Analysis of research paper abstracts
Research Study 1
Salmonella enterica serovar Oranienburg outbreak in a veterinary medical teaching hospital with evidence of nosocomial and on-farm transmission(having proper abstract)
In case of veterinary medical teaching healthcare organisations, the outbreak of nosocomial Salmonellosis imposes a significant threat to the members of organisations. The main aim of this study is analysing the impact of Salmonellosis outbreak, mainly caused by Salmonella enterica serovar, for highlighting their unique features. These can be applied for reducing or preventing the nosocomial Salmonellosis in upcoming years. In this research study, the researcher(s) has analysed the data of patients having fecal-culture positive Salmonellosis, admitted in the hospital in between the date range of 1 January 2006 to 1 June 2011. The detection of Salmonellosis has been completed through clinical, historical, as well as pulse-field gel electrophoresis data. In this particular veterinary medical healthcare setting, the Salmonella outbreak has been diagnosed among three cows, five alpacas, twenty horses, in the time range of August 2006 to January 2008. The researcher(s) has evaluated that most of the people were infected through either on-farm or nosocomial transmission, which has been proved through the results of molecular sub-typing as well as other supportive epidemiological information.
Due to the presence of various related Salmonella Oranienburg sub-types, the results obtained from PFGE are difficult in case of analysis and interpretation. Besides this, the interpretation is also harder as most of the infected people have been detected with fecal culture-positive along with the outbreak of Salmonella Oranienburg, almost within 24 hours of hospital admission. Although it has been thought that these patients may open a new window related with the outbreak of nosocomial Salmonellosis, however, their medical report histories show that there were an in-depth connection between their health condition and hospital outbreak among the animals.
Therefore, this study also represents the fact that the risk of Salmonellosis includes the chances of nosocomial outbreak, which acts as a ‘source of infection’. Besides this, it also depicts the fact that veterinary medical teaching organisations needs to focus on the underscore as the nodes of infection can also spread the transmission route outside from the healthcare organisation.
Research study 2
Prevalence and characterization of extended‐spectrum β‐lactamase‐producing clinical S almonella enterica isolates in Dakar, Senegal, from 1999 to 2009(not having proper abstract, aim not mentioned)
In Senegalese Reference Centre for Enterobacteria, the scientists have identified approximately a huge number of clinical isolates of Salmonella species; approximately 1623 numbers of clinical isolates belong to 229 serotypes. The study has been performed in the time range of January 1999 to December 2009. Among the isolates, the percentages of serotypes are as 19% Enterotidis, 8% Typhi, 7% Typhinurium, and 4% Kentucky. Besides this, the study also has revealed that the non-typhoidal serotypes of Salmonella show significant resistant level against nalidixic acid and amoxilin. However, for some other significant antibiotics, such as cephalosporine and ciprofloxacin, the resistant level is lower than the previous ones, which are 0.5% and 0.3% respectively. In order to test the molecular basis of this resistant mechanism, a comparative analysis has been followed including three ESC-resistance Senegal strain and seven ESC-resistant Salmonella strains. After successful analysis, it has been assumed that all strains having ESC-resistance nature can produce ESBL or Extended Spectrum B Lactamase. The strains are SHV-2, SHV-12, and CTX-M-15. Among them, total six strains, including three CTX-M-15 and three SHV-12, a larger plasmid like IncHI2 STI pK29, has been found. On the other hand, IncF and IncN have also been found among them. The four strains having capabilities of producing ESBL, can produce plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance or PMQR genes qnrB1 and aac(6′)-Ib-c. This leads to decrease the susceptibility, often develop full resistance towards ciprofloxacin. Therefore, the study concludes that combination of ESBL along with the PMQR mechanisms in different strains impose severe threat and a serious concern.
The main aim of this study is to understand the resistant mechanism followed by Salmonella serotypes, especially ESBl producing clinical Salmonella enterica. The prevalence as well as characterisation of ESBL producing Salmonella species can be understood from this study, which can assist in developing some clinical and medication plan for preventing the outbreak caused by Salmonella serotypes.
