relevant journals and articles with referencing. Thus, you will be able to avoid plagiarism.  You can also include real life examples or current situations where your ideas are suitable. Compare the previous results with your drafted solution for better understanding.

 Digital Marketing as Part of MBA Program in Australia

In Australia, a lot of renowned universities offer MBA programs in marketing and digital marketing is one of the major concerns. Students prefer courses on branding, advertising, social marketing, marketing strategy, understanding the consumer behavior, sales management, marketing information system, e-marketing and others. MBA degree in marketing adds an extra value to our learnings. These are the most popular marketing courses for MBA. MBA itself is a professional degree when you’re pursuing MBA in marketing you will get the chance to know more about the practical market. As it is a higher educational degree for a business graduate, you need to face many marketing assignments more often. Assignments under the umbrella of marketing requires a lot of theories, techniques, practical knowledge and proper referencing as well. You might have to submit a lot of case studies, research papers, projects and analysis on the current market. In order to compose a unique and standard marketing assignment you need to have a deep knowledge in marketing and skills to compose a paper. You need to be familiar with all the marketing concepts that are appreciated across the world. 

Popular marketing assignments prepared by our experts

  • Strategic marketing assignments
  • Branding assignments
  • Market and consumer research
  • Advertising management
  • Online marketing assignments
  • E-marketing assignments
  • Marketing projects and proposals
  • Global marketing
  • Global media and marketing assignments
  • Production and product strategy
  • Product development strategy
  • Marketing theory
  • Applied business research
  • Market integration
  • International marketing
  • Marketing B-plans

AssignmentHero offers you the best services

Our experts of AssignmentHero are the best at composing your marketing assignments, as they are well qualified and skilled in writing. They are working in the same field for a long time. Our experts are concerned with the requirements of different universities. Their academic writing skills are unique and they are able to solve any difficult marketing problem easily. They are more concerned in fulfilling the assignment requirement as well as they make rubrics for you. We provide you a 24/7 customer care service. We are always open for you.

You just need to pay a short visit to our page and send your digital marketing assignment to us on https://www.assignmenthero.com/express.

 

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Pay n Carry – An Analysis of Under staffing Issues in Franchises.

Pay and carry is a business which operates using franchises. They deal with groceries and related products. The company provides these services to citizens of respective places within the country but their head office employs about 45 people. Considering that the head office sets the benchmarking standards for the rest of the franchises, the number of employees within the branches are expected to be less than that. Irrespective of the number of employees, the company strives to ensure that the customers get quality products and that in some stores, there is a large variety of products being advertised and sold. This makes it important for the employees to work continuously, especially in the event that the grocery outlet has a variety of products being sold. The continuous profit margin, which allows for the continued growth and opening of more branches, is, therefore, more likely to be a consequence of the work of the employees given the standards expected for each of the branches. 

The third largest number of businesses in Australia lies in the medium size companies. Medium sized companies employ between 20 and 199 people on average (Australian Small Business and Family Enterprise Ombudsman, 2016). They are among the two top businesses within the country with respect to their annual turnover as compared to the small and nano businesses. Pay n carry lies within the lower range of the medium businesses when evaluated using the number of employees in the head office. Giving 45 people the mandate to ensure efficiency in the more than thirty outlets results in the issue of understaffing. Understaffing develops from the case where minimum employees are expected to handle more work and with more efficiency. 

Considering that the company is growing, and it has not yet established quality roots within, the employment of employees on need basis is unavoidable. Some companies use the chance to employ freelancing employees under temporary terms thus avoiding the overhead for employing them (Muhammed, 2018). Employing a minimum number of permanent employees ensures that the employers can deliver minimum payments and benefits. This allows the employer to invest more money into expanding the business and into providing quality products for the customers. In the pay n carry case, this appears to be the situation. There is need to reassess the number of employees within the organization. The number should be evaluated using several factors including the minimum number of people required for the job, the peak sales periods for the franchises, the overall profit margin from the sales, and the optimum number of employees to work with considering the welfare of both employees and the employers. 

Understaffing issues. 

Most businesses face a short number of employees during specific times of the year. These periods include the time when the business is low and there is need for laying off some workers as a way of maintaining the economic relevance of the businesses. A temporary understaffing issue is manageable and it does not have a lot of issues, but when it is left to run for a long time, it can degenerate into a load of issues for the employees and the employer therein (Higuera, 2019). Continued understaffing demands too much from the employees present and this makes them to feel detached from the company. This could potentially impact the way in which the company reaches out to new clients and it therefore has an impact on the current and potential profit-making abilities of the company. 

One significant issue with understaffing is the need for the existing employees to accomplish their tasks and those of the missing employees. The employees in an understaffed business have more to handle as compared to the employees where the employment ratios are observed. This is due to the fact that irrespective of the number of employees, the business is only sustained when the full services required are rendered to the clients. The employees within are, therefore, tasked with ensuring that the work needed is done and delivered in a timely way. Considering that the work done is more than the standards set for the employees, understaffing often results in overworking of the existing group. 

Considering that the roles in the work place need to be met, the few employees present are given more pressure to make sure they finish the tasks needed on time. The pressure is given to make sure that the employees fulfil the duties within limited time spans even though they are understaffed. In the pay n carry case, the employees within the head office would be expected to ensure complete oversight of the branches even though they also need to strategically plan for the overall growth and development of the retailing chain. The head office is responsible for determining the underlying issues which affect the performance of the respective branches, while also determining the probable causes of enhanced profit making in the branches that perform well. That workload needs more employees to ensure efficiency considering that the decisions made there impact the welfare of the rest of the branches. Employing a minimum number of employees within the retail branches reduces the ability of the existing employees to efficiently serve a large number of clients. The outlets have multiple products and the products need respective workers who can assess their quality and assure the existing clientele of the same while convincing the potential clients about the quality of services accorded in the place.  

Having fewer employees within the work place makes the existing ones to have multiple roles within the retail. While the employees may successfully address all the concerns of the clients, their welfare appears to diminish as they develop exhaustion on the job due to being overworked (Balle, 2019). Overtiredness and physical exhaustion generate when the employees continuously perform duties which require more than one person to perfect over a long period of time. This reduces the ability and productivity of the employees over the consecutive time periods which follow. The morale of the employees to work when they are tired is also relatively low and this results in a drop in the competitiveness of the employees when providing their services in the workplace. 

Tired employees have a high potential to make errors in their line of duty. Exhausted employees have lower abilities to be innovative and this lowers their ability to focus on errors either in the pricing of the goods and services, or in the delivery of the same (5 Ways Being Understaffed At Work Can Hurt An Organization, 2019). Businesses with error prone employees risk making losses considering that the existing employees will need motivation to try and revive their working spirit while more money is also needed to research the potential errors which could negatively impact the economic and social situation of the company. Allowing the understaffing issues to continue risks the integrity of the company and the desire of future employees to work within the place in as much as the businesses generate short-term profits. 

Resolving the issues

While having some employees to handle general roles within the organization can ensure exposure and result in overall growth and development, hiring employees who have specialized in the roles often results into more efficiency and service delivery (Hutchinson, 2017). The people with specific knowledge about the way specific aspects of the business should be run enhance the ability of the wellbeing of the businesses and this facilitates better terms for the employers. Even though the employers have to pay more for the specialized employees, the returns favor the employer, the employee and the client. The employees benefit from working in the fields they are comfortable working in. this allows them time and the resources to be innovative. It also allows them to provide better services to the clients resulting in more prospective clients. Client satisfaction results in better payment terms to the employers and this compensates for the money spent in the hiring. 

Strategic planning is the next aspect when dealing with in understaffing. Planning ensures that the roles are clearly defined for the current and future branches of the business (Innesa, 2017). This means that at any moment, the expected number of employees is clear to the respective managers and they can easily identify the areas in which they need to optimize and add or reduce employees. With clear roles defined, the employers should find a way of integrating the incoming employees in the old stations as a way of imparting the culture of the company on them. Redeploying them later to the new branches ensures that they take the culture with them and this helps in the creation and maintenance of an identity for the company across all branches. The identity facilitates maintained client satisfaction especially for clients who travel to different towns with branches of the same. Strategic planning ensures that the employees only deliver the work required of them. This ensures that overworking issues are resolved while maintaining the innovativeness and creativity of the employees. With employee satisfaction, the employer has fewer budgets for recruitment and training of new employees given that the overall employee turnover is low. 

