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Biology Assignment Help in Australia by Assignment Hero

Biology is a complicated subject that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution. Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis.

Sub-disciplines of biology are defined by the research methods employed and the kind of system studied are the theoretical biology uses mathematical methods to formulate quantitative models while experimental biology performs empirical experiments to test the validity of proposed theories and understand the mechanisms underlying life and how it appeared and evolved from non-living matter about 4 billion years ago through a gradual increase in the complexity of the system. Students always get perplexed to solve all these type of critical problems and try to find online assignment help. AssignmentHero offers you the best assignment service in Australia and other parts of the world. Here we have experts to help you with any type of assignment problems instantly and effectively.

What is Biology?

Biology is the science of life. Its name is derived from the Greek words “bios” (life) and “logos” (study). Biologists study the structure, function, growth, origin, evolution and distribution of living organisms. Biology is the study of life and all living organisms and it clarifies our knowledge of various life forms. Moreover, it is a branch of natural sciences that studies and understands living organisms along with their evolution, function, behavior, interaction, growth, structure, and origin. Biology as a subject that includes several fields within itself such as physiology, anatomy, morphology and physiology for additional study. Cells are the fundamental unit of life. We consume food which is converted into energy. This energy acts as a crucial element for our growth and survival. The outcome of evolution theory explains that we have transmitted attributes from our ancestors. All the important concepts of heredity like Genetics, for instance, are fundamental and prove the existence of humans on earth. This is what makes the study of biology relevant to humans.

Main theories of Modern Biology

The cell theory:

Cell is discovered by the Biologist Robert Hook. The cell is the basic unit of life that arises from the already existing form. The cell theory involves an explanation of how cells work and function. This theory was a combined effort of three famous scientists Matthias Schleiden, Rudolph Virchow, and Theodor Schwann. The traditional concept of cell theory focuses on the basic information about the cell, whereas, the modern concept elaborates it by explaining the importance of DNA a cell and its energy flow system. In general, cell theory defines the structure, function, and working of various cells in a living body.

Evolution by Natural Selection: 

The main concept of Evolution theory is based on the belief that species are produced in a large number. But they are further filtered based on their ability to survive environmental consequences and carry heritable traits, helping them for survival.


Homeostasis was introduced by cannon which means “internal body condition remains constant even if there is a change in the external environment”. The study involved in this theory includes an in-depth study of the endocrine system and the nervous system of the brain. It consists of electrolyte, pressure, pH balance etc.  

Gene Theory:

Gene theory involves answering the questions regarding the transfer of traits from one generation to the other. This theory states that gamete is the reason behind the transmission of characteristics. The theory concludes that Gene theory is proved as a unit of inheritance. There have been several changes in gene theory as the time passed. Many researchers showed interest and worked on genes, chromosomes, and DNA.

Topics that we cover in Biology

Cell Biology: 

Study of Cell Biology will help you acquire knowledge regarding the structure, function, and composition of a cell. Cells are also important to conduct a study on various diseases, immune system, transplantation of organs of the body and much more. Cell movement, Cell cycle, Cell signaling, Cell culture are some important topics in this field of Biology.


It means the study of internal organs of a living body. This field of study is important to understand the composition, importance, and functioning of any specific organ. Therefore, when plants anatomy is studied, it is referred to as plant anatomy. Similarly, the study of animals is termed as animal anatomy.


Genetics involves the study of heredity, gen and variations in an organism. It is a detailed study of genetic disorders, transmission of the trait, DNA, and study on Chromosomes which are important components of this field of biology. Today, this field of Biology includes a vast range of topics such as Molecular genetics, engineering, Epigenetic and more.

Molecular Biology: 

Molecular Biology provides information regarding how different systems of a body interact at the molecular level. Consequently, molecular biology is related to many other fields of science which includes Genetics, Cell biology and many more. Some important topics studied in this field are Membrane Biology, Biomolecules, and Gene expression.


Biochemistry involves the study regarding structure and functions of biomolecules that form the elements of the living cell and understands how different biological processes in living beings. In order to understand how cellular structures of a living cell is made and works, you must understand the complex biomolecules like peptides, proteins, carbohydrates, amino acids, fructose, glucose, DNA and RNA including DNA sequencing and DNA cloning, nucleic acids, generation of free radicals, antioxidants. Gaining knowledge on the structure and functioning of these biomolecules helps you understand cell functions like cell signaling, bioinformatics, neurology and neurochemistry, heredity, genomics, and life processes like nutrition, RNA transcription, metabolism etc.

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As AssignmentHero provides students all types of academic homework help and also we offer you customized online support. Here, you can customize all your requirements of your homework and ask for help anytime you need. We have a dedicated supporting team for your assistance. Let your academic distress be walked away and try our services. We are always here to smoothen the path of academic success. Our deliberate services will make you feel pleased for the soundest decision you have made. We offer homework help which includes a wide range of subjects. We are dedicated towards our clients and assist them with a 24/7 online service. We always try to offer our customers an uninterrupted support in every academic area.

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Chemistry Assignment Help in Australia by Assignment Hero

Chemistry is a sub-discipline of science that deals with the study of matter and the substances that compose it. It also deals with the properties of these substances and the reactions undergone by them to form new substances. Chemistry primarily focuses on atoms, ions, and molecules which, in turn, make up elements and compounds. These chemical species tend to interact with each other through chemical bonds. It is important to note that the interactions between matter and energy are also studied in the field of chemistry. Chemistry is a broad field in Science that includes major and minor chemical details. Chemistry provides the knowledge of synthesis, composition, the energy of elements, and dynamics. It displays a combination of the molecules for forming a different or similar product. Your assignment may cover questions from any of these disciplines. We have professional writers to solve all these equations and formulae.

Students find chemistry an attractive and fascinating subject but with the passage of time it becomes very tough for students to complete the assignments that contain different formulas and equations. For an accurate solution you can trust our tutors who have professional degrees and experience in this field.

Chemistry and its different fields

Chemical elements can bond together to form chemical compounds, which are substances made up of multiple elements, like carbon dioxide which is made of one carbon atom connected to two oxygen atoms, or multiple atoms of a single element, like oxygen gas. These chemical compounds can then bond with other compounds or elements to form countless other substances and materials.

  • Physical Chemistry

Physical chemistry uses concepts from physics to understand how chemistry works. For example, figuring out how atoms move and interact with each other, or why some liquids, including water, turn into vapor at high temperatures. Physical chemists try to understand these phenomena at a very small scale on the level of atoms and molecules to derive conclusions about how chemical reactions work and what gives specific materials their own unique properties. Physical Chemistry is a main branch of science that offers a couple of things with physics. Under physical chemistry, students need to manage the molecules, atoms, latent heat, chemical reactions, and the concept of energy. It is deeply mathematical and requires students to use a lot of formula to solve the problem.  

  • Biochemistry

Biochemistry uses chemistry techniques to understand how biological systems work at a chemical level.  Biochemistry scientists have been able to map out the human genome, understand what different proteins do in the body and develop cures for many diseases. Biochemistry is the part of science that investigates the chemical rules within and associated with living organisms. It is a laboratory-based science that takes together biology and chemistry. By using chemical knowledge and techniques, biochemists can understand and solve biological problems.

  • Organic Chemistry

Organic chemistry deals with chemical compounds that contain carbon, an element considered essential to life. Organic chemists study the composition, structure, properties and reactions of such compounds, which along with carbon, contain other non-carbon elements such as hydrogen, sulfur and silicon. Organic Chemistry is where you learn about the piece of natural materials. It is the most important branch, and the essential concentration is around Carbon particles. Organic Chemistry is constrained to the investigation of Hydrocarbons, the mixes made up of the Carbon and Hydrogen. In the evaluations identified with Organic chemistry, you are required to comprehend the substance equations and structures of the natural mixes.

  • Inorganic Chemistry

Inorganic chemistry studies the chemical compounds in inorganic, or non-living things such as minerals and metals. Traditionally, inorganic chemistry considers compounds that do not contain carbon. Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds. This field covers all chemical compounds except the myriad of organic compounds, which are organic chemistry subjects.