Research Study 3
Nosocomial outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium primarily affecting a pediatric ward in South Africa in 2012 (very small abstract, donot represent major viewpoint, no aim)
In this study, the researcher has focused on an incident of diarrheal disease outbreak caused by ESBL producing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, occurred in a pediatric ward, situated in South Africa. These organisms also show their internal resistant power towards various antibiotics as well as other anti-diarrheal drugs. The study has been conducted in the time range of 2012 May to 2012 July. They have assumed that the most considerable reason behind this outbreak was on-farm infection spreading or person-to-person transmission. A central reason behind this outbreak was infection through absence of proper hygienic standards, absence of sub-optimal disease and infection control approaches, excessive crowing inside treatment area and imbalanced nurse-to-patient ratio.
The central focus of this study is to understand the transmission mechanism of Salmonella in the pediatric ward of South African healthcare organisation, by which they spread the diarrheal disease in the healthy individuals of involved personnel. Besides this, the current research paper also assists in determining the associated internal and external factors that may have direct or indirect impacts on disease outbreak.
Research study 4
Antimicrobial and molecular analysis of Salmonella serovar Livingstone strains isolated from humans in Tunisia and Belgium (adequate)
This study represents that most of the nosocomial Salmonellosis has been caused by Salmonella serovar Livingstone, especially between Belgium and Tunisia. The study has been conducted through multilocus sequence typing, virulotyping, and antibiogram. The technique of virulotyping has been carried by simple Polymerase Chain Reaction process, including five chromosomal and two plasmid genes. During the study, the researcher(s) has analysed total 42 types of Salmonall serovar Livingstone through analysing the information collected from the Belgium and Tunisia healthcare organisations. Among the 42 isolated types, 31 strains have been identified from Tunisia people, 9 strains have been isolated from Belgium people, and the rest 2 have identified from food products, including pork and beef. Through analysing the outcome of this study, it has been assumed that the Tunisian strains can show their resistant power ticarcilin, cefalotin, kanamycin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, and third-generation cephallosporin antibiotics. On the other hand, the Belgium strains show their resistant power towards all the antibiotics involved in this study. Furthermore, the Tunisian strains have revealed that they belong to the ST457 profile whereas the Belgium strains show that they belong to ST453, ST457, and ST638 groups. By analysing the contents present in the virulent genes, it has been assumed that the strains isolated in various years show same virulence profile. All of these strains carry the five chromosomal genes; however, genes present plasmid-located virulence factors are not present among them. Therefore, the main consequence of this study is that there is a relationship between most Belgium strains and all Tunisian strains, as they show similar virulence type, sequence type. However, they do not have similar resistant profile against popular antibiotics.
This study helps in determining the reason behind presence of Salmonella serotype Livingstone in Tunisia and Belgium. The antimicrobial and molecular analysis of this strain can assist in understanding the factors related with the outbreak of Salmonellosis among Tunisians and Belgium people. Besides this, the connection between the strains of Tunisia and Belgium can also be reported from this research study.
Research Study 5
Trends in serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility in Salmonella enterica isolates from humans in Belgiumm (partially adequate)
According to the research study of Belgian National Reference Centre, total 16.544 human isolates of Salmonella species have been identified during the study conducted from Januart 2009 to December 2013. Among the 377 various serotypes, the entire picture has been dominated by two serovar types, which are 55% Typhimurium and 19% Enteritidis. Besides this, significant changes have been identified in the fluctuation rate in case of different serotypes like Stanley, Paratyphi B. Var Java as well as Ohio, during this five year study period. For example, study shows that Belgian Salmonellosis has occupied around 1.2% of the total typhoid strain accout.