References

5 Ways Being Understaffed At Work Can Hurt An Organization. (2019). Retrieved from mitrefinch: https://mitrefinch.com/blog/5-ways-being-understaffed-at-work-can-hurt-organization/

Australian Small Business and Family Enterprise Ombudsman. (2016). Small Business Counts: Small Business in the Australian Economy. 

Balle, L. (2019, April). Understaffing issues in the work place. Retrieved from Bizfluent: https://bizfluent.com/info-8483648-understaffing-issues-workplace.html

Higuera, V. (2019). What Occurs When an Organization Is Understaffed for a Prolonged Period of Time? Retrieved from Chron: https://smallbusiness.chron.com/occurs-organization-understaffed-prolonged-period-time-34557.html

Hutchinson, L. (2017, December 18). 6 Common Staffing Problems and Their Solutions. Retrieved from Liberty Staffing Services: https://www.libertystaffing.ca/blog/6-common-staffing-problems-and-their-solutions

Innesa. (2017, September 16). 3 Common Staffing Problems and How to Fix Them. Retrieved from Boutique Recruiting: https://www.boutiquerecruiting.com/3-common-staffing-problems-how-fix-them/

Muhammed, A. (2018, July 31). Four Statistics Showing How Business Can Benefit From The Gig Economy. Retrieved from Forbes: https://www.forbes.com/sites/abdullahimuhammed/2018/07/31/four-statistics-showing-how-business-can-benefit-from-the-gig-economy/#4d2ef7f4752f

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Market Analysis Assignment Help in Australia

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Physical interaction has lost its meaning, people today in this digital era, are using applications to connect with people such as Facebook, Instagram, snapchat and etc. They are becoming trendy due to the interest people are taking in these applications.This application named Moah-App is a social app which seeks to create the interaction between the people through games and chats. It implements the concept of connecting people with each other whilst being in a restaurant, transportation or wherever one can find a bunch of people. The goal of this application develops people’s interest with interesting games and completes its goal of increasing the interacting between the people. 

This application provides a bunch of activities such as game, chats, and profiles that maintain the avatar, scores, and statistics of a person. For instance, a person in a restaurant uses the Moah-App to play games, that person can find a bunch of other players using this same app within the radius of 10-50 meters. App uses GPS to find players near you and the idea is to connect with the strangers.This application targets the people of Australia. Any person who wants to interact with strangers in different places and wants to play the game can download this application. This application will be marketed on social media and people containing the age between 18-29. The application will be built to secure the information of the user and will use the advertisement on different platforms of social media with interactive advertisement letting people play games in advertisements and engaging them. 

Contents

INTRODUCTION 1

APP PROFILE 1

TARGET AUDIENCE 2

SITUATION AND BUSINESS ANALYSIS 3

BRAND 4

POSITIONING STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN 5

RISKS 6

MEASUREMENT 7

RECOMMENDATION 7

CONCLUSION 7

References 8

INTRODUCTION

People visit places, they travel alot, they eat in restaurants, all these places are full of people yet the communication seems to be missing between those people because everyone is busy in their mobile phones (Chen, 2016). Some people seem busy taking pictures, others put their air pods on and start listening to music while ignoring the interaction with a certain amount of people. The world is losing the power of social interaction and people today have come uninterested in the cause of communicating (Chen, 2016). We are a social being and we need ways to communicate with people one way or other and interaction is important for us to survive in this world. While the physical interaction has lost its meaning, people today, in this digital era, are using applications to connect with people such as Facebook, Instagram, snapchat and etc.They are becoming trendy due to the interest people are taking in these applications.

There should be a solution which can develop the people’s interest in communicating and maximize the interaction between them. This application named Moah-App is a social app which seeks to create the interaction between the people through games and chats. It implements the concept of connecting people with each other whilst being in a restaurant, transportation or wherever one can find a bunch of people. The goal of this application develops people’s interest with interesting games and completes its goal of increasing the interacting between the people.  

APP PROFILE

This application provides a bunch of activities such as game, chats, and profiles that maintain the avatar, scores, and statistics of a person. For instance, a person in a restaurant uses the Moah-App to play games, that person can find a bunch of other players using this same app within the radius of 10-50 meters. App uses GPS to find players near you and the idea is to connect with the strangers. Other than games, this application lets people chat and that chat between the people depends on the types of game that they playing. Some games allow chatting during the game while other games may generate session after the game has ended due to the cheating problems. 

Those sessions will stay active if at least one user is online and hence will become inactive due to unavailability of the users in that particular session. One can chat in a group or go for a personal chat with other players. A user of this application is also given the option to keep the chat or delete the chat. Moah-App also lets users maintain their profile that is also visible to the other users playing the game. A profile will contain the avatar of the user that he/she has uploaded, will show the scores of the game that he/she has gained after playing the different games. This app is unique and no app is currently offering these services. There are applications which connect people based on the radius of 10 – 50 meters and let them chat with each other i.e. Tinder and there are also the applications which let people play games with different strangers and let me chat with each other i.e. Ludo Star but there is not a single application which merges both the ideas and lead people to physical interaction.

TARGET AUDIENCE

This application targets the people of Australia. Any person who wants to interact with strangers in different places and wants to play the game can download this application. When the product or the services are to be sold to the consumers, there are certain things that are needed to be kept in mind. It is important to analyze where Noah-App application is going to use, who is going to use it and why people will use this certain application. There is theory named segmentation theory which divides the people into a different subgroup, known as segments, on the basis of demographics, geography, and psychographics and brings the potential consumers into the segment with common needs (Fuchs, 2019)Simkin, 2016. When an application is built, it provides the services according to the needs of the market (Jochen, 2016). 

But since people have a different choice when it comes to technology it’s important to divide the audience. The Moah-App is for the people going to different places, playing games and talking to different people hence this is a kind of social app. The demographics segmentation of the audience of this application is that the people who are between 18-29 years of age are more likely to use social media apps including both male and female which leads to the geographic segmentation. 

People who are between 18-29 are more likely to be in the schools, the colleges and job markets. The advertisement for this application will be done according to these factors. There are around 88% of people who are 18-29 years’ old which use social media (West, 2019) and there are 73% of people who mark online marketing as “somewhat effective” and “very effective” (Pick, 2018)hence the social media will be used of online marketing to attract the users to download this application. Since this application provides games, then the advertisement graphics will interactive and will ask users to play the game during the advertisement. This strategy of engaging users into advertisement will develop their interest in downloading this application (Dep, 2017).

SITUATION AND BUSINESS ANALYSIS

As discussed, this product focuses on the social interaction between the people and aims to make a better relationship with the use of gaming and chatting, there are many other issues that are concerned with the implementation of this application which include analyzing the risk while launching the application, legal liability of it, issues concerned with privacy and politics and etc. These external factors effect on the growth of the technological business. Politics influence the socio-cultural environment of the country (Urmee, 2016) since this application provides interaction with total strangers. The people can share their personal information on it, they can expose their genders, religions, and beliefs due to which there are chances of bully and gender discrimination on this application. 

If it is not handled by this application, then the government can take legal actions against it (Lloyd, 2017). Risks while launching this application can involve can be financial issues to develop and launch this application, development issues which require to be run on different applications and etc. This company will generate its revenue from the advertisement and payment from the people who pay for the subscription to remove advertisements hence the online transaction taking place on this application requires privacy and security. This application should be legalized to take payment and should contain the ‘terms and agreement’ format signed by the user to match its legal liabilities. People sharing their personal information, making online transactions, sharing their information such as picture, name, email addresses should be kept encrypted and secure (Ouaddah, 2016)

BRAND

The brand promise of this application is that it connects people with lots of interesting gaming and chatting. It lets you connect with the different people at different places. A brand providing this application needs to build an image in the minds of people for the long term sustainability of the business. The brand creates trust between the company and its customers. To build this trust a company must satisfy the needs of the customer. The services that this application provides should maintain its qualities. A person using this application will share its information like location, pictures, names and etc. and users can chat which means the information they share can be confidential and personal. 