  • Analytical chemistry

Analytical chemistry involves the analysis of chemicals, and includes qualitative methods like looking at color changes, as well as quantitative methods like examining the exact wavelengths of light that a chemical absorbed to result in that color change. Analytical chemistry is the science of obtaining, processing, and communicating information about the composition and structure of matter. In other words, it is the art and science of determining what matter is and how much of it exists.

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AssignmentHero comes in to escort you from all of the assignment troubles so that you can enjoy your student life full to the brim. AssignmentHero maintains a large group of experts who are excelled from different backgrounds. So we are open for students who are from diversified areas. We have PhD level experts who are able to assist you with any of your required tasks. We are efficient at providing you assignments at high school level, college level, under-graduate level, graduate level, master’s degree level as well as PhD level. The academic curriculum standard of Australia is quite high and you need to put a lot of effort to achieve top grades. AssignmentHero is always there to give you support in every of your subjective areas. Whenever you are worried about your assignment, essay, case study or research paper just send it to us. We are always ready to assist you immediately with our team of experts to provide you with the best online homework help.

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Physics Assignment Help in Australia by Assignment Hero

Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines. Over much of the past two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy. It is mostly related with the study of matter and several related concepts of force, energy, and motion. Physics has made major contributions to the development of newer technologies and the invention of modern appliances from radios to nuclear weapons. Physics assignments and homework papers are given on various branches like Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Quantum Mechanics, Thermodynamics, Relativity, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Applied physics and others. Students choose Physics over other specializations because of the vast career options that open after it. Our service covers all the important topics of physics taught in different colleges and universities. Physics assignments and papers are difficult for students to complete and submit on time without any guidance or support.

Need Help with Your Physics Assignments!

We have all kinds of resources for our assignment support. We have access to several sites and libraries that extends the area of knowledge. We can provide you with assistance in every aspect. We have top quality papers, blogs, research documents and what not for your assistance. You can go through the well written papers if you want. It will help you to judge our quality regarding assignments.

Moreover, we are dedicated to delivering you an accurate assignment fulfilling all your requirements. We have rendered our services to you in every possible way. You can mail us using our website or through Gumtree. We feel rejoiced to help you with your assignments. Feel free to ask anything!

If you are trying to find a good quality assignment service in Australia AssignmentHero is the best choice for you undoubtedly. AssignmentHero provides students all types of academic assignment assistance and also we offer you customize online support. Here, you can customize all your requirements and ask for help anytime you need. We have a dedicated supporting team for your assistance. Let your academic distress be walked away and try our services. We are always here to smoothen the path of academic success. Our deliberate services will make you feel pleased for the soundest decision you have made. In short you will get all in one service from us. Such as:

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Online Physics Assignment for all Branches!

As Physics is an elaborative subject, it is diversified into various branches. Our experts are there to help you with every type of physics assignment. Our Help with Physics Assignment is designed in a way so that we can cover most of its part with all the relevant information. There are a lot of theories and concepts used in physics based on different parts. Some are as follows:

Classical Physics or Mechanics

Most Online Physics Assignment Help includes classical Physics. It is concerned with the concept and the laws of motion of individual bodies that are under the influence of diverse forces. One of the broadest and oldest subjects, classical Physics has had a phenomenal influence on technology, science, and engineering. Our online physics assignment help is the most precise and accurate.

Electrical Engineering

This branch of engineering concerns itself with the research, analysis, and application of electromagnetism, electronics, and electricity. The extensive invention of electronic gadgets and electrical equipment in the previous century led to the exploration of this highly potential field. Our Physics Assignment help online lays special emphasis on this subject.

Quantum Mechanics

The scientific theories and principles of matter and its interaction with energy are known as quantum mechanics. One of its key aspects includes thermal radiation. If you need help with Physics, we offer College Physics Help as well as general Physics help with the help of the experts.


This branch of Physics deals with temperature, pressure, and heat as well as their umpteen applications and effects regarding work and energy. We offer you the expert solution for this part.


The theory of relativity refers to the comparative measurement of velocities of the diverse matter about energy. It was Albert Einstein who first introduced this revolutionary theory. Mass-energy equivalence, the speed of light, and covariance are the fundamental issues regarding relativity.

We have noted a significant demand regarding help with Physics Assignment and general help with Physics. Hence our help in Physics is to the point and highly accurate. Moreover, our online help covers the finer aspects of this complex subject. We are here with the expert team to support you in solving each of your physics assignments and with 100% accuracy.

The Best Physics Assignment Help by the Australian Experts

AssignmentHero maintains a large group of experts who are excelled from different backgrounds. So we are open for students who are from diversified areas. We have PhD level experts who are able to assist you with any of your required tasks. We are efficient at providing you assignments at high school level, college level, under-graduate level, graduate level, master’s degree level as well as PhD level. The academic curriculum standard of Australia is quite high and you need to put a lot of effort to achieve top grades. AssignmentHero is always there to give you support in every of your subjective areas. Whenever you are worried about your assignment, essay, case study or research paper just send it to us. We are always ready to assist you immediately with our team of experts to provide you with the best online homework help.

As AssignmentHero provides students all types of academic homework help and also we offer you customized online support. Here, you can customize all your requirements of your homework and ask for help anytime you need. We have a dedicated supporting team for your assistance. Let your academic distress be walked away and try our services. We are always here to smoothen the path of academic success. Our deliberate services will make you feel pleased for the soundest decision you have made. We offer homework help which includes a wide range of subjects. We are dedicated towards our clients and assist them with a 24/7 online service. We always try to offer our customers an uninterrupted support in every academic area.

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Murray River basin and climate change assignment solution


Murray River is one of the Murray darling systems which flows in about is located in South Australia. It passes through the lower Lakes and Coorong wetlands and drain to the sea. It covers about 300,000km2 of Southern Australia and it consists of sequence of Proterozoic to Mesozoic igneous and metasedimentary rocks Lawrence, 1975, 1988; Brown, 1989; Evans & Kellett, 1989). Murray River basin is about 600m thick. 

Murray River is managed by the series of nested plants which is under the Natural Resources Management Act 2004 (NRM Act).the part of the River that is defined as prescribed water course is managed by Water Allocation Plans (Government Gazette Notice, 1978).

Murray River basin underlie low salinity is about TDS less than 5000mg/l ground water lens. Its lens is recharged through the riverbank with unlimited recharge from the flood plains. The lense recharge mostly occurs during the high river levels and low salinity water which forms base flows to various rivers when it reaches low river levels.

In 1990s to the mid 2000s Murray River lens shrunk during this time when there was drought. It will continue to shrink until a regular high flows is established in River Murray. The regional water table will rise due to land clearing which will increase the hydraulic radiant between the regional ground water and the lens ground water which can make it to degrade. When the low salinity ground water in the lens is replaced with saline ground water, it will automatically increase the salinity of the river while reducing the utility for the water supply which will impact to riverine ecosystems (Cartwright, Weaver, Simmons, Lawrence & Robert, 2009).

Impact if climate change on Murray River Basin

The world is going through a climate change and South Australia has not been left behind. Its climate is changing over the last century. South Australia has been experiencing high temperature, change in seasons and low rainfall which has impacted negatively on the stream flow (Department of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries et al., 2008).this will result to reduction of water consumption across Murray darling basin by about 42 to 53 percent (Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, 2010). 

The current development modeling for service water and 1997 to 2006 climate scenario discovered that the average annual rainfall and modeled runoff for the current climate in the Murray region which consists of Victoria and South Australia planning area. They were lower by 8 percent and 21 percent than in a long term average will fall to about 27 percent. The were predictions that the average service water availability in Murray region will decrease by 30 petcent, end of system flows at the Barrages would reduce by 50 percent . The total diversion would reduce by 13 percent (CSIRO, 2008),

Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to decrease the overall rainfall in South Australia (inter-governmental panel on climate change, 2007). This may continue reducing the drainage of Murray River basin. Even thogh the net river discharges are reduced, it is critical that during high environmental river flows are maintained or else this and other low salinity ground water lenses in the Murray dam basin will continuously shrink.