Through focusing on large-scale antibiotic resistance testing, it can be stated that the for the 8 and 3 tested agents, the Enteritidis and Typhimurium strains show the level of resistance declination. Due to the reason of increasing clonal lineages, the resistance against cefotaxime and ciprofloxacine has also been enhanced among the detected strains of Salmonells bacteria. In most of the cases, the quinolone resistance has been determined hrough including serotype-based GyrA residue mutation of Asp87 and Ser83, whereas in 95.5% cases, ciprofloxacin resistance can be caused by the additional ParC_Ser80ile mutation. However, among the 533 isolates having resistant power against nalidixic acid, only 3% show their plasmid-resistant quinolone resistant power. Therefore, from this study, the researcher(s) has assumed that human Salmonella enterica species do not show excessive resistance against cefatoxime and fluoroquinolones. However, due to the reason of increasing number of clonal resistance serotypes, it is required to follow the continuous national or international surveillance standard, for identifying the route cause, analysis, and dissemination of routes.
This study can be considered as quite uncommon from the traditional study, as it focuses on the serotype distribution trends through aligning with the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica. The identification of Salmonella serotype trends can support in understanding the common occurrences of Salmonellosis, also by determining the factors, causes, and consequences of this trend.
Research study 6
Antimicrobial resistance and management of invasive Salmonella disease (adequate)
Through analysing the available evidences, it can be mentioned that Invasive Salmonella Infection, either typhoidal or non-typhoidal, can impose a huge threat to the human health, as nearly 600,000 deaths occur every year due to the this disease. Besides this, apparently 3.4 million cases have been documented every year, especially in the resource-restraints settings. Studies suggest that in the Sub-Saharan Africa, the group of immunosuppressive people, especially the children under age of 5, shows excessive vulnerability towards the Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella infections, along with a mortality rate 20-30%. Besides this, the multidrug resistant strains are present among the area, where routine antimicrobial resistance surveillance could not be performed. The strains show resistant against 3rd generation cephalosporins and fluorquinolones, Moreover, many parts of Asia and Africa has been suffered from the emergence issues of typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A.
The central aim of this study is to analyse the previous evidence and existing numerical data related with the prevalence as well as the epidemiology of invasive Salmonella infection, along with the process of adequate management, especially in the endemic countries. The central problem highlighted in this research study is the increasing number of MDR strains, due to which infection prevention and control become excessively difficult. This issue is mostly vulnerable in the resource limited areas, where the effective antimicrobial agents are either not available or beyond affordable range. Therefore, it can be assumed that although researcher(s) has invented various types of new antimicrobial agents and new techniques of maintaining hygienic standards, it is necessary to consider the WHO recommended typhoid vaccines intervention process or iNTS vaccine trials.
This research study focuses on investigating the causes behind antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella species, especially in the area where proper management and administration system could not be implicated. Besides this, the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance followed by Salmonella species have also been recognised and evaluated, based on which some prevention mechanisms can also be developed.
Research Study 7
Rapid draft sequencing and real-time nanopore sequencing in a hospital outbreak of Salmonella (adequate)
Among all the present health concern of people, Salmonella outbreak through food intake can be considered as one of the most common occurrence. This study has been performed through analysing the patients affected by a recent outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteriditis phage-type 14b. The researcher(s) has assumed that certain factors have direct relationship with this disease, such as community standard, national protocols, and many others. The research study reveals that patients admitted in the hospital having high risks of Salmonella infection. In order to understand the manner of Salmonella infection spreading, whole-genome sequencing through Illumina MiSeq, surveillance sequencing and a new sequencing technology, known as MiniOn, have been followed, which can further assist in managing the nosocomial outbreak of Salmonella.
The result of this study is associated with a comparison between standard sequencing process and rapid MiSeq sequencing protocol. Researcher(s) reveals that for obtaining authentic and reliable information related with Salmonella outbreak, MiniOn can assist in acquiring real time information within a very limited time. Besides this, the MiniON technology can also provide the opportunity of applying novel phylogentic placement and completing adequate experimental methods. Therefore, it can be concluded from the study that both processes are beneficial in case of collecting actionable and reliable clinical data regarding nosocomial Salmonella outbreak, which can further help in facilitating epidemiological investigations and infection prevention practices.
In order to understand the process of infection spreading, it is necessary to understand the molecular basis of the infection spread by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteriditis. The conventional process of whole-genome sequencing is excessively lengthy and time-consuming. Therefore, the new technology-based whole-genome sequencing method can reduce the issues and provide valid, authentic, reliable, and adequate clinical information necessary for future researches.