A company should never leak that information of its users for the sake of money. Since business today earn from the advertisement, it’s the duty of the brand to take of care that those advertisements do not contain any viruses when a user clicks on it and since this application is used by different age groups it means that the advertisements shown on application should be relevant and should not contain nudity to young users. All these factors related to security and satisfaction create the image of a brand and hence referred to as brand personality. The quality in this factor will increase the awareness in people about the brand along with positioning strategy. People get, what the company conveys (De Mooji, 2018). The strategy should contain the right use of logos, graphics, and information which provide the right concept of this application and aware people with a positive sense. The image, sell and presentation of these factors fall within the branding theory.

POSITIONING STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN

Considering all the factor mentioned above, the company first will maintain the quality of the application. Providing security features which provide the proper authentication of person, security of the information and encrypted data so the no third party will be able to interfere. It will be made sure that the company functional requirements are also complete and provide all the services that the brand claims to do. Once this application is ready to be launched, its marketing will be started with the targeted segmentations mentioned above, it will target the people having the age of 18-29 preferably which is around 60% of the Australian population using social media (Cowling, 2019). 

The graphics, logos, and information will portray the brand in the right manner and since the major part of the marketing on social media is an advertisement, the company will use the interactive advertisement which will let people play games on the ads to develop their interest. Once people download the application, they will not be charged, therefore, to generate the revenue, this application will contain the advertisements. If people do not want the advertisements to be shown on the application, then they will have to pay for it. This application will offer them monthly and yearly subscription ad-free plan.

RISKS

This application is unique and hence are no competitors at the moment. But in this fast world, it will not take a long time for people to raise the competition. Facebook has launched games and it now allows people to find nearby people. This feature is used by this application. Hence the tinder which is missing the games and is a very popular application can develop its new service of gaming.

 If the tinder does it then it will not be much different from this application and give a competition. However, the tinder is used for dating purpose but this application is not limited to dating. It provides entertainment to different age group through gaming. This application will make sure to maintain the purpose and keep developing new services to be unique from its competitors such as other than gaming, this application provides users to share music with strangers. Another risk can be that This application will run on different devices If the application is made on a newer version and does not support the older version of mobile phones. This application will make sure that it is flexible enough to run on every version.

MEASUREMENT

This application will let people review the application and will conduct a post-survey to measure the success of this application. Data will be maintained, such as how many people have downloaded the applications, which game is played most and how advertisements are affecting people. Traffic on this application will also be measured to track success. This data taken from the employees will measure the success of the application

RECOMMENDATION

People always look for innovation, therefore, this application will need to advance its features and functions. Considering the fact that not all people are interested in games, this application should have to feature to share music with each other. It should provide a channel where one user can share what he/she is listening to and the other user can also listen to that music. The marketing mix should welcome all the feedback coming from the people and try to improve the complaints.

CONCLUSION

This application aims to create interaction with people through gaming and chatting along with letting customers to maintain the profile. The target audience of this application is the people of Australia. This application will generate its revenue from the advertisements and the payment made by people and take care of the security, quality and brand image. This app will support different platforms and will keep being innovative to beat its competitors.

References

Chen, Y.R.R. and Schulz, P.J., 2016. The effect of information communication technology interventions on reducing social isolation in the elderly: a systematic review. Journal of medical Internet research18(1), p.e18.

Fuchs, C. and Golenhofen, F.J., 2019. Market Understanding. In Mastering Disruption and Innovation in Product Management (pp. 59-76). Springer, Cham.

Simkin, L., 2016. 11 Segmentation. The Marketing Book, p.271.

Jochen, W., 2016. Winning in Service Markets: Success through People, Technology and Strategy. World Scientific.

Deo, S.K., Rajshekar, M. and Kumar, G., 7 Customer Inc, 2017. Method and apparatus for increasing user engagement with video advertisements and content by summarization. U.S. Patent 9,554,184.

De Mooij, M., 2018. Global marketing and advertising: Understanding cultural paradoxes. SAGE Publications Limited.

Ouaddah, A., AbouElkalam, A. and AitOuahman, A., 2016. FairAccess: a new Blockchain‐based access control framework for the Internet of Things. Security and Communication Networks9(18), pp.5943-5964.

Cowling, D. (2019). Social Media Statistics Australia – January 2019. [online] Socialmedianews.com.au. Available at: https://www.socialmedianews.com.au/social-media-statistics-australia-january-2019/ [Accessed 21 May 2019].

West, C. (2019). Social media demographics to drive your brand’s online presence. https://sproutsocial.com/insights/new-social-media-demographics/

Pick, T. (2018). social media marketing statistics Archives | B2B Marketing Blog | Webbiquity. [online] B2B Marketing Blog | Webbiquity. Available at: https://webbiquity.com/tag/social-media-marketing-statistics/ [Accessed 21 May 2019].

Urmee, T. and Md, A., 2016. Social, cultural and political dimensions of off-grid renewable energy programs in developing countries. Renewable Energy93, pp.159-167.

Lloyd, I.J., 2017. Information technology law. Oxford University Press.

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Persuasive evaluation assignment help by Assignment Hero

Subject: Persuasion on establishing VTs or keeping F2F communication. 

In the past few years, due to advancements in modern technologies, people are now more and more interested in virtual world and its activities. As a result, virtual marketing and communication are increasing expeditiously in business area. As per the requirement, I have collected derivative information from various sources to find out the advantages of virtual teams (VTs) in companies. The dissertation that VTs are advantageous for organizations is supported by two evidences: cost effectiveness and reduce travel time. Another argument contradicts these two assertions by justifying the establishment of a F2F team which is indicating that, chances of miscommunication can take place in VTs. 

Cost effectiveness (advantage 1)-

The latest features of internet; like email, videoconferencing and group support systems make it is easier and affordable to adopt virtual team communication. VTs are the group of employees who are physically away from each other and they mainly communicate with each other with the help of information and telecommunication technologies. In this way, employees from all over the world can share data, plan and work out on different solutions of an issue and they gave outputs in the form of report or final product (Pillis&Furumo 2012). By using virtual communication, the travelling costs for meetings and conferences get decreased enormously; VT takes care of maximum meetings within short period of time without any massive expense. Employer can cut the expenses of travel and time when workers from different places arrange meetings online and disconnect instantly as per the demand of work requirement. At present, the price of fuels is increasing rapidly and cost of air travel is very high; VTs enable employees to collaborate without travelling and this is a money saving option for companies (Pillis&Furumo 2012). 

In addition to it, according to a survey that was done by The State of Virtual Team Utilization,‘In today’s era, employees working from different locations can be very fruitful for organizations because low labor costs, approach to large faculty range, low employee turnover. Albeit, most of the companies are adapting virtual teams because it is reducing expenditures; favorable outcomes may rely on company’s planning and execution criteria’s (Graff  2011,p.18).

Reduce travel time (Advantage 2)-

Virtual communication is incredibly advantageous especially in juxtaposition to traditional F2F communication. Even though there are potential difficulties in practicing virtual communication till now, the advantages of virtual communication is too big to lose its necessities. How well virtual communication can be implemented is something that business organizations need to focus on especially after learning about its advantages. 

Virtual communication can be incredibly convenient from time to time especially in terms of business activities, many meetings can be solved by sitting in the office without even going to another place for the completion of the meeting. Using video conference effectively can make meetings at different places easily. Such as, a conference needs to be attended that takes place overseas; in that case, video conference can take place via Skype which will allow both parties to have that conference without the travelling which definitely reduces costs. When companies have their own chat box such as- their own Skype, Slack, HipChat, chances are they would be continuously communication with their own and team activities will become much more fruitful (Bryan, 2019). Such as, using these tools any meeting and conference can take place without even going somewhere, of course there are events that require physical appearance but, these tools reduce the travelling expense and time for the most meetings. In addition to this, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can surely consider the above mentioned factors in favor of VT for not only cost effectiveness but also for reducing travelling activities, to determine organizational betterment with technologies and modernizing the entire company. Virtual world technologies have the most astounding feature; replacement of physical meetings with virtual meetings and this feature ultimately reduce travel time and control GHG discharge (Kevin & Dave S 2011).