Geological and ecological features

Murray River basin consists of three sub-basins or provinces which include Riverline, Scotia & Mallee limestone which are separated by basement ridges

Murray river basin shows the depth of the basement and underground flow path. The MLP stands for Mallee Limestone Provision, RP stands for Riverin Provision, SP stands for Scotia Provision. The boundaries between the Riverin and Scotia/ Mallee Limestone provision which is indicated by dash line and the boundary that separates Scotia and Mallee is the Murray River (MR). NSW stands for New South Wales, SA stands for South Australia, Vic stands for Victoria (b) stratigraphic cross section between x and x1(a) indicates a major unit in murray basin (Evans & Kellett, 1989). Groundwater flow is deflected upwards by the Geera clay (Brown, 1989).

 The groundwater flow on salinity map of the Mildura Swan hill region (Telfer et al., 2006) hydrolic head and ground water flow parts are located in Parilla Aands.

history of human settlement

The land around Murray River basin was claimed by United Kingdom in 1788 when the European settled in around these areas. 

Settlement around Murray River basin was slow therefore, the railroad was introduced later to the river towns which had a major impact on the steamers along the Murray.  In 1887, Irrigation was introduced Canada citizen known as George Chaffey around Mildura in Victoria and Renmark which is located in South Australia. This boosted the rate of settlement and exploitation of the Murray river’s water supply.

It is believed that from about thousands years Aboriginal people have been relying on the Murray river’s abundance. The Aborigines were hunter gatherers and they used a simple mechanism to attain their achievements. They attained a remarkably complex social Organization and spiritual beliefs and practice which were key tribal and territorial. Every individual  had  a strong association with their piece of country and their own language group. Though the  hierarchical, Aboriginal society was very open and they did not have any established with the system of chiefs or any institutionalized political or social governance arrangements. They did not believe in national identity and lived a remarkable balance with what the nature provides. 

 Aboriginal society population started to decline between 1830 and 1860oMurra due to introduction of disease such as measles, influenza and smallpox and they did not have immunity for them. The other reason for their decline is the direct conflict which they had with Europeans. Rufus River Massacre which is near Lake Victoria in 1841 is most commonly known. Later on in 1850 during the gold rushes of the, Aboriginies replace European workers on many Murray stations and fenced the land.

Some researchers indicates that they have a higher number of population which is three quarters of a million by the time European settlement began. Aboriginal society are about 410,000 which is 2.2 percent of the total population. 

Various groups settled along the land around the Murray River basin who include Ingalta, Moorundie, Goodwarra, Parrian kaperre, Tongwillum, and Yoorlooarra. The Ngarrindjeri people lived in the River land South Australia ,and the Coorong lived along the lands which surrounds the Murray  and they are the largest Aboriginal community in South Australia. Irrigation and fishing is the major source of food to people living in areas around Murray River basin. 

Climate change 

There was a rapid extension of irrigation development in the MDB which was introduced between 1950s and 1980s. It did not consider change in climate. The observation was done during the wet  period and it had an exemption of four years dry period. During wet, expansion period the mean and variance of annual rainfall raised (Khan, 2008) and they were relatively higher between 1900 and 1950.

Fig 4: annual rainfall anomaly, Murray Darling basin.

Murray River basin management Plan 

Limit in water consumption

Water Resource plans is a crucial when it comes to management plan in Murray River basin. A new rule has been set on the amount of water that can be used from the system which will help to make sure that sustainable diversion limit is not exceeded in future. 

Respond to climate change

Recent studies that has been conducted on projected climate change in Murray Darling basin shows that the future average temperature will increase while the rainfall will reduce which results to decrease in water flow in Murray River. The sea level in South Australia is predicted to rise by at least 30 centimetres by 2050 and 1 metre by 2100. 

South Australia is considered to bea leader in capturing and recycling of stormwater and wastewater. They have desalination plant which can provide half of metropolitan Adelaide with a water supply that has been harvested during the rainy seasons. 

Reserches  and projects are launched in order to support the river’s irrigation industry to use water more efficiently and diversify into areas that use less water.

Implementing the Basin Plan will also help the River Murray adapt to a changing climate. Reducing the amount of water taken from the river and returning to a more natural cycle of wetting and drying will better prepare the river system to cope in dry times and reduce the impacts of extreme drought like the one happened thousands years ago. 

The Basin Plan was startedin November 2012, when the Commonwealth reached an agreement with each of the Basin states which include Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and the Australian Capital Territory. 

South Australia is working hard in making sure that the Basin Plan is implemented and meets its intended objectives. A significant progress has been made towards the implementation. 

Basin Plan implementation progress 

  •  Over 2000 gigalitres of water for the environment has been secured. 
  • More than 750 watering events since 2013 to 2014 that are delivering real environmental benefits across the Basin.
  • Irrigated agriculture has been maintained at around $7 billion annually even with recovery of water for the environment


Murray River basin has been negatively affected by climate change in South Australia. It has resulted to reduction of water flow. It has been predicted that the change in climate will continue which can lead to dryness of  Murray River if the implementation plan by South Australia government fails. 

Decrease in rainfall and streamflow, and increase in temperature has affected the natural cycle of floods and droughts which  change the hydrology of the Murray river basin system. This is a major risks which has a  significant consequences for the environmental health of the Murray Darling Basin.

Changes in global and regional climate patterns are have an effect on the availability of water for both communities and the environment throughout the Murray Darling Basin

The government and the residence has a big role to play to make sure that the river water level is maintained. Water harvesting will play a big role in maintainace of water level. 

Adaptive  future changes needs to be embraced in order to responses to climate change which can be further developed through monitoring of, and investigations into, climate change impacts. These will be a long term strategy and the Short term plan can be the environmental watering priorities. 


Brown, C.M., 1989. Structural and stratigraphic framework of groundwater occurrence and surface discharge in the Murray Basin, southeastern Australia.Bureau of Mineralogy Resources Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics 11, 127–146.

Cartwright, I., Weaver, T.R., Fifield, L.K., 2006. Cl/Br ratios and environmental

isotopes as indicators of recharge variability and groundwater flow: an example

from the southeast Murray Basin, Australia. Chemical Geology 231, 38–56.

Cartwright, I., Weaver, T.R., Fulton, S., Nichol, C., Reid, M., Cheng, X., 2004.

Hydrogeochemical and isotopic constraints on the origins of dryland salinity,

Murray Basin, Victoria, Australia. Applied Geochemistry 19, 1233–1254.

Cartwright, I., Weaver, T.R., Stone, D., Reid, M., 2007. Constraining modern andhistorical recharge from bore hydrographs, 3H, 14C, and chloride concentrations:applications to dual-porosity aquifers in dryland salinity areas, Murray Basin,Australia. Journal of Hydrology 332, 69–92.

Cartwright, I., Weaver, T.R., Tweed, S.O., 2008. Integrating physical hydrogeology,hydrochemistry, and environmental isotopes to constrain regional groundwaterflow: Southern Riverine Province, Murray Basin, Australia. In: Carrillo, R.J.J.,Ortega, G.M.A. (Eds.), International Association of Hydrogeologists SpecialPublication 11, Groundwater Flow Understanding from Local to Regional Scale. Taylor and Francis, London, UK, pp. 105–134

Evans, W.R., Kellett, J.R., 1989. The hydrogeology of the Murray Basin, southeastern Australia. Bureau of Mineral Resources Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics 11, 147–166.

Government of South Australia, 1978. River Murray Prescription – Government Gazette Notice, 10 August.

Government of South Australia, 2009. South Australian Murray Darling Basin Natural Resources Management Board Water Allocation Plan for the River Murray Prescribed Watercourse (as amended July 2009).

Lawrence, C.R., 1975. Geology, Hydrodynamics and Hydrochemistry of the Southern Murray Basin. Geological Survey of Victoria Memoir 30, Melbourne, Australia. 359p.