Research Study 8
Nosocomial outbreak of a novel extended-spectrum β-lactamase Salmonella enterica serotype Isangi among surgical patients (adequate)
The invasive Salmonella serotypes infectious disease can increase the morbidity and mortality rate of immune-suppressed people and children and people having HIV infection. The central objective of this study is to investigate the associated protocols, situations, conditions, mechanisms, and control processes, related with nosocomial outbreak of ESBL Salmonella enterica serotype Isangi in a South-eastern Michigan hospital. The mode of transmission has been investigated and analysed through assessing infection control approaches, environmental cultures, case-control studies, and real-time PCR. Besides this, screening of healthcare workers and determination of strains related with the outbreak also has been analysed by pulse-field gel electrophoresis.
The study includes total 30 people, among them 19 are surgical patient, 10 are patients of organ transplantation, and 1 is healthcare worker. Study reveals that although these patients have various clinical issues, like gastroenteritis, surgical inection, bacteremia, the outcome of pulse-field gel electrophoresis represent 89.5% similarity index among them related with Salmonella infection. Besides this, the intra-operative transesophageal probe of TEE has also been identified as a considerable route of Salmonella transmission, especially among the case patients. Removal of these TEE probes helps in reducing chances of Salmonella outbreak. Therefore, it can be assumed that multiple control and prevention processes are required to implement for interrupting the pathogenic transmission process. Periodic monitoring of TEE re-processing can assist in ensuring optimum level of disinfection.
This study aims to investigate the possible external transmission route inside hospital premises, which are mostly responsible for the nosocomial outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Isangi. Through this research, it has been proved that similar types of strain can be present in people having various health related issues. Besides this, exposure to infected equipment can also spread the infection within the healthy or immune-suppressed individuals.
Research Study 9
Whole genome sequencing identifies in vivo acquisition of a blaCTX-M-27-encoding IncFII transmissible plasmid as the cause of ceftriaxone treatment failure for an invasive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection (adequate)
A ceftriaxone treatment failure has been reported in case of bacteremia caused by Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica serovar Typhimurium. Due to the reason of in vivo storage of plasmid belongs to IncFII, encoded by blaCTX-M-27, it has been proved that during ceftriaxone treatment process, the ESBL producing isolate ST8825 has been replaced byST931R resistant strain. However, after relapse, ciprofloxacin has been used for treating the patient, and it shows positive result on patient’s health. Whole-genome sequencing of ST8825, ST931R, trans-conjugant of E.coli, and the plasmid DNA isolated from the strains, has been conducted by the researcher(s). After conducting these techniques, it has been showed that identical chromosomes and identical SNPs or single nucleotide polymorphism numbers are present in both strains. The strains can also be identified as isogenic, apart from the presence of 3 extra plasmids present in ST931R. Due to the presence of 60.5 kb IS26-flanked-blaCTX-M-27 encoded IncFII plasmid, the E.coli conjugant and ST931R shows ceftriaxone resistance power. Besides this, both strains have 3904 cryptic bp replicon and similar virulence plasmid like pSLT14028s of 94kb. 62 kb IncI2 and 93 kb cryptic IncII are present in ST931R.
From this research paper, various molecular details can be understood, which are revealed through whole-genome sequencing process. Besides this, the similarity and differences among ST8825 strain and St931R strain of Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica serovar Typhimurium has also been identified in this study. This information can help in future studies related with nosocomial outbreak of Salmonella species.