Company ABC Marketing Director can ensure completion of these activities to establish virtual team successfully- 

Defining work systems can be established by proper definition of repeatable work systems and setting standards by using VT (Burrows, 2015). VT will also require establishing multiple communication tools which are beneficial to get maximum benefits of virtual system, using conference calls and screen recordings are important. The company can ensure scheduling regular meetings by using virtual communication tools make virtual marketing activities heavily successful. To make VT most effective, crystal clear deliverables and detailed descriptions of the tasks, giving freedom and fewer instructions are essential (Verhulsdonck, 2009). In addition to this, making sure that work hour’s overlap and having at least three-four hours a day when all the team members are online will make VT successful (Verhulsdonck, 2009). The company management team can determine professional work environment creation which helps setting the mindset to work. To make VT efficient, choosing video calls over chatting or emailing is important, this ensures less miscommunication, more clarity, and successful virtual team activities are done via face-timing (Verhulsdonck, 2009). Finding accurate people in virtual team building is crucial because, not everyone is suitable for remote working, so choosing people who thrive in remote working environment is necessary (LaBrosse, 2007). Project management tools’ usage is essential in VT by using Teamviewer, Join.me, Google Hangouts, Skype, Slack which the VT team can focus on more (Branson, 2008). Lastly, compulsory meritocracy is important in acknowledging remote workers’ great efforts, virtual marketing tam’s effectiveness are to be appreciated and rewarded. 

 Advantage of F2F-

Even though VT has its share of advantages and effectiveness, F2F has surely its own benefits as well. Lee-Kelley and Sankeyargued in their research said that, longitudinal division and ethnic divergence impacted on communications and staff’s association on tasks. During F2F meeting of research, a boss can explain the problems very effectively and clearly while interacting with distant employees; it is very troublesome to interact with VTs over internet and mobiles as compared to F2F meetings. The project manager also point out the issues raised while contacting virtual team members, who are present remote locationsbecause it is very difficult to exchange information.Albeit, it is very essential to have good communication with team workers while working on projects because improper communication can mislead the employees and eventually, it will add more expenses and take lots of time.

According to Lee-kelly and Sankey research, Nevertheless, these communication problems can be solved by proper planning and by taking certain additional actions (2008, cited in Reed and Knight 2010).

Traditional method of communication such as F2F communication is the most original and effective forms of communication where both parties can talk to one another, in person, and can handle business activities and no miscommunications occur in this case. A more cleared business management takes place by F2F communication. Both face-to-face communication and virtual communication in terms of marketing are exceptionally fundamental and a company can focus on advancing and developing these two factors simultaneously, without feeling the need to choose between the two (Archer, 2019). 

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Ethics and Social Work Practice Assignment Help

Case study 1: Alison’s case

Alison’s case presents a brief outline of the harm teenage bullying and Anorexia nervosa (AN) creates in a pubescent child’s psyche. The psychological impact of peer views and taunts can be recognized by studying Alison’s case. The happy, bright and people-pleasing 13-year-old girl turned into a food-obsessed 17-year-old with a psychological disorder regarding her eating habits that she considered normal. From Alison’s case study, it is viewed that psychological disorders such as AN influences the decision-making abilities of healthy and normal teenagers like her and influences their daily life decisions. Psychological issues require intervention from social workers and parents in order to revive normalcy in the patients’ life. From Alison’s case, it is determined that AN along with social bullying are directly related to the detrimental health of patients. Teenagers suffer from psychological disorders that are developed along with severe eating disorders (ED) during their early formative years of pubescence. This is observed in the case of Alison as she insisted on her eating habits being ‘normal’ despite being hospitalized as well as being placed with a drip to provide her with basic nutrients. 

Anorexia nervosa, as a psychological disorder influences the mental health of teenagers and pubescent females’ health are majorly affected as observed in the case of Alison. Unlike any other psychological disorder, Anorexia nervosa diminishes the patient’s logical thinking abilities with respect to their own health concerns. The study performed by Westwood et al. (2018), proves the situation that was provided in Alison’s case study regarding the decision-making ability of patients suffering from Anorexia nervosa. Psychological disorders such as Anorexia nervosa influences the psyche of a healthy person and reduces the cognitive skills of the individual. In such cases, the social workers or other units responsible for patients’ well-being need to take responsible decision for the patient. The ability to take appropriate decisions is a basic stage in health and social care (Sen, 2018). The ethical judgment of social care workers plays an essential role in providing the patient with the best treatment possible in the situation. 

According to the study performed by Phillipou, Castle & Rossell, (2018), eating disorders such as anorexia develops BDD (body dysmorphic disorder) within an individual and negates a person’s ability to think rationally. This occurs due to the rewiring of the thought process and body image assessment abilities of the patient. It is the duty of a social care worker to help the patient recover from health issues by guiding them and often taking decisions that the patient is incapable of taking. The ethical norms and principles the social workers need to maintain while performing their job role within the operational context. These refer to the base code of conduct any health and social care professional must follow in their job roles- to serve the patients efficiently and not act in a way that would cause harm to the patient (Reamer, 2015). Based on the teachings of Hippocrates, the ethical principles of social care are drafted as principle of ethics in biomedical services.

 As per the study conducted by Hodgson & Watts (2017), it is observed that ethical standards and principles within a social care context cannot be referred to as simple rational topics. In order to fulfil the core basic of health and social profession, it is essential for social workers to maintain the principles of ethics in medical situations. In reference to Alison’s case, the social worker involved with the situation needs to provide a solution to the patient and her family according to the ethical principles of Non-maleficence and beneficence. These principles allow the social worker associated with Alison’s case to take decisions regarding her health and mental condition. 

Case Study Analysis

The four ethical principles that social workers need to follow in any health-related scenario involves the following core principles of health and social care:

  • Principle of Non-maleficence
  • Principle of Beneficence
  • Principle of Justice
  • Principle of Autonomy

It is essential for social workers to follow these principles in any context that requires them to take decisions, which involve the well-being of the patient. In Alison’s case, the social worker needs to develop recommendations for Alison and her family with respect to the ethical standards associated with the principle of non-maleficence and beneficence. These principles will allow the social worker associated with the hospital to decide for Alison, an appropriate treatment that would be beneficial for her and would not pose any harm to her physical and mental well-being. The principle of beneficence will give the social worker a paternalistic authority in making decisions for Alison that she is incapable of taking due to her lack of judgement and incapacities (Bioethic Tools: Principles of Bioethics, 2019). 

The principle of non-maleficence would benefit the social worker’s purpose in providing help to Alison with respect to her fragile emotional state and psychological vulnerability. According to Kumar (2016), the morality of an individual resides on the outcome of the process that is performed by them. The morality involved in taking decisions based on the principle of non-maleficence resides in the fact that health officials are allowed to take active decisions regarding the well-being of a patient in a way that would minimise the risk for the patient (Uhlmann, Pizarro & Diermeier, 2015). In Alison’s case, the social worker could help her parents place her in the Eating Disorders Unit. 

Application of all the principles in a situation could provide similar outcomes, but the procedures of performing the act may be different. By applying the principles of maleficence as well as beneficence in Alison’s case, the social worker would be able to persuade her parents and her to take active steps. Ensuring appropriate steps are taken by the hospital and Alison’s parents in providing her with the required treatment for her condition would be the primary goal. The utility of the ethical principles may be in conflict with each other in situations similar to Alison’s case. It is determined from the case study that Alison is against the idea of being in the Eating Disorders Unit; however, considering the principle of beneficence, the social worker needs to incorporate her in the segment.

Thus, it can be stated that it is essential for the social worker to pacify Alison’s parents and admit her to the Eating Disorders Unit in order to nurse Alison back to health. Her incapacity to take proper decisions regarding her health serves as a prime marker to the social worker to take paternalistic decision for Alison.

References

Bioethic Tools: Principles of Bioethics. (2019). Depts.washington.edu. Retrieved 16 March 2019, from https://depts.washington.edu/bioethx/tools/princpl.html#case1

Hodgson, D., & Watts, L. (2017). What can moral and social intuitionism offer ethics education in social work? A reflective inquiry. The British Journal of Social Work47(1), 181-197.

Kumar, V. (2016). The empirical identity of moral judgment. The Philosophical Quarterly66(265), 783-804.

Phillipou, A., Castle, D. J., & Rossell, S. L. (2018). Anorexia nervosa: eating disorder or body image disorder?. 

Reamer, F. G. (2015). 18 Ethical Issues in Social Work. Social workers’ desk reference, 143.

Sen, A. (2018). Collective choice and social welfare. Harvard University Press.

Uhlmann, E. L., Pizarro, D. A., & Diermeier, D. (2015). A person-centered approach to moral judgment. Perspectives on Psychological Science10(1), 72-81.