Lawrence, C.R., 1988. Murray Basin. In: Douglas, J.G., Ferguson, J.A. (Eds.), Geology of Victoria. Geological Society of Australia (Victoria Division), Melbourne, Australia, pp. 352–363.

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CLOUD COMPUTING Assignment Help by AssignmentHero

Question 1

Commercial and business issues related to cloud computing are:

  • Security or privacy issues
  • Cost management issues
  • Compliance issues
  • Password security issues
  • Data privacy issues
  • Lack of expertise or resources issues
  • Control or governance issues
  • Performance issues
  • Reliability issues

Question 2

Specific areas of responsibility in terms of security in an enterprise includes the following

  • CISO (Chief Information Security Officer)
  • Technical manager
  • Managers of security programs
  • Senior analyst of security

Therefore, in order to protect the security within the organization certain application such as Firewall application, anti-virus, VAPT and much other application regarding security can be installed in each area of operation (Aldossary & Allen, 2016).

Question 3

Most relevant control of the security of an enterprise can be firewall application. It can be implemented within the organization as it helps in scanning all the outgoing as well as incoming information of the company. This way the company and its privacy can be well maintained and protected. 

In order to implement the application, the company’s IT managers need to install within the servers of the company (Aljawarneh & Yassein, 2016). 

Question 4

According to the compliance regulation of the company in the of data storage, the privacy of the customers of the company as well as the employee of the company should be maintained. Information related to the various stakeholders if the company should not be shared to others without any prior notice or consent of the respected stakeholders. Moreover, data related to the matter can only be accessed by the hierarchy or the managers of the company (Chou, 2015). 

Question 5

In order to maintain the business, continuity planning of business lifecycle can be followed by the company. It includes analysis of the issues that are being faced by the company, designing of the appropriate solution, implementing the solution, testing of the solution in order to ensure effective working and maintaining the solution and business further for attaining success (Díaz, Martín & Rubio, 2016). On the other hand, steps for the recovery plan of data in case of any types of eruption include the following.

  • Creating a possible list of all the threats that are likely to happen
  • Outlining of the continuity plan of the business as well as the data that are being stored by the company
  • Building an inventory of the IT assets of the business. 
  • Defining the policies of contingency plan of business
  • Developing as well as testing the plan of contingency

Question 6

Audit and logs such as licensing and other proofs of identification are available within the company. The proofs of identification of the various stakeholders of the company are important until the date they are functioning within the company (Hashem et al. 2015). However, in order to secure the documents, the company must be separating each stakeholder’s documents separately and soft copies of the documents will be easy to handle. Moreover, firewall application will be helpful in keeping the information safe over the cloud. 

Question 7

As per the observance of Sen (2015), the company is not taking enough care regarding the various documents of the stakeholders of the company and his is leading the company in the privacy issues. Moreover, this also leads to unsatisfied stakeholders and that is dangerous for any kinds of business. According to the Company Act 2006, the company should provide all the facilities needed by the employee as well as also take the proper care of the employee of the company. According to this act of the legislation of the country, the employee should be provided with all the health and safety related benefits within the company and should also be taking initiative in satisfying the employees of the company (Singh & Chana, 2016). Moreover, this also deals with the rights of the employee towards employment and also deals with the safety of the information provided to the company. In addition to this, this le also deals with the interest of the customers so that the company is successful in producing products as per the needs of the customers. 

Question 8

The company should be more careful about all the stakeholders within the company (Somani et al. 2017). The documents should be kept under proper observation and the company should also take the certain initiative that leads to the satisfied stakeholders in terms of meeting the needs and demands. Therefore, needs and demands must be analysed properly and production must be done accordingly. 

Question 9

In order to measure the performance, the current performance of the company must be analyzed. After the analysis of the issues, steps must be taken in order to improve the performance by implanting the necessary requirements within the company (Aldossary & Allen, 2016). This also leads to the enhancement of the security within the company as well as effective performance. 

Question 10

A relevant document that is needed is the proper identification of the stakeholders of the company along with their proper registration and a contract. Moreover, strategic planning can also be used in order to manage all the relevant documents within the company. In addition to this, customer segmentation and core competence can also be implemented by the company in order to maintain the operations within the company (Aljawarneh & Yassein, 2016). 

Question 11

The specification that has been mainly identified in this study is the management of the privacy and security sector of the company. The main objectives of the task are the implementation of firewall application that will help the company in dealing with the issues that are being faced by the company in the business environment. 

Question 12

Tools and techniques of management that are being used in this task is the strategic planning, core competence and customer segmentation (Chou, 2015). 

Question 13

The political and organizational context within the organisational includes the safety of the employee and other stakeholders that are related to the company as well as various demands and needs of the stakeholders. Moreover, the competition of the company can also impact over the security issues of the company in the business environment. 

Question 14

Based on the analysis of the above study, it can be observed that the issues of privacy and security are mainly observed in a company operating in cloud computing (Díaz, Martín & Rubio, 2016). SDLC within the company can be effective in the COOP of the company as it helps in the analysis of the different issues that are being faced by the company or that is likely to face by the company in the coming future. Moreover, this is followed by the solution to the issues that are effective and beneficial for the company. Furthermore, it is being implemented and is being used to ensure the proper functioning of the solution. However, it involves further maintenance of the solution to avoid the issues in the coming future. 

Question 15

Techniques that have been used in this task are the collection of data and information from various journals and analysing it by comparing.


Executive Summary

The present study deals with the various issues that are being faced by a company in the implementation of cloud computing within the business organization. Moreover, it is also being mentioned in this study that are services like the application of firewall and others can be effective to mitigating the issue. However, a detail discussion has been presented below. 


The present study deals with various issues that are related to the services of cloud computing within an industry. Moreover, management of the company in respect to the various tools as well as techniques of management has also been mentioned in this section of the study. However, a brief discussion of the factors has been mentioned below. 

Findings and analysis 

SDLC inside the corporate can be effective within the COOP of the company because it helps in the analysis of the various problems that are being visage by the company or that’s possible to face by the company in the returning future (Hashem et al. 2017). Moreover, this is often followed by the answer to the problems that are effective and useful for the corporate. The thing that is more, it’s being enforced and is being employed to confirm the right functioning of the answer. However, it involves any maintenance of the answer to avoid the problems within the returning future. Moreover, tools of management strategic planning and core competence have also been discussed in order to manage the company effectively. 


In order to solve the issues of privacy as well as security within the company, the company must implement the firewall application or other application that are related to the antivirus detention or detention of theft and other illegal; services within the company. Moreover, the company must also be strict regarding the operations of the company and also be taking care of the demands and needs of the stakeholders of the company. 


From the study, it can be concluded that SDLC is an effective technique that helps in the management of the company. It mainly deals with the analysis of the issues and creating a suitable solution out of this. Moreover, the solutions are being tested in order to ensure the proper functioning as it is followed by maintained so that the issues do not occur in the future. However, the tools that agreeing used are also effective in solving the issues. 


Aldossary, S., & Allen, W. (2016). Data security, privacy, availability and integrity in cloud computing: issues and current solutions. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications7(4), 485-498.

Aljawarneh, S. A., & Yassein, M. O. B. (2016). A conceptual security framework for cloud computing issues. International Journal of Intelligent Information Technologies (IJIIT)12(2), 12-24.

Chou, D. C. (2015). Cloud computing risk and audit issues. Computer Standards & Interfaces42, 137-142.

Díaz, M., Martín, C., & Rubio, B. (2016). State-of-the-art, challenges, and open issues in the integration of Internet of things and cloud computing. Journal of Network and Computer applications67, 99-117.

Hashem, I. A. T., Yaqoob, I., Anuar, N. B., Mokhtar, S., Gani, A., & Khan, S. U. (2015). The rise of “big data” on cloud computing: Review and open research issues. Information systems47, 98-115.

Sen, J. (2015). Security and privacy issues in cloud computing. In Cloud Technology: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications pp. 1585-1630. 