Research Study 10
Serotype diversity and antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella enterica isolated from patients at an equine referral hospital (adequate)
Previous studies suggest that most of the Salmonella serotypes can cause life-threatening illness, especially in the horses; however, some specific serotypes are extensively associated with the infection processes as well as clinical diseases. The focus of this study is the evaluation of proportional morbidity rate, related with various Salmonella serotypes, along with its genotypic and phenotypic antimicrobial resistance pattern. Researcher(s) has studies the patients of Equine referral hospital, situated in the United States. Through analysing, the patients admitted in the time range of 2007 to 2015, total 255 numbers of serotypes have been collected from the clinical samples. Besides this, the US National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System has determined resistances against 14 antibiotics, through a commercial available panel. In order to identify the genotype and serotype AMR, whole genome sequencing has been used. The study reveals various serotypes, including 18% Newport, 15.2% Anatum, and 11.8% Braenderup , among which most are pan-susceptible and around 25 are MDR. Besides this, gene encoded beta-encoded resistance power has also been detected. Due to the presence of qnrB2 as well as aac(6′)-Ib-cr genes, reduction of ciprofloxacin susceptibility has also been observed. Resistance against gentamicin, streptomucin, trimethoprim, sulphonamides, phenicols, tetracyclines, and macrolides has also been determined from the study result. Therefore, the study concludes that AMR Salmonella can enhance the risk of unsuccessful treatment process among of the equine patients, resulting significant types of zoonotic transmission.
This paper is helpful for understanding the prevalence of Salmonella serotypes causing zoonotic infection, which can further cause human health issues, especially among those involved with veterinary care.
Analysis of Scientific Publications
A critical analysis of the ten papers has been provided in a normal format that is generally provided on a scientific research paper. The abstract of all the 10 papers provided in-depth analysis of the subject. There has been a proper insight about the topic that are well structured and pre-planned. It answers all the questions of the subject and provides effective findings and outcomes. However, it needs to be noted that abstract of the research 2 “Prevalence and characterization of extended‐spectrum β‐lactamase‐producing clinical S almonella enteric” do not have a proper abstract. The research paper has failed to provide appropriate aims. Thus, this particular research did not address the gaps and is not well structured for the study.
The methodology of all the research paper has been described in details. All the steps and supplement data have been provided appropriately. The results and the analysis portion have provided the authenticity of the data collection. However, there has been no methodology in the research 6 “Research study 6: Antimicrobial resistance and management of invasive Salmonella disease” and Research 7 “Rapid draft sequencing and real-time nanopore sequencing in a hospital outbreak of Salmonella”. Thus, without methodology proper conclusion and recommendation cannot be provided. Thus, the research questions are not answered in the research paper 6 and 7.
Facets of good abstract
A good abstract is always well- structured and brief that is divided into paragraphs and is specific to the point. A proper abstract must be condensed, formatted and provide details of the entire project without deviating from the subject. A good abstract must include the aim of the subject, the purpose of the study, background of the research, methodology, data analysis and recommendations. There must be a flow among all these parts so that the learner can understand the findings and the results. There must be a consistency between the information provided in the abstract and the overall summary of the research paper. A good abstract is essential, as it is the first thing that is analyzed during the review process. Moreover, it helps the learner and other researchers to understand the topic and its discussion. It also assists the learner to understand the main subject and analyze its findings. By studying and analyzing the observations, it can be concluded that the arguments provided in a good abstract addresses the three basic points i.e. What, How and What’s New.
Adherence to the golden rule
|Paper||Authors||Meets Golden Rule?||Abstract made me want to read paper||Abstract conveyed all essential info from paper|
|1||Cummings et al., 2014||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|2||Harrois et al., 2014||partially||Partially||Partially yes|
|3||Smith et al., 2014||Slightly||partially||Not that much|
|4||Guedda et al., 2014||almost||Partially||Partially yes|
|5||Ceyssens et al., 2015||partially||partially||Almost yes|
|6||Kariuki et al., 2015||yes||yes||Yes|
|7||Quick et al., 2015||yes||yes||Yes|
|8||Suleyman et al., 2015||yes||yes||yes|
|9||McCollister et al., 2016|
|10||Leon et al., 2018|
Peer-review process of ‘Antimicrobial agents and Chemotherapy’ journal (5, 9)
Articles used from this journal:
Article 5: “Ceyssens, P.J., Mattheus, W., Vanhoof, R. and Bertrand, S., 2015. Trends in serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility in Salmonella enterica isolates from humans in Belgium, 2009 to 2013. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 59(1), pp.544-552. http://aac.asm.org/content/59/1/544.full.pdf”
Article 9: “McCollister, B., Kotter, C.V., Frank, D.N., Washburn, T. and Jobling, M.G., 2016. Whole genome sequencing identifies in vivo acquisition of a blaCTX-M-27-encoding IncFII transmissible plasmid as the cause of ceftriaxone treatment failure for an invasive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, pp.AAC-01649. http://aac.asm.org/content/early/2016/09/20/AAC.01649-16.full.pdf”
The Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy Journal is a journal having good impact factor due their peer-review process. Editors, qualified Ad-Hoc viewers and members of the editorial board review the articles that researchers submit. The journal management understand the need for efficacy and speedy publication process. Hence, the management board also requests the authors to suggest at least three reviewers for review. The policy demands that these reviewers are not from the same institutions to the author. The pre-review process includes the manuscript as well as the in-press and submitted manuscripts, which are essential for reviewing. The journal board also assigns at least two peer-reviewers who are anonymous to the author. These reviewers are also kept blind as to the identity of the author in order to conserve the integrity of the review process. The timeframe for review is then communicated to the reviewers. The modifications are then communicated to the author and a timeframe is provided, which is between 4 to 6 weeks. However, if the author fails to submit the modifications within the said timeframe the manuscript is then withdrawn from the publication process.