Westwood, H., Mandy, W., Simic, M., & Tchanturia, K. (2018). Assessing ASD in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa using clinical and developmental measures: a preliminary investigation. Journal of abnormal child psychology46(1), 183-192.

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Introduction to Marketing Assignment Help by AssignmentHero

1.Executive Summary

The business industry has changed a lot in the past few years. To keep the business active an organization must keep the business updated. Otherwise, the business organisation will not be able to be in the market and lose their business position from the competitors (Constantinides, 2006). Rockwell & Sons is a well-known restaurant located in Collingwood, Victoria. In this report, the marketing objectives, marketing strategy, the marketing budget of the organisation will be illustrated. The function of this report is to create a marketing mix strategy to solve the business problem of the organisation within the budget of $10-20,000. The main target is the local people around the area of the shop who belong to different age group and profession. The media to reach the customers will be social networks and print media which will emphasis on the message “Help the Homeless”. The estimated cost for this project is $16,000 and it is expected that the organisation will get 5% net profit in one year.  

4. Marketing Objectives

For a business organisation, the marketing objectives are a very important aspect of the business. The business objectives give the organisation the goal and the reason to promote their business under a bigger banner. And for this reason, it is important to analyse the market before setting a marketing objective. The marketing objectives must be SMART objectives (Broadbent, 1989). 

Rockwell & Sons are very famous for their fine dine and good service. Their main marketing objective is to grow their business by improving their service to the expectations of the customers. The high price and poor environment is a big issue. The SMART objectives here in the case of the organisation are:

SpecificThey must introduce new product and service and new promotional ways.
MeasurableThey want to increase the turnover by 5%
AchievableThey need to design plan to attract the customers and give a message to them. Public awareness can be rise by promoting the message “Help the Homeless”.
RealisticThey should hire more employees to meet the desire and expectations of the customer. Only 5 full time employees are there. Recruiting more employees can reduce the load and make the customer feel valued.  
Time-specificThe assumed time for achieving the goal is one year.

5. Target Market

To achieve the marketing objective, and build up a good marketing strategy, it is necessary to know the target market. Targeting doesn’t mean that the business organisation will cut their customers but it means to specify the area where they can do the business well (Broadbent, 1989). While deciding the target market, a business organisation should keep the following things in mind:

  1. The present customer base.
  2. The competitors
  3. The service
  4. Chose a specific demographic target.

Rockwell & Sons are located in a good area and that gives them the opportunity to the make a good business. The shop located in the area where there are number of institutes, shopping mall, railway station, hospital and thus they always get a great number of customer. The situational analysis of the market for Rockwell & Sons shows that their customers are from the age group between 18 to 35. The present customer base is the target market for the organisation (Dorozhkina, 2015). These customers belong from college or office or other sections and they stop by the shop every now and then.

Below the target customers for the organisation from the local people is given:

Target CustomerPercentage of local people
The youngsters50%
The school kids30%
The professors10%
The doctors10%
The hospital staffs20%
The visitors for shopping 30%
The passerby5%
People who stop in the station5%

It shows that the shop is always full of customers. It shows that the youngsters are the biggest portion of the customer. The organisation just needs to prepare the strategy for keeping the target market (Jaworski, 1988). The organisation can take promotional agenda or introduce special offers for a lunch time. Introducing a student platter and providing discount card to them can be a good method to reach the highest portion of the customer.    

6. Marketing Strategy

Rockwell & Sons is an old dine-in and bar. They are famous for their good service and quality product (Fifield, 2007). Though the service is good; they still need to improve their business strategy. Time has changed and there are many other things that are important for the growth of the business. One of the concerns of the customers is the pricing of the products of because they are quite high than the others. In every dining, the customer spent $40 in an average here. The main issue here is the promotional and communicational activities. The 4P’s marketing mix is the best tool to design the marketing strategy (Graeme Drummond, 2005). The 4P’s are the product, price, promotion and the place. The marketing mix for Rockwell & Sons is given below:

Product:Rockwell and Sons need to introduce a good range of side dishes, desserts and starters. Moreover, they need to improve their bar service by adding a variety of cocktails (Graeme Drummond, 2005). As the target customers are people who stop here in their way to work or way to home, they need more options to choose from. In addition, there is no takeaway or online delivery service. They should consider adding these services to attract more customer.    Price:The pricing of the food and beverages is quite high. The restaurant and the bar service is quite costly. They price around double than their competitors for the same kind of food. They should improve their pricing a bit by adding new platter, set menu, student patter, special dine-in offer, by one get one free offer etc. This sooth the customer’s pocket and bring profit as well (O. C. Ferrell, 2010). In this way, they can also bring more customer as the loyal customers will promote them outside. They can also add value card, which will provide the regular customer special benefit like discounts.     
Place:The location of the restaurant is really good. They get to take the attention of many customers. They also have a good interior and a well decorated outdoor setting. But keeping the target customers in mind, a little renovation will bring a good business. The modern amenities like Wi-Fi, wheelchair passage will add customers. Adding this can change the ambience of the place and the customer will like it a lot (Craig S. Breitenbach, 1998).  Promotion:Rockwell & Sons is a reputed local restaurant. They have a bundle of local customers. But as they are targeting the customers from the age group of 18 to 35, they need to add some feature to their promotion. They are missing in the social networking sites. So if they promote their business in the social networking platform like Instagram, WhatsApp, website blogs, then they can seek the attention of more people. Their activity on Facebook should be visible. 

The main promotional media here is the social networking sites through which the organisation can be a part of the fast-track life of the target customer. With the help of the social media and print media, they are going to arrange a promotional campaign. The organisation is thinking that on the first day they open after renovation they will donate the total cash of that day to the homeless people. It is good cause and their campaign tag is “Help the Homeless”. Thus they are trying to give a social message and raise fund for a good cause. They want to raise awareness and change the behaviour of the people. And this is a small step.   

7. Marketing Budget

The given budget for creating a marketing mix strategy to solve the business problems is $10-20,000. The budget is used properly in every section and there is no problem in managing the budget (Taylor, 2012). The budget distribution and association for each sector of the marketing mix strategy is given below:


ExpenditureLow High 
ProductIntroducing new side dish$600$700
Recruiting staff$1,000$1,500
Kitchen/ Bar equipments$400$700
PriceStaff training$800$1,000
Office electronics(CC TV, Router, Music)$1,200$1,400
Liquor license$2,000$2,400
PromotionWeb development$2,000$2,200
Social media campaign$1,000$1,200
Local campaign$1,500$1,600
Print media advertisement$1,500$1,700
PlacePaint and re-decorate$500$700
New furniture$700$800
Designs and drawings$800$1,000

Research $1,000$1,100

Planning work$1,000$1,200
Total
$16,000$19,200

So, we can see that the lowest cost for improvement will be $16,000 and highest $19,200. If this budget is followed, then the customer will increase to tease the new dishes and experience the renovated atmosphere of the shop. These local customers will then bring more customers. Most importantly, being regularly active in the social media, they can easily reach the customers and can see their review and reactions.        

8. Conclusion

From the above analysis, it is pretty clear that the business of Rockwell & Sons is good. But to get a better revenue in the coming years, they have to change some small things in their marketing and then they will be ready to win the heart of the customer in a new avatar. The budget for preparing the new marketing strategy is $10-20,000 which is used properly and according to me the revised planning will help the organisation (O. C. Ferrell, 2010).  

Bibliography

Broadbent, S., 1989. Advertising Budget: Advertiser’s Guide to Budget Determination. s.l.:McGraw-Hill Publishing Co.

Constantinides, E., 2006. The Marketing Mix Revisited: Towards the 21st Century Marketing. Journal of Marketing Management, 22(3-4), pp. 407-438 .

Craig S. Breitenbach, D. C. V. D., 1998. Value‐added marketing in the digital domain: enhancing the utility of the Internet”. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 15(6), pp. 558-575.

Dorozhkina, E., 2015. Zero Budget Marketing: ROI Based Marketing Guide for Entrepreneurs. s.l.:s.n.

Fifield, P., 2007. Marketing Strategy. 3rd ed. s.l.: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Graeme Drummond, J. E., 2005. Introduction to Marketing Concepts. 1st ed. s.l.:Routledge.

Jaworski, B. J., 1988. Toward a Theory of Marketing Control: Environmental Context, Control Types, and Consequences. Journal of Marketing, 52(3), pp. 23-39.