Singh, S., & Chana, I. (2016). A survey on resource scheduling in cloud computing: Issues and challenges. Journal of grid computing14(2), 217-264.

Somani, G., Gaur, M. S., Sanghi, D., Conti, M., & Buyya, R. (2017). DDoS attacks in cloud computing: Issues, taxonomy, and future directions. Computer Communications107, 30-48.

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Food safety concerns frequent make headlines around the world as they are an important issue

Food safety concerns frequent make headlines around the world as they are an important issue. China faced backlash when a chemical called memalime was found in infant milk powder (Xiu & Klein, 2010) and then in 2011 clenbuterol was found in excess use in animal food production as well (Xue & Zhang, 2013). Europe had its own share of scandals of which the most remarkable one was the mixture of horsemeat with beef in 2013 (Peng et al, 2017). In the recent years that have passed, South Korea also joined the circle of scandals when in 2000 crabs were found to have lead in them, while in 2005 Kimchi was found in kimchi. The cherry on the top was in 2010, when a famous snack company was found to be using rat carcasses as their ingredient (Yang and Yang, 2013). These food safety concerns effect not just locally but also internationally. Leading to a decline in human health and lots of economic losses for the country. 

Due to its importance, food safety has seen considerable efforts to improve its safety worldwide. Government officials have actively started establishing institutes which can deal with this issue by investing in hazard control systems like good agricultural practices or GAPS, good manufacturing practices or GMP, hazard analysis and critical control point or HACCP and more (Liu, Liu, Zhang & Gao, 2015). One of the most recent researches was done in Ontario to make a qualitative analysis of food safety steps that are taken up my cheese makers and the paper also reported the artisan’s awareness and perceptions (Le, Bazger, Hill & Wilcock, 2014). Other areas that have been research include the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese, Staphylococcus aureus in milk (Barancaeli et al, 2014; Lee, Cappato, Corassin, Cruz & Oliveira, 2016) and GMP assessment and introduction of the HACCP system (Carroascosa et al, 2016). 

South Korea’s, Korea Ministry of Food and Drug Safety or KMFDS, are in charge of foods safety and risk assessment and they have developed a sound regulatory system to keep in control the food quality and make sure the food hasn’t been adulterated (KMFDS, 2017). Health and nutrition are KMFDS’s ultimate goal for enhancing food safety (Peng at el, 2017). Though, KMFDS has put in a lot of effort to keep Korea’s food quality up to par, there are several food safety incidents still being reported. And these reported studies have been helpful to re-evaluate and propose ideas for risk communication and develop better food safety regulations and managements (Xue & Zhang, 2013). Systemic risk analysis helps to develop better strategies or even the best ones, but so far South Korea no such studies have been done in the country (Liu et al, 2015; Xue & Zhang, 2013). 

Though a study conducted by Park, Kim and Bahk (2017) complied media reported on food safety incidents, ranging from 1998 to 2016. The total number of reported incidents compiled were 975 which had an average of 51.3% in a year and 4.3% occurred a month. The food incidents were reported for the following cases:

  1. Fruits and vegetables
  2. Fish and its products
  3. Meat and its products
  4. Beverages
  5. Confectionary

Of the reported cases, at least 41.6% were chemical hazard related, while 20.4% were physical hazard. The study further performed an analysis about which conditions can lead to these hazards, and it found that primary production is the most common stage with 63% of incidents taking place at this point. Following the production stage, handling and distribution had incidents of food safety for about 6.7% of the cases.

Lee (2017), in the 8th conference on Food Quality and Safety policy talked about the application of DPSEEA framework for food safety development and health indicators in Korea. In his paper he reported that having food safety indicators are useful as they are important indicators to help one define food hazards, contamination pathways and levels of exposure in connection to public health. A link needs to be established whereby which one can interpret the difficult relationship between human health and food safety hazards. The paper further discussed pro’s and cons of the framework which can help develop food safety in Korea. The paper chose the DPSEEA framework as it can be divided into five domains and they allow different forms of action for each domain. Therefore, six procedures were developed for Korean safety food indicators and their developing process included forty-five initial indicators but only total of four were chosen from them. Among the four selected from the final list, one was called the state domain which helps to indicate the chemical hazards of residual pesticides. The other three indicators were termed as the effect domain and were indicators of food contamination and their effect on health. These final indicators are important as they provide information on overall food environment, which includes hygiene and food health. The framework not only helps to provide systemic intervention points but also in developing food safety health indicators which can be divided into domain points. Though, the structure does have gaps as it does not take into account the population sensitivity, effecting areas between each domain, therefore, causing health risks to differ across different areas. In the future a modified version would be needed when developing new indicators to fill the gaps. 

Policies regarding food safety regulation in Korea have been around for many years now, as one can state by reading Wang’s (2012) PhD paper. In her paper she has listed various policy makers and government agencies who have established framework and rules and help reduce Korea’s food safety incidence. The Framework Act on Food Safety, set in 2008) ensures that people will achieve a healthy and safe diet by clarifying the rights and obligations by people and the responsibilities which are held by the state and local government. The Food sanitation act is the most important one, as it aims to contribute to public health by reducing sanitary risks in food by prevention methods and promoting qualitative changes, which give true and accurate data to the public. The Functional Food Act targets specific food groups. 

Safety standards are also in Korea which act as important legal instruments in food safety. Such as the Food Code and Food Additive Code has been propagated by Korea food and Drug Administration and the Food Sanitary act. Food quality related standards have also been given importance which include information about the foods country of origin, and is applied to specific food groups, example, the agricultural food regulatory agencies, such as National Agricultural Product Quality Management Service. 

Agricultural foods have been regulated by Food, Agriculture, Forester and Fisheries department which take responsibility by setting up regulations and standard related to livestock and dairy products, including forester and fishery. Sanitary controls, standards, specifications and labelling requirements for domestic and imported livestock is ensured by the National Agricultural Product Quality Management Service and the Animal, Plans and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency. They do this by preventing harmful weeds, pests and diseases from originating from imported plants, fruits and vegetables. 

The basic responsibilities, which include the hygiene with regards to manufacture, process, distribution and sales, when caring for their hygiene and sanitary practices, sis covered by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. The organization is also responsible for other food acts such as the Functional Food Act and implementing the Enforcement Decree and Enforcement Rule. The KFDA sets and enforces specific standards for imported and domestic products, which include, functional food, additives and contact materials. Products manufactured via Biotechnological rules are also established by them for food processing, especially products containing GMO ingredients and guidelines for HACCP program. Self-production cannot ensure food supply, therefore imported food is important and this has increased ever since Korea jointed the WTO. 

Last but not the least, South Korea has modernized its risk analysis system not only by the regulatory ministries and risk management agencies but the Korea Food and Drug administration also established the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation on 1st May, 2009 which provides scientific evaluation on food, food supplements and other products in KFDA policy. National Food Safety Information Service set in June, 2009 acts as a risk communicator which provides food safety information to both public and policy makers. Apart from that, they also provide food traceability for industry, making it easier to recall food related cases when they happen. 