In the situation of rejection, the journal management establishes that the reasons for rejection is clearly cited and mentioned in a separate file. The same is then communicated to the author and an option for re-submission is given. This is aimed towards ensuring motivation and provides encouragement to the authors. The resubmission policy by the journal management requires that a cover letter should be present with the resubmitted article stating the cause and mentioning that the article is a resubmission. It is clear that the overall review policy is comprehensive and governed with stringent guidelines. This effectively ensures the relevance, authenticity and integrity of the articles published in the journal.
Contribution to scientific integrity
In the present time, peer review is considered the base of every scholarly publication system for the reason that it successfully focuses upon the work of the author in reaction to the examination and analysis of other professionals in the same field. Therefore, it encourages the authors to endeavor in producing higher and better quality research, which will help in advancing the field. Peer review further maintains and supports the authenticity and integrity in the advancement and progress of science. A scientific statement or hypothesis is commonly not acknowledged by the different academic communities unless the work has been published in any peer-reviewed journal. The ISI (Institution for Scientific information) only takes under consideration the journals, which are peer-reviews as entrants in order to obtain Impact factors. It is considered a entrenched and ingrained process that is considered a formal section of scientific communication for nearly 300 years (Jacalyn Kelly, 2014).
The process of peer review commences when a particular scientist finishes a research and notes down a manuscript, which talks about the experimental design, purpose, conclusion and results of the research. Subsequent to this, the researcher submits the paper to some appropriate journal specializing in the concerned research field. This step is known as the pre-submission step. The journal editors then review the submitted paper in order to ensure the reliability and content of the paper. Once the paper is passed is passed by the editors, it is moved forward to the peer reviewers for final evaluation before the publication of the journal.
Credibility of non refereed conference presentations and online material
A non-refereed publication refers to the publications that are published without being peer reviewed. When an individual publishes a paper, they tend to always be restricted in scope and size; that is, the publication must adhere to the key topic of the discussion and must be completed within a certain page limit. However, if these limitations are removed, the publisher will able to produce the paper without any filter; thus, providing better information and data (Liyanagunawardena et al., 2013). These publications are however, not real or actual publications, as they do not have much difference from the original content it has been taken from, but are applicable when one is interested in availing additional information on a certain topic. Irrespective of the fact that these non-referred conferences are not actual publications, the authenticity or reliability of these publications cannot be always questioned. However, sometimes the data and facts used in the non-refereed reading materials may not provide the readers with the current and pertaining information; thus, misleading the readers. The peer-reviewed journals are however, edited and reviewed through a long series; therefore, leaving no scope of unauthentic or unreliable information on the concerted subject. As a result, individuals tend to opt for refereed journals for availing information in comparison to non-refereed journals.
Percentage of unreliable references
There were no unreliable references used in this context, as all the study materials such as peer-reviewed journals, articles and other content materials were selected on the basis of their authenticity and reliability. Most of the journals provided ample amount of required information concerning the topic. However, there were some of the journals which could have been more elaborative and in-depth content on the topic; thus, making it more elaborative. Nonetheless, the content was reliable and provided accurate information.