O. C. Ferrell, M. D. H., 2010. Marketing Strategy. 5th ed. s.l.:South-Western.

Taylor, G., 2012. Budget Marketing: How to Start & Market an Online Business with Little or Zero Marketing Budget. s.l.:s.n.

Yoram Wind, T. S. R., 1983. Marketing Strategy: New Directions for Theory and Research. Journal of Marketing, 47(2), pp. 12-25.

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Research Proposal: The Struggles Faced by People with a Disability to Gain Employment

Background

Due to difficulties encountered in studies, life, and activity the disabled people have reduced capability of activity to a certain extent. The people with disabilities continuously face obstacles in their economic and social development in almost each and every society of the world. They have to struggle to exercise their freedom and rights. Such situation makes it difficult for them to fully participate in the society. The unemployment rate among people with disabilities is so much high and alarming that global organisations like United Nations stress that there is dire need to come out with a solution (Ntibea, 2011). 

Due to the importance of the topic ‘disability’, it is popular among researchers especially, in the context of employment. There is a large amount of literature available on the topic, exploring its different aspects and from different perspectives. A number of studies have explored the reasons of high unemployment rates among people with disabilities. Such studies have found different reasons for such high unemployment rates among people with disabilities or the disable people. For example, Bruyere (2000) conducted a survey on the topic and found that accommodation was the main reason behind lack of interest of employer to recruit people with disabilities. Fraser et al. (2010) found that structural changes were the main reason behind lower employment rates among people with disabilities. Similarly, other studies Kaye et al (2011); Copeland et al. (2010); and Chan et al. (2010) also find accommodation as the main reason behind employers’ hesitation in recruiting people with disabilities. 

There are other studies which have explored the topic from employer attitude and focus perspective. For example, Economic System, Inc. (2009) identified overestimation of negative impacts of people with disabilities by the employer as the main reason or barrier to their employment. Similarly, Chan et al. (2010) also identified the management of injuries, absences, substance abuse issues and mental health as the main reason behind the employment issue for the people with disabilities. There are other reasons identified by the researchers behind the issues. For example, ODEP (2010) found the increased cost as the perceived main reason behind the employment issue. Ali et al. (2011) found worker qualification as the barrier to the employment of people with disabilities; according to statistics provided by the U.S.A department of Labour (2013), mostly the people with disabilities hold bachelor’s degree or higher while, both ODEP (2010) and Chan et al. (2010) identified resources and support services as one of the main reasons behind the lower unemployment rates among people with disabilities. 

On the other hand, Schur (2010) identified discrimination and bias as the main driver while, Ali et al. (2011) explored the issue from ‘participation’ perspective. Ozawa (2002) and Autor (2012) found that social security benefits’ cost was the main barrier towards the unemployment of disabled people. Burkhauser (2012) also reached to similar conclusions. On the other hand, Ward (2012) found lack of meaningful participation of the people with disabilities as the main driver or the obstacle to their employment. 

From the above, it is clear that there is a large amount of literature available on the topic that has tried to explore the reasons behind lack of interest of employers to hire, retain, and accommodate people with disabilities. One of the main problems with the studies is their dependence. The studies have mainly depended on survey data collected from management and human resource officials. In such studies the subject’s have knowledge about the research’s purpose; therefore, such studies were prone to non-response and social desirability biases. Moreover, the surveys in such studies were distributed through chamber of commerce or employer groups, resulting in getting topic-educated respondents. Even though, one particular study conducted by Jones (2011) tried to avoid such biases; the study conducted survey among employers who were relatively known to be resilient against accommodation and hiring of people with disabilities. The survey focused on questions such as why the respondents believe other employers were hesitant to recruit people with disabilities. However, there is one thing common in all these studies; there is inconsistency in terms of measuring factors. Moreover, there is need of updated information on the topic ‘the struggles faced by the people with disabilities to gain employment’. 

Aims of the Study 

It has been mentioned in previous section that there is need of updated information on the topic ‘the struggles faced by the people with disabilities to gain employment’. The main aims of the study are outlined below: 

  • To identify different types of disabilities; 
  • To explore effect of different types of disabilities on working ability of such people; 
  • To investigate unemployment level among the people with disabilities; 
  • To explore barriers to employment to the people with disabilities; and 
  • To explore the struggles faced by the people with disabilities to gain employment. 

Significance and Innovation of the Proposed Study 

It has been stated in earlier section that there is a large amount of literature available on the topic which has explored the reasons behind lack of interest of employers to hire, retain, and accommodate people with disabilities. However, one of the main problems with the existing literature is their dependence; the studies have mainly depended on survey data collected from management and human resource officials. In such studies the subject’s have knowledge about the research’s purpose; therefore, such studies were prone to non-response and social desirability biases. Moreover, the surveys in such studies were distributed through chamber of commerce or employer groups, resulting in getting topic-educated respondents. Moreover there is inconsistency in terms of measuring factors. The data in this research will not be collected through any chamber of commerce or employer group instead, the researcher will personally contact and collect data from employers, people with disabilities, employees working with disable people, and the experts on the topic. Moreover, this study will provide updated information and specific focus on the topic ‘the struggles faced by the people with disabilities to gain employment’. 

Expected Outcomes/ Implications for Practice 

The researcher will personally contact and collect data from employers, people with disabilities, employees working with disable people, and the experts on the topic. This study will provide updated analysis of the different aspects of the struggles faced by the people with disabilities to gain employment. This research will specially help and update the policy makers in understanding the struggles faced by the people with disabilities in gaining employment. The study will help the policy makers in understanding the underlying reasons behind the lower employment rates among such people, ultimately addressing the issues and improving unemployment opportunities and environment for the people who are the important and integral part of our societies. 

Research Plan: Methodology 

Method 

There are two main different research methods used to complete a research study. One is termed as qualitative method and the second one is termed as quantitative method. Each method has its pros and cons. For example, qualitative study does not require larger samples. Instead, it requires collection of data from a limited number of people. Such studies where qualitative methodology is followed require comparatively lower amount of finances, time, and also require lower level of hard work to complete the study. Generally, qualitative method is preferred in descriptive studies and the studies focused on exploration of a specific behaviour. Moreover, the studies completed on the basis of qualitative methodology are relatively easy to complete as such studies does not require application of complicated statistical techniques. However, the main drawback of qualitative studies is the lack of generalize-ability. Such studies are based on input of smaller samples; therefore, such studies loose creditability and acceptance of their findings are limited in scope. On the other hand, the findings of studies based on quantitative methodology are accepted widely as the findings are based on input of larger samples, a greater representative of the population. However, such studies require extra time as well as financial resource. Such studies also require extra efforts as the studies are based on collection of data from larger samples. Moreover, quantitative studies require application of complicated statistical techniques (Neuman, 2013).

By considering the pros and cons of each method, understanding the nature of the study and personal limitations, this study will be mainly based on qualitative methodology. This study will be based on qualitative methodology because this study is basically a descriptive study and related to exploration of behaviour of people with disabilities, their colleagues, and the employers and management. Furthermore, personally there is limited time and financial resources available to complete the study. However, to improve the authenticity of findings of the study, the quantitative methodology will be applied to a certain extent; the percentile analysis will be performed to analyse the primary data collected through a survey questionnaire on the topic of this study. 

Population 

All the people who have disabilities and are struggling to gain employment will be population of this study. 

Sample 

The sample will be limited to 100 people, consisting on employers, and people with disabilities, employees working with disable people, and the experts on the topic.

Data collection 

To collect data and complete the proposed study there are two main options; primary data resources and secondary data resources. Similar to the research method, there are limitations and benefits attached with each source of data. For example, it is easy to collect relevant secondary data on the topic. It requires relatively less time and financial resources to collect relevant data through secondary data sources. There are a number of options to collect secondary data like; books, journals, newspapers, websites, magazines, online blogs, websites, conference proceedings, university papers, etc. However, the main drawback of secondary data is risk of manipulation. The secondary data is often termed as second-hand data because people can manipulate secondary data according to their requirements. On the other hand, there is almost no such risk attached with primary data unless, the researcher himself or herself does not manipulate as per his or her research requirements. The primary data has no such risk as it is collected first-hand and personally by the researchers. However, primary data collection requires extra time and as well as financial resources (Neuman, 2013). 