Barancelli, G. V., Camargo, T. M., Gagliardi, N. G., Porto, E., Souza, R. A., Campioni, F., … Oliveira, C. A. (2014). Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from cheese manufacturing plants in São Paulo, Brazil. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 173, 21-29. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2013.12.018

Carrascosa, C., Millán, R., Saavedra, P., Jaber, J. R., Raposo, A., & Sanjuán, E. (2016). Identification of the risk factors associated with cheese production to implement the hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) system on cheese farms. Journal of Dairy Science, 99(4), 2606-2616. doi:10.3168/jds.2015-10301

Korea Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (KMFDS). (2017a). Korean Food Standard Codex. Available at:

Le, S., Bazger, W., Hill, A. R., & Wilcock, A. (2014). Awareness and perceptions of food safety of artisan cheese makers in Southwestern Ontario: A qualitative study. Food Control, 41, 158-167. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.01.007

Lee, J. (2017). Application of DPSEEA framework in developing food safety health indicator in Korea. Journal of Food Processing & Technology, 08(11). doi:10.4172/2157-7110-c1-073

Lee, S., Cappato, L., Corassin, C., Cruz, A., & Oliveira, C. (2016). Effect of peracetic acid on biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes isolated from dairy plants. Journal of Dairy Science, 99(3), 2384-2390. doi:10.3168/jds.2015-10007

Liu, Y., Liu, F., Zhang, J., & Gao, J. (2015). Insights into the nature of food safety issues in Beijing through content analysis of an Internet database of food safety incidents in China. Food Control, 51, 206-211. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.11.017

Liu, Y., Liu, F., Zhang, J., & Gao, J. (2015). Insights into the nature of food safety issues in Beijing through content analysis of an Internet database of food safety incidents in China. Food Control, 51, 206-211. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.11.017

Park, M. S., Kim, H. N., & Bahk, G. J. (2017). The analysis of food safety incidents in South Korea, 1998–2016. Food Control, 81, 196-199. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2017.06.013

Peng, G., Chang, M., Fang, M., Liao, C., Tsai, C., Tseng, S., … Cheng, H. (2017). Incidents of major food adulteration in Taiwan between 2011 and 2015. Food Control, 72, 145-152. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.07.043

Peng, G., Chang, M., Fang, M., Liao, C., Tsai, C., Tseng, S., … Cheng, H. (2017). Incidents of major food adulteration in Taiwan between 2011 and 2015. Food Control, 72, 145-152. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.07.043

Seunghye, W. (2012, July 27). Food safety regulation in the Republic of Korea. Retrieved from

Xiu, C., & Klein, K. (2010). Melamine in milk products in China: Examining the factors that led to deliberate use of the contaminant. Food Policy, 35(5), 463-470. doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2010.05.001

Xue, J., & Zhang, W. (2013). Understanding China’s food safety problem: An analysis of 2387 incidents of acute foodborne illness. Food Control, 30(1), 311-317. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.07.024

Xue, J., & Zhang, W. (2013). Understanding China’s food safety problem: An analysis of 2387 incidents of acute foodborne illness. Food Control, 30(1), 311-317. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.07.024

Xue, J., & Zhang, W. (2013). Understanding China’s food safety problem: An analysis of 2387 incidents of acute foodborne illness. Food Control, 30(1), 311-317. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.07.024

Yang, S., & Yang, S. (2013). A Study of the Perception and Purchase Behavior on Foreign Matters in Food. The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, 26(3), 470-475. doi:10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.470

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Network Topology Assignment Help

Network Topology 

This scenario involves three generic routers (Router-PT). The routers are connected through a point-to-point serial link as shown in Figure 1:

  • R1🡪R2, R1 🡪R3 and R2  🡪 R4 are connected through serial links. 

Devices which are connected with serial links.

  • R1’s Serial2/0 interface connects to R2’s Serial2/0 interface.
  • R1’s Serial3/0 interface connects to R3’s Serial2/0 interface.
  • R2’s Serial3/0 interface connects to R4’s Serial2/0 interface.
  • R1 connects to Subnets 1, 6, 7, and 8.
  • R2 connects Subnets 2, 3, 4, and6.
  • R3 connects Subnets 7.
  • R4 connects Subnets 4 and 5.
  • Each FastEthernet interface of the router is connected to a generic switch.  

Technical Note:

Use Router-PT and Switch 2960 for your configurations.

Use write memory command to save your router configurations.  

Figure 1: Network Topology

Use Table 1 to list the subnetting details of the 8 subnets. 

Table 1: Subnetting Table

Slash NotationFirst Usable
IP Address
Last Usable
IP Address
Broadcast Address

Complete the addressing table (Table 2) based on the above addressing specifications.

Table 2: Addressing Table

DeviceInterfaceIP AddressSubnet MaskClocking
setting (Yes/No)
Default Gateway

Routing Specifications 

Use static routing forR1, R2, R3 and R4. Record all static routing in following tables.You may add more rows to the table if it is necessary.  

Table 3: R1’s Routing Table

RouterNetworkMaskNext Hop

Table 4: R2’s Routing Table

RouterNetworkMaskNext Hop

Table 5: R3’s Routing Table

RouterNetworkMaskNext Hop

Table 6: R4’s Routing Table

RouterNetworkMaskNext Hop

Packet tracer 


Configuration of static routing:

Ip address configuration of server and routers

Using ping command to verify connectivity:

In routers:

In servers:

Conclusion: In this assignment computer network is designed for an organization having four routers, five switches as the networking devices and servers as end devices. static routing is one way to route the data from one network to other , which is easiest but not most efficient, we have used this routing technique. the network is simulated in packet tracer and ping command is used to verify the network.


  2. Computer Networks by Andrew S. Tanenbaum

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Literature review of Small business that uses accounting software package in Australia


In this full competitive industry, it become harder to compete with other without having proper access advanced technology. Keeping account is the foremost work of any business organization. The larger the business the longest the accounting process                                                                                                                                                              which takes a lot of time to complete the process and continuing it without any mistakes. That is the reason business organization started using for accounting. This software helps the organization to keep all the account recorded and secure which also confirmed the possibility of mistakes in a least number. There are many accounting software packages like Reckon, Xero, MYOB, and QuickBooks online. All these accounting software are providing some common services like bookkeeping, payroll, tax calculation etc. Though all these software providing some common services they are different from each other by providing some special service.

Part 1

The organizational structure

In this literature review, types of organisation to use accounting software are SME business organizations. Start up business or ongoing business organizations need to save money as well as their time by using advanced technology and Services and these accounting software are tremendously helping  those organizations to minimized there cost of accounting and save a lot of time to focus on any other sectors of the business. Usually the number of employee in SME business are comparatively low than the established and large business. According to the structure small or medium businesses are included in the term of SME. So it can be said that in the term of structure the chosen organization sector is small in size considering the area of business, number of employees, capital of business etc.

Operational problems

As being small business in structure, this type of company faces many problems. Though the structure is being small business, the capital is also limited comparatively, many other things depend on the amount of the capital which will start the company and would work as working capital. So this amount is very essential for any business. This capital defines how many employees are needed for the business considering other sectors where people are needed. This type of company has low budget for hiring people in various structure of the business. Hiring more people will cause more money to provide them which will not be considerable. It often causes the company to shut down because they cannot higher the number of people needed for the business or after having them they cannot provide the salary to them. Beside that employee problem, small businesses face other problem like having experience people. As Startup Company, experience people often do not show interest in joining in this type of company for having other big opportunity. This cause unskilled people get hired which lead the company to have error in their working process. The numbers of people work in this type of business need to be more skilled to develop the new condition of the business. Experienced and skilled people can provide the service a startup company needs to make progress in their business. Inexperienced and unskilled employees will create more error then the experienced employees.  it could be positive in some sense, like an experienced people can work her together experience and to solve their errors by learning more.

System acquisition method

There are many types of system to adopt for the business some could be commercial software, some could be custom software and so on. To understand which type of business needs what type of software for completing the accounting process, it requires understanding the configuration of the software first. Commercial software is for average use any kind of business organization can use commercial software. All the common features are included in this type of software which can be beneficial for any business organization. Some packages are available which includes extra benefit to some commercial software for organizations to complete their additional works. As example MYOB has a feature that creates BAS Report along with its other features like bookkeeping, purchase orders, creating note of credits, payrolls etc. Another important system is custom software; custom software provides special order service from the organization. Sometimes some company needs their own service system to make the service unique from others. They might have their special requirement about some feature of the software; the software made according to the requirement of client is called custom software. Custom software is for bigger companies that has their own unique system of operating. Though small business organizations have limited number of employees and the size of the business is not much bigger, they need to minimize the cost, on the other hand custom software are costly. That indicates custom software are not for small business and small business needs commercial software. Accounting software companies offers different packages for their clients. Small business organizations can choose packages according to their needs and requirements.