DOIs and ISBNs
Digital Object Identifier or DOI is referred to a persistent handle or identifier that is used in order to identify things that are standardised by the ISO (International organization for Standardization). The functioning of the identifier system, DOIs are extensively used in order to identify, professional, academic as well as government information. These information are generally found in the form of articles, data sets, journals and research reports, official publications and so forth (Paskin, 2010).
On the other hand, International Standard Book Number or ISBN is referred to a unique and “significant numeric commercial book identifier”, that the publishers buy from certain associate of the International agency of ISBN. It is further assigned to every variation and editor of a particular book. For instance, a paperback, e-book or a hand-cover edition of a similar book will encompass a different ISBN number (Carnoy and Shearer, 2016).
Carnoy, M. and Shearer, D., 2016. Economic Democracy (Routledge Revivals): The Challenge of the 1980s. Routledge.
Ceyssens, P.J., Mattheus, W., Vanhoof, R. and Bertrand, S., 2015. Trends in serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility in Salmonella enterica isolates from humans in Belgium, 2009 to 2013. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 59(1), pp.544-552.
Cummings, K.J., Rodriguez-Rivera, L.D., Mitchell, K.J., Hoelzer, K., Wiedmann, M., McDonough, P.L., Altier, C., Warnick, L.D. and Perkins, G.A., 2014. Salmonella enterica serovar Oranienburg outbreak in a veterinary medical teaching hospital with evidence of nosocomial and on-farm transmission. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 14(7), pp.496-502.
Guedda, I., Taminiau, B., Ferjani, A., Boukadida, J., Bertrand, S. and Daube, G., 2014. Antimicrobial and molecular analysis of Salmonella serovar Livingstone strains isolated from humans in Tunisia and Belgium. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 8(08), pp.973-980.
Harrois, D., Breurec, S., Seck, A., Delauné, A., Le Hello, S., Pardos de la Gándara, M., Sontag, L., Perrier‐Gros‐Claude, J.D., Sire, J.M., Garin, B. and Weill, F.X., 2014. Prevalence and characterization of extended‐spectrum β‐lactamase‐producing clinical S almonella enterica isolates in Dakar, Senegal, from 1999 to 2009. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 20(2), pp.O109-O116.
Jacalyn Kelly, K. (2014). Peer Review in Scientific Publications: Benefits, Critiques, & A Survival Guide. EJIFCC, [online] 25(3), p.227. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4975196/ [Accessed 12 Sep. 2018].
Kariuki, S., Gordon, M.A., Feasey, N. and Parry, C.M., 2015. Antimicrobial resistance and management of invasive Salmonella disease. Vaccine, 33, pp.C21-C29.
Leon, I.M., Lawhon, S.D., Norman, K.N., Threadgill, D.S., Ohta, N., Vinasco, J. and Scott, H.M., 2018. Serotype diversity and antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella enterica isolated from patients at an equine referral hospital. Applied and environmental microbiology, pp.AEM-02829.
Liyanagunawardena, T.R., Adams, A.A. and Williams, S.A., 2013. MOOCs: A systematic study of the published literature 2008-2012. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 14(3), pp.202-227.
McCollister, B., Kotter, C.V., Frank, D.N., Washburn, T. and Jobling, M.G., 2016. Whole genome sequencing identifies in vivo acquisition of a blaCTX-M-27-encoding IncFII transmissible plasmid as the cause of ceftriaxone treatment failure for an invasive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, pp.AAC-01649.
Paskin, N., 2010. Digital object identifier (DOI®) system. Encyclopedia of library and information sciences, 3, pp.1586-1592.
Quick, J., Ashton, P., Calus, S., Chatt, C., Gossain, S., Hawker, J., Nair, S., Neal, K., Nye, K., Peters, T. and De Pinna, E., 2015. Rapid draft sequencing and real-time nanopore sequencing in a hospital outbreak of Salmonella. Genome Biology, 16(1), p.114.