This particular study will extract relevant data from secondary sources as well as from primary sources. The researchers will personally collect data from employers, people with disabilities, employees working with disable people, and the experts on the topic. On the other hand to minimise the risk of manipulation, secondary data will be collected from peer reviewed journals, books, conference proceedings, and reputable relevant websites and blogs. 

To collect primary data there are different tools and techniques used by researchers like structured interviews, semi-structured interviews, unstructured interviews, surveys, questionnaires, etc. Each primary data collection option has certain benefits and limitations. For example, interview provides detailed feedback about the topic. However, it is time-consuming and costly method. Moreover, it is a complicated task to analyse data collected through interviews especially, through the unstructured interviews. On the other hand, survey method requires relatively less time and financial resources. Moreover, it is relatively easy and simple to analyse data collected through survey method (Neuman, 2013). Even though, the method does not provide detailed inputs regarding the topic still, considering the financial and time limitations the survey method is more appropriate. This study will develop a questionnaire on the topic and relevant data will be collected from the sample through a survey. 

Data analysis 

The study will require analyse of the data collected from secondary and primary sources. First of all, the researcher will perform literature review relevant to the topic of this study. It will help in development of a particular theme regarding the topic. Thereafter, the theme will be analysed in the light of data collected through the survey. The data collected through the survey questionnaire will be analysed with the help of percentile analyses. It will help in comparing and contrasting the primary and secondary data on the topic and reaching towards a particular conclusion regarding the subject problem and achieving the objectives of the study (Neuman, 2013). 

Ethical Considerations 

This study will strive to maintain general ethical research standards. For example, the researcher will seek appointments before data is collected from management, employers, and employees of a particular company or from the experts and unemployed people with disabilities. The names or other personal data of employers, employees, and other relevant respondents will not be collected and revealed without the permission of the concerned. For this reason, the questionnaire will not seek name of the respondents. Moreover, to maintain privacy and to protect the employees and other relevant stakeholders from any sort of risk of clash with relevant stakeholders, a drop box would be used in case of data collection from employees of a particular firm. Moreover, other general ethical research standards will be maintained. In this way, ethical research standards will minimise the risk of biased feedback and the respondents will be confident while being part of the study and providing data relevant to the topic of the study (Neuman, 2013). 

Study Limitations 

It will be tried to perform the research with best available tools and techniques still, there are some unavoidable limitations. For example, it will be assured to the respondents that their privacy will be maintained; however, they will still face risk of clash with relevant stakeholders or risk of losing job. The other main limitation of this study will be the time that will affect the size of the sample and the tools and techniques used to collect and analyse the data. Similarly, lack of financial resources will be the other main limitations of the study and will affect the size of the sample and the tools and techniques used to collect and analyse the data. 

Administration of the Research  

Basically, the study will be divided into five main sections; background, literature review, methodology, data collection, analysis and findings, and conclusion and recommendations. Brief detail about budget and resource requirement is given in following sub-section. 

Resources requirements/ Budget 

This study will require finances to collect and analyse data through exiting literature and the survey. First of all, there will be need of about 2,000 dollars to collect relevant data from existing literature as it will require access to relevant books, journals, newspapers, magazines, conference proceeding, and reputable websites and blogs. The study also will require about 3,000 dollars to collect primary data through survey as it will require finances to contact, travel, and meet with relevant people. Overall, this study will require about 5,000 dollars. On the other hand, the study will require access to MS word, excel, and internet to perform the analyses and document the proceedings and results.  

Timetable 

It will require about 20 weeks completing the study. The study activities can be broadly categorised into research proposal, literature review, data collection, data analysis, and final report submission. The study will require approximately 2 weeks for research proposal; 4 weeks for literature review; 6 weeks for data collection; 4 weeks for data analysis; and finally 2 weeks will be enough to compile and submit final report. In this way, this study will be completed approximately within 20 weeks period.  

References 

Ali, M., Schur, L. & Blanck, P., 2011. What types of jobs do people with disabilities want?. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 21(2), pp.199-210.

Autor, D., 2012. The unsustainable rise of the disability rolls in the United States: Causes, consequences, and policy options. SSRN Working Paper Series. .

Bruyere, s., 2000. Disability Employment Policies and Practices in Private and Federal Sector Organizations. Cornell University, School of Industrial and Labor Relations Extension Division, Program on Employment and Disability.

BureauOfLaborStatisticsU.S.DepartmentOfLabor, 2013. Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted. [Online] Available at: https://digitalcommons.uri.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1036&context=lrc_paper_series [Accessed 04 October 2018].

Burkhauser, R.V., Nicholas, L.H. & Schmeiser, M.D., 2012. The importance of state antidiscrimination discrimination laws on employer accommodation and the movement of their employees onto social security disability insurance. SSRN Working Paper Series. .

Chan, F. et al., 2010. Demand-side factors related to employment of people with disabilities: A survey of employers in the midwest region of the United States. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 20(4), pp.412-19.

Copeland, J., Chan, F., Bezyak, J. & Fraser, R.T., 2010. Assessing cognitive and affective reactions of employers toward people with disabilities in the workplace. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 20(4), pp.427-34.

EconomicSystemsInc., 2009. Changing demographic trends that affect the workplace and implications for people with disabilities. Volume I: Literature review and gaps analysis. .

Fraser, R.T. et al., 2010. Understanding employers’ hiring intentions in relation to qualified workers with disabilities: Preliminary findings. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 20(4), pp.420-26.

Kaye, H.S., Jans, L.H. & Jones, E.C., 2011. Why don’t employers hire and retain workers with disabilities?. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 21(4), pp.526-36.

Michalopoulos, C. et al., 2011. The accelerated benefits demonstration and evaluation project: impacts on health and employment at twelve months. Volume 1.

Neuman, W.L., 2013. Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Pearson education.

Ntibea, J., 2011. Barriers Facing Disables in Getting Jobs in Ghana. Universitetet I Oslo, pp.11-63.

Ozawa, M.N., 2002. SSI and adults with disabilities: Background, trends, and a study of participation. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 13(3), pp.153-62.

Schur, L., 2002. The difference a job makes: The effects of employment among people with disabilities. Journal of Economic Issues, 36(2), pp.339-47.

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Marketing Plan on Organic Fruit Drinks Assignment Help

Executive Summary

Any business firm has their respective products or services that they launch in the market. The products or services need to be familiarized with the people because there are similar types of products in the market brought by various other companies. Only through proper marketing activities these products can be brought to the targeted people. The objective of this paper is to focus on the marketing plans related to the organic fruit drinks business. The importance of the marketing activities on the products that can be used by the management of organic fruit drinks to boost up their business in shown in this paper. The paper also puts light on various marketing strategies that can be used by the management of organic fruit drinks as well.

Introduction

World is changing every day, every moment. As we speak now, the change is still being in action. With the change of world there has been change in the business market as well. The business strategy of this age is totally different from the business strategies of the previous world. Management of the business firms need to adapt to new things for the success of their business. Considering the modern time, marketing is the best and most suitable solution to the problems of business success rate. Every management of any business whether the business is small or big has faced some moments, some situations in the development of the business. These situations need to be handled with care and accurate steps otherwise these may create havoc in the near future of the concerned business plan.

Industry Analysis & Product

Human are by born social beings. The necessity of the human race demands the people to live in a group, in a colony. With the modern and developed society, the lifestyle of people living in that society has also changed. The lifestyles of people living in the society are greatly affected by the terms and regulations that are around him. At present people are attached to the organic food products. Now people think that the organic food products are not only good for the health of the people but also for the long life (Bruce Clay, 2010). With each moment passing, humans are being more and more concerned about their life, their health, their day to day activities and so on. For a better life it is necessary to consume healthy and less chemicals as the chemicals, the excessive things that the humans consume with their foods, drinks are contaminating the life cycle, the blood circulation of the human body. Humans have become well aware of these and nowadays they are looking forward to consuming foods, drinks without any kind of contamination. So, the organic food products are the answer to the questions of the people. 