System flowchart of sales procedure

The selling processes of a small business organization are easier than any bigger organization. Usually small organizations follow few steps to complete sales procedure. There are some steps to follow accordingly for completing a proper sales process. This steps confines the procedure easily understand by the people who are related to the organization. These steps would be discussed below:

Step 1: (Getting a response to campaign and requests for information.)

This is the first step of the procedure of sales, in this step the organization will need to campaign about their product or service. Campaign of the company would get some response related to their campaign, product or service. After getting the response, management needs to understand what the response was and how to reply the response from clients. Information should be gathered about the client and their response to understand and reply properly.

Step 2: (Reply the response from clients and describe the product or service to them)

This is the second step of the procedure of sales, in this step the management need to reply to the responses they gathered from people. The organization can contact people in many different ways like calling directly, knocking on social media, sending SMS and many other way of communication. This step is the first direct connection with the client for the business.  If this step is finished successfully done the client will be interested to buy or take product or service.

Step 3: (Meeting in person and showing the demo of products)

In this step the business will show the client their product of service.  The client will get to know more about the product and service and any related information about the product.  It will also avail a chance for the client to use the product or services as a trial. If the product or service can gain the interest of the client then it will be permanent deal with the company for sure.

Step 4: (Submitting the proposal to prospect)

This is the step where the selling team will submit a proposal of the expectation from the selling to this client. In this step the target, expectation, achievement etc. would be shown as a prospect to the company from the sale group or team after getting the confirmation from the client. In this step client will be able to know the price expected from the company and if they are agree or not.

Step 5: (Agree on the prospect, and process first payment)

This is the step after the client agrees with the prospect of the company offered.  If the client is agree to the deal of the company then the company and the client will make a deal which will lead the client to make their first payment regarding this product or service. This step because payment and basically finish the procedure of sales so far.

                                                  Figure: Sales Process

Control problem of the system

At the time of using any software, there could be some technical problems in controlling the system. The structure of the company who are using this software is small business and the people employed in this type of business are not so well experienced. Sometimes this could be a barrier to you software properly and controlling it as far demand.  In controlling the system there would be some reason behind it which could be lack of knowledge about software, not knowing the proper use of the software, unaware about the feature of the software, and so on. Sometimes the chosen software could be difficult to understand. Not all the software is made for any kind of business organization. So picking the best software for the business is a challenge if that’s not happen then there would be some controlling problem of the system. There could be some problem related to fraud action.  Regarding buying the software, the company needs to analyze site they are buying the software from and the authenticity of the site and the company as well. If the company is any random company then there is a possibility to fraud action. So while considering to buy a software the business organization needs to know if it is important for the business or not as well as the site they are buying the software from should be authentic to avoid fraud actions.

Part 2

Development and adoption the package of accounting software

For small businesses among all the accounting software in the market MYOB is the most suitable one. Maximum small businesses in Australia required using MYOB as their accounting software. More than 1 million small business organizations are using this software to complete the accounting actions. In comparison with other software this software provides the maximum service in a reasonable price which is a way ahead for small businesses to save their money. This software has the most updated features of using the software using computer to access data from any close and it follows working remotely and the capability is 28%.  This feature made this software adaptable to maximum small business organization to manage their business from a distance or any location which is beneficial for businesses which are not located in the most city site. These facilities provide an advantage which is very competitive.

Current market size

The current market size for MYOB accounting software is highly considerate as large according to the usability and the client satisfaction of using this software. According to the journal report more than 1 million people are using this software for their accounting work and most of those organizations as small business organizations. SME is one of the largest part business organizations all over the Australia. About 80 percent businesses in Australia are SMS business. So taking into consideration the fact, the market of accounting software is large in size.

Market leaders and their competitive advantage

There are many accounting software companies leading in the market.  All of this company is well known and leading business equally in the market with their service quality and commitment. Among them the chosen software MYOB is also running their business successfully in the Australian market. This company has more advantage in competition considering the fact that the government of Australia also uses this software in some of their sectors. This brings the company competitive advantage and reliability and trust of people just by knowing the fact the government also using these features. It brings trust towards the company. This company is providing a service which is called cloud controlling. Cloud controlling is a feature that allow its uses to use the software from anywhere through the internet. These features make them unique from others and help them to leave the market with this competitive advantage.

Current challenges encountered by users

Besides having many benefits and advantages, this software are highly configurable and the usability of this software depends on the expertise of the person who is using it.  That means the person who use this software needs to know about the features of accounting and the functions of this software very well. Without knowing the functions of the software is quite difficult for any random person to operate the software. SME businesses and not are not prepare to hire more people for accounting work or sometimes it seems that the owner do the accounting work by own self and it is not necessary that the owner should have accounting knowledge for opening  a business. That is the reason they buy accounting software to do the work by their own. Sometimes the future confuses them to do the work if this features are constructed any random person would be able to run this software is a little knowledge about accounting. Show the user of this software are having problem with understanding the feature recently and they are complaining about that to make it easy and these information was gathered from various survey taken by the company to understand the opinion of their  client and to solve the problems.

Recommendation to overcome the challenges

To overcome this problem the users of this software are using, main essential steps should be taken. Though the main problem is proper knowledge of using the software, the company can provide user instruction to make its users understand the process of using the software even if they don’t have any previous knowledge about accounting software. Another step can be taken as the software company can hire some people who can teach the random people understand how to use the features of this software easily while delivering the software. User instructions can be provided by making a video which is very easy to understand for all kind of people you don’t know about accounting software. By seeing the video they can understand instructions about the features which will also reduce the cost of the software company. This could be the better solution solve this problem.


Cherry, M. (2016). Accounting for Trust: A Conceptual Model for the Determinants of Trust in the Australian Public Accountant – SME Client Relationship. Australasian Accounting, Business and Finance Journal, 10(2), pp.3-22.

Chua, W. (2007). Accounting, measuring, reporting and strategizing – Re-using verbs: A review essay. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 32(4-5), pp.487-494.

Financial Review. (2018). Firms reveal their preferred cloud accounting software. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 Apr. 2018].

Garand, B. (2009). Open Source Software: The Customer Perception from SME and SMI?. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Handley, K., Wright, S. and Evans, E. (2017). SME Reporting in Australia: Where to Now for Decision-usefulness?. Australian Accounting Review.

James, D., interviews), W., MYOB AccountRight Basics, X., James, D. and interviews), W. (2018). 7 accounting packages for Australian small businesses compared: including MYOB, QuickBooks Online, Reckon, Xero. [online] Business IT. Available at: [Accessed 26 Apr. 2018].

Quintiliani, A. (2017). SME Growth: The Role of Government Grant. Asian Journal of Finance & Accounting, 9(2), p.307.

Technologies, R. (2018). MYOB: Benefits and Challenges for your Organisation. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 Apr. 2018].

Teittinen, H., Pellinen, J. and Järvenpää, M. (2013). ERP in action — Challenges and benefits for management control in SME context. International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, 14(4), pp.278-296. (2018). MYOB on Why SME will Play a Big Role in The Future of Australian Tech. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 Apr. 2018].

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Operating Systems Assignment Help by AssignmentHero


Section 1:  Operating Systems

  1. List five services provided by an operating system(OS). Explain how each service provides convenience to the users. Can some of the OS services be provided by user level programs?

Setting Switching and Scheduling, which apportion a procedure CPU time to execute its directions.

Memory Management, which manages designating memory to forms.

Interposes Communication, which manages offices to enable simultaneously running procedures to speak with each other.

Document Systems, which give larger amount records out of low level unstructured information on a plate.

Abnormal state I/O offices, which free a procedure from the low-level points of interest of interfere with taking care of.

  1. To which extent are the two OS’s (Linux/Unix and Windows) essentially the same and importantly different?       

Approaching the source code is likely the absolute hugest distinction amongst Linux and Windows. The way that Linux has a place with the GNU Public License guarantees that clients (of assorted types) can get to (and modify) the code to the very piece that fills in as the establishment of the Linux working framework. You need to peer at the Windows code? Good fortunes. Unless you are an individual from an extremely select (and first class, to many) gathering, you will never look at code making up the Windows working framework.