Smith, A.M., Mthanti, M.A., Haumann, C., Tyalisi, N., Boon, G.P., Sooka, A., Keddy, K.H. and GERMS-SA Surveillance Network, 2014. Nosocomial outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium primarily affecting a pediatric ward in South Africa in 2012. Journal of clinical microbiology, 52(2), pp.627-631.
Suleyman, G., Tibbetts, R., Perri, M.B., Vager, D., Xin, Y., Reyes, K., Samuel, L., Chami, E., Starr, P., Pietsch, J. and Zervos, M.J., 2016. Nosocomial outbreak of a novel extended-spectrum β-lactamase Salmonella enterica serotype Isangi among surgical patients. infection control & hospital epidemiology, 37(8), pp.954-961.
In numerical order
- Cummings, K.J., Rodriguez-Rivera, L.D., Mitchell, K.J., Hoelzer, K., Wiedmann, M., McDonough, P.L., Altier, C., Warnick, L.D. and Perkins, G.A., 2014. Salmonella enterica serovar Oranienburg outbreak in a veterinary medical teaching hospital with evidence of nosocomial and on-farm transmission. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 14(7), pp.496-502.
- Harrois, D., Breurec, S., Seck, A., Delauné, A., Le Hello, S., Pardos de la Gándara, M., Sontag, L., Perrier‐Gros‐Claude, J.D., Sire, J.M., Garin, B. and Weill, F.X., 2014. Prevalence and characterization of extended‐spectrum β‐lactamase‐producing clinical S almonella enterica isolates in Dakar, Senegal, from 1999 to 2009. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 20(2), pp.O109-O116.
- Smith, A.M., Mthanti, M.A., Haumann, C., Tyalisi, N., Boon, G.P., Sooka, A., Keddy, K.H. and GERMS-SA Surveillance Network, 2014. Nosocomial outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium primarily affecting a pediatric ward in South Africa in 2012. Journal of clinical microbiology, 52(2), pp.627-631.
- Guedda, I., Taminiau, B., Ferjani, A., Boukadida, J., Bertrand, S. and Daube, G., 2014. Antimicrobial and molecular analysis of Salmonella serovar Livingstone strains isolated from humans in Tunisia and Belgium. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 8(08), pp.973-980.
- Ceyssens, P.J., Mattheus, W., Vanhoof, R. and Bertrand, S., 2015. Trends in serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility in Salmonella enterica isolates from humans in Belgium, 2009 to 2013. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 59(1), pp.544-552.
- Kariuki, S., Gordon, M.A., Feasey, N. and Parry, C.M., 2015. Antimicrobial resistance and management of invasive Salmonella disease. Vaccine, 33, pp.C21-C29.
- Quick, J., Ashton, P., Calus, S., Chatt, C., Gossain, S., Hawker, J., Nair, S., Neal, K., Nye, K., Peters, T. and De Pinna, E., 2015. Rapid draft sequencing and real-time nanopore sequencing in a hospital outbreak of Salmonella. Genome Biology, 16(1), p.114.
- Suleyman, G., Tibbetts, R., Perri, M.B., Vager, D., Xin, Y., Reyes, K., Samuel, L., Chami, E., Starr, P., Pietsch, J. and Zervos, M.J., 2016. Nosocomial outbreak of a novel extended-spectrum β-lactamase Salmonella enterica serotype Isangi among surgical patients. infection control & hospital epidemiology, 37(8), pp.954-961.
- McCollister, B., Kotter, C.V., Frank, D.N., Washburn, T. and Jobling, M.G., 2016. Whole genome sequencing identifies in vivo acquisition of a blaCTX-M-27-encoding IncFII transmissible plasmid as the cause of ceftriaxone treatment failure for an invasive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, pp.AAC-01649.
- Leon, I.M., Lawhon, S.D., Norman, K.N., Threadgill, D.S., Ohta, N., Vinasco, J. and Scott, H.M., 2018. Serotype diversity and antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella enterica isolated from patients at an equine referral hospital. Applied and environmental microbiology, pp.AEM-02829.