Keeping this in mind the organic food and beverage producing industries have expanded their business to new levels and new sources as well. At present there are many organic food developing products that are available in the market and they are attracting new customers, new people towards them. Organic food products are now easily available to the people. This has happened only because of the development of the marketing and business strategies that have been used behind the scenario. Organic food precuts are mainly two types such as the organic food and the organic beverage or drinking items (L. J. Mullins, 2005). The drinking items are mainly the fruit drinks that are produced from the organic fruits without any kind of contamination in the procedure or ingredients. The organic fruit drinks are the most and common organic products consumed by the customers. As a result this product has a very high value in the business market which is both profitable and expandable in terms of business platform. Currently the organic fruit drinks have occupied most of the organic fruits market because of its high demand among the people. To keep pace with the demands of the people, the concerned companies need to develop the marketing strategies of their products and attract more people towards their produced, manufactured items.

Consumer Behavior/Market

Every business plan or business strategy has its separate, distinctive market place that is totally connected to the products or services provided by that business plan or platform. The business plans are concerned with the consumable goods as it is related to the organic fruit drinks. The marketing needs to be accurate and precise regarding the fruit drinks otherwise it may not attract the targeted people or the related business market (Shaw Sherin, 2008). The behavior of the people needs to be studied well to get a clear picture of the people and their eating habit, their drinking goods as well. The analysis of the market is also very important as it is directly related to the consumable goods.

Target Segment

It is very important for the marketing team to locate and fix the people who the company wants to target to sell their products too. The target segment can be relied on by the following – 

  • Geographic

Geography plays a very important role in the marketing segment of the products. Based on the geography the organic fruit drinks vary from each other. It is well known that the drinking habit of Europe will not match the drinking style of people living in Asia. Hence, the geography holds a very strong position in the target segment.

  • Demographic

People of different ages, different genders have different tastes. What a person likes is completely different from what another person may like. So, the marketing of the products need to be based on the demography as well.

  • Psychographic

Depending on the season, on the weather conditions the drinking habit of day to day people may vary. Organic fruit drinks are always welcome, but the flavors in the drinks are a must as it is directly related to the psychology of the people. The marketing of different flavors are therefore a must in this business.

  • Behavioral

Organic fruit drinks are suitable for all kinds of people. People from all age groups can enjoy these drinks and refresh themselves as well. The behavioral conditions of the people are taken into account in terms of the marketing team of the concerned companies.

By considering these factors the target segment for the organic fruit drinks can be chosen by different marketing strategies.

Consumer Decision Making Process

The rate of consumption of the products by customers is very important. From this the customer acceptance rate of the goods are determined. Depending on these the consumer decision making is concluded for the organic fruit drinks (Rollinson, D, 2011). The following factors can be used for the process – 

  • Problem/Need Recognition

The very first step is to find out the problems or the needs in some cases. Depending on the result acquired at this the concerned company or business holders can take decisions for their products.

  • Information

In any business to gather information about the targeted people and the information regarding the business market, the products available in the market is very crucial. The concerned company needs to have a basic and clean idea about their products and people.

  • Evaluation of Alternatives

Just like any other business plan, the organic fruit drinks producers have alternatives as well in case of needed. The correct evaluation of the alternative helps in taking decisions regarding the products (Robert L. Mathis and Stephen. P. Robbins , 2004).

  • Outcome

Outcome is based on the post sell activities, people’s reaction to the products and similar tasks. The outcome holds a strong position in making decisions for the company.

All the factors are equally important in the decision making activities related to the customers and the future aspects of the business as well. The organic fruit drinks are widely recognized hence, the decisions need to be precise and accurate as well.

Branding Activities

Consumable items need a very good marketing. More the branding activities more the people will learn about the products which a very positive aspect for the business of organic fruit drinks (Nancy Loma, 2011). The branding activity has some steps that it needs to overcome for the success rate of the marketing plan.

  • What is to brand for – 

The marketing division needs to be very precise about what they are branding for. Any misconduct may hamper the purpose of branding. Organic fruit drinks are the main focus of this business. So the branding should emphasis on the organic drinks that have the core related to the organic fruits.

  • Whom to brand for – 

For which products the branding activities are done is a very important task and step. The branding should be done for accurate, distinctive and chosen products only. The process should never create any confusion among the people regarding what the respective authorities are trying to brand in front of the people.

  • Targeted people – 

The branding activities should be planned on the basis of a targeted people. This will keep the success percentage of branding higher than the usual ones (N.G. Nair and Latha Nair, 2009). The targeted people should be set up before the execution of the branding process. This is one of the vital and important part in any branding activity.

  • Competitors – 

In every business there are competitors who represent similar products in the market. Competitors make the work challenging for the other related companies in achieving their respective goals or objects set by the companies. A perfect and good branding keeps the respective company on a positive influence in the customers compared to the competitors.

Organic fruit drinks needs a good branding at the beginning of the business. It gives a good start to the business which is a positive impact for the marketing team and growth of the business as well. Hence, the branding of the organic fruit drinks is very important in terms of business growth and business success rate.

Marketing-Mix

In any kind of business or retails it is very important to have a good marketing of the products or services provided by that business. All the developed businesses have their own marketing are criteria which are very helpful for the development of the business and the profit earning as well.  To achieving organization’s goals depends on determining the needs and wants of target markets and delivering the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors do. The consumers will not buy enough of the organization’s products unless the organization undertakes a large-scale selling and promotion effort. Marketing management is the art and science of choosing target markets and getting, keeping, and growing customers through creating, delivering, and communicating superior customer value. Thus, it involves managing demand, which in turn involves managing customer relationships (N.G. Nair and Latha Nair, 2009). Marketing is the sum of all activities that takes the business to a sells outlet. The marketing mix is mainly comprised of four main points. The organic fruit drinks business marketing can follow the marketing mix to make their business more successful. They are given as – 

  • Product

Products or services are the goods provided or manufactured by a particular company and brought to the business market. Depending on the business market the services may vary from one place to another. The organic fruit drinks are thereafter manufactured after the demand of the drinks in the business market.

  • Price

Through the price the respective company earns their revenue and makes profit from the business as well. The prices should not to be too high for the customers to buy them. At the same, the prices should not be too low for the company to make profit from the goods. It should be moderate for both the parties.

  • Promotion

In any kind of business it is very important to have promotional activities. The promotional activities make the people realize, get the people familiar with the new products that are being launched in the market. Keeping this in mind, the marketing team of organic fruit drinks can arrange promotional activities for their products.

  • Place

Place in other words location holds a very crucial part in any kind of the business. The organic fruit drinks needs to get the attraction of the people. For this, there needs to be distribution spots at several places which will boost up the business.

The marketing-mix is very important in the business development. All these steps need to be carried and fulfilled by the marketing team of organic fruit drinks for the success in their business.

Marketing Activities

In today’s world marketing is considered as the core to the development of any kind of business. In case of the consumable type of business like the organic fruit drinks the importance of marketing is more than the usual (L. J. Mullins, 2005). To make the business more efficient and acquire more success the marketing team of the organic fruit drinks has adapted new strategies in their business. They are as – 

  • Packaging

Packaging or presentation of the drinks is very important. People are attracted to new and innovative things. If the packaging of the products are such that they can be easily distinguished from others than the success percentage raises more for the business.

  • Events Arrangements

Several events can be arranged by the marketing team of organic fruit drinks manufacturing teams. Through these events, the management can reach to more people and brand their products in front of the people. These events are very important in the marketing sections of business. Manufacturers of organic fruit drinks can use this strategy in their marketing plans for better result.

  • Product Ambassador

In today’s world it has become a trend to appoint one or more ambassadors for a specific product or goods. The ambassadors help in marketing strategies of the company. The work of the ambassador is to attend the events organized by the related business firms and do promotional activities of the products. Manufactures of organic fruit drinks can use this strategy and appoint ambassadors for their products as well. This will boost up the success rate of the business.

These activities can be used by the organic fruit drinks manufactures for their business which is both beneficial and useful for the future of the business.

Conclusion

Marketing is considered as the core of success for consumable items related business. Whatever the company emphasis on their marketing teams for their products or service, are more likely to be the topper in that respective business market. Organic fruit drinks is such a product that people of all ages, all genders have taste for these. As a result, the competition is also high. To overcome these obstacles the marketing needs to be very distinctive only then the business can be called a successful one.

Refernece

Bruce Clay. (2010). Search Engine Optimization All-in-One for Dummies (3rd ed.). Los Angles: Mestophia.

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Guy Kawasaki & Peg Fitzpatrick. (2014). The Art of Social Media: Power Tips for Power Users (1st ed.). Tokyo: Vision Publications.

L. J. Mullins. (2005). Management and Organisational Behaviour. Financial Times Management, 247.

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