You can take a gander at this from the two sides of the fence. Some say giving the community to the code opens the working framework (and the product that keeps running over it) to malevolent engineers who will exploit any shortcoming they find. Others say that having full access to the code realizes quicker enhancements and bug fixes to shield those noxious engineers from having the capacity to cut the framework down. I have, now and again, plunged into the code of some Linux application, and when all was said and done, was content with the outcomes. Would I be able to have done that with a shut source Windows application? No.

  1. Discuss multiprocessing systems and explain how multiprocessing increases the utilisation of resources.

As illustrations handling units (GPUs) are extensively embraced, running various applications on a GPU in the meantime is starting to pull in wide consideration. Late proposition on multitasking GPUs have concentrated on either spatial multitasking, which allotments GPU asset at a spilling multiprocessor (SM) granularity, or concurrent multikernel (SMK), which runs numerous bits on a similar SM. Be that as it may, multitasking execution shifts vigorously relying upon the asset segments inside each plan, and the application blends. In this paper, we propose GPU Maestro that performs dynamic asset administration for productive usage of multitasking GPUs. GPU Maestro can find the best performing GPU asset segment misusing both spatial multitasking and SMK. Moreover, dynamism inside a bit and obstruction between the pieces are naturally considered in light of the fact that GPU Maestro finds the best performing segment through direct estimations. Assessments demonstrate that GPU Maestro can enhance normal framework throughput by 20.2% and 13.9% over the standard spatial multitasking and SMK, individually.

  1. Illustrate the concept of batch processing operating system.

The primary capacity of a group handling framework is to consequently continue executing the occupations in a bunch. This is the vital assignment of a group preparing framework i.e. performed by the ‘Bunch Monitor’ dwelled in the low end of primary memory.

This strategy was conceivable because of the innovation of hard-circle drives and card perusers. Presently the occupations could be put away on the plate to make the pool of employments for its execution as a bunch. To begin with the pooled employments are perused and executed by the clump screen, and afterward these occupations are assembled; putting the indistinguishable (occupations with the comparative needs) in a similar cluster, So, in the bunch handling framework, the grouped occupations were executed consequently in a steady progression sparing its opportunity by playing out the exercises (like stacking of compiler) just for once. It brought about enhanced framework usage because of diminished pivot time.

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Language and Literacy Environment Answer

In this report the researcher was supposed to do a research in a day care center for infants and toddlers for long term in Melbourne and named Matrix early learning. The researcher had the need to take permission of the director of the center about spending some time in this center for doing research. After seeking permission the Director was happy to help in this academic research and understanding. Finally he gave permission and also gave some rules to follow to spend time here, like doing good behavior with the children, not to provoke them with anything, need to help them if need and some other rule was to follow.

Profile of Setting

The name of the day care the researcher visited is “Matrix Early Learning” situated in Melbourne, Australia. This is one of the best day care for the city. The researcher went to seek permission to visit the day care and the director of the center was so cooperative to this kind of academic aspects and even he inspired and provided some essential information about the center. Every year this center take a fixed number of children to ensure best service to them. At the age of 0 to 6 years, child are allowed to get admitted there.

Physical Environment Explanation

In Australia, the children of pastoral and distant areas, and homegrown children in maximum number face the specific risk of less knowledge of literacy. The magnitude and strictness of the setback is also reflected in current statement by Human Rights as well as the EOC on an investigation into pastoral and distant study in Australia, the experienced of disadvantage by students who are from country is designated as amounting to discernment. “A pre-emptive approach is imperative, safeguarding that families are braced in their part as their first knowledge educators of their children with the intention of preventing the social as well as economic problems accompanying with low levels of literacy, predominantly in less privileged population zones.” That is why it is very essential for the parents to have proper knowledge about providing the right information at the right age of their children. For ensuring the best early learning of children, Matrix provide training for the parents. Our highly expert consultants consults with the parents every month discussing the progress of the children.” These are the saying of the director of the selected day care. He provided some essential information in addition to give the permission.

Physical environment means the overall physical structure of something. The physical environment of Matrix is really very appraisal. It has a large area to serve at least 90 children at a time. They have large rooms as 1 for 10, then children could easily play and learn in a room so easily. They also have rooms for the staffs and the amount is 5. Toilet for children are very clean and big for feeling comfortable. Thinking of the children they colored all the room as theme to feel different and homely. Total home décor is designed with finest layout.  Furniture was all home based to feel for the children as homely as possible. Food menu, food habit, staff, children, appearance of parents, stuff’s behave with children, living place, playground etc. was the main key element to keep an eye on them. These was observed by the researcher. The researcher tried to get as much as idea could be gathered about infants and toddlers and their nutrition, nurturing and literacy in addition to environment also. Maximum children have working parents at the same time that makes them unable to stay home with children. So they get their children admitted into this kind of day care to make sure they are safe when parents are not beside them. It’s actually a huge responsibility to take. The center have to make sure that the children are safe with food and education.

Rooms in the perspective of infants are really comfortable. Children were so comfortable in their rooms. They were playing without any hesitations. The rooms were full of learn full toys though children could learn through playing with each other. Children seems so comfortable that defines that they get home comfort and they are free here as home. So according to the perspective of children and toddlers the rooms were home based. They could feel homely and there were also sweet smell to make them more comfortable. And they seems to like the smell of the rooms also. Children get their food at the room they stay all day so that they don’t feel like eating is another thing to do or they don’t get eating as a work. They just need to eat with joy. That is why the rooms are also available with lots of chocolates that would be given as a prize of doing anything good.

It is very often that children are uncomfortable usually everywhere. Parents need to make them comfortable. This tough work could be done by making the environment comfortable for them. If the children is free of hesitation then it would try to explore its activity that could be motivated in some way. These features are enough to make a baby feel home that would make him explore his activities. Children loves to talk. When they feel free than they would be willing to communicate with other children and also with their teachers. Matrix basically focus on learn with fun. They manage to have fun with children by educators in the class to make them learn something new. Oral language is vital to learn. For that is very essential to hear more and more and this task is got done by the tutors as well they play educative music and cartoons that teaches alphabet, number, name of things etc. This process make them ask questions about those things they don’t know and it is really a huge matter for the language development of children.

Interactions as potential for supporting the literacy learning and language of the children

It seems very positive to the researcher that all the children showed much known attitude toward the researcher though he was unknown to them. That defines that their communication system with other is well developed that is why they didn’t afraid of unknown. That also define that they have learned to communicate and face the fear. Interaction between the staff and children are very impressive. Children are very easy with the staffs. They consider them as family both staff and children. Children are easy to ask for any help from them and as well to play with them. They are very well preserved with discipline to control behave with the children. Children are also very easy with each other. They play like friends and help each other in doing any tough thing that could not be done alone. It was also remarkable that they have strong bonding between them and this could be feel at the time of their going back to home. They show love to each other and wish for coming back soon tomorrow. That definitely confirms that they have a strong bonding to miss each other. So it also shows the quality of having literacy learning and frequency of language as well as content to communicate with each other, their love for each other is the result of non-verbal communication. Thinking of the children they colored all the room as theme to feel different and homely. Total home décor is designed with finest layout.  Furniture was all home based to feel for the children as homely as possible. Food menu, food habit, staff, children, appearance of parents, stuff’s behave with children, living place, playground etc. was the main key element to keep an eye on them. These was observed by the researcher. The researcher tried to get as much as idea could be gathered about infants and toddlers and their nutrition, nurturing and literacy in addition to environment also. These make the children to have maximum learning of literacy and using language in a proper way.

Toddlers are active partakers in building the skills of language as well as literacy. They absorb as they take part in any meaningful involvements and intermingle with children as well as adults, making language at the time of the procedure. Children learn maximum language that imitates the language as well as behavior taking adults as model they try to interact with also listen to them. Adult sustenance the language of children learning by making a model which is communicative, receptive, and pleasurable. They use another way to develop the language of children as experience is concluded the use of telling story. Many learning have proved that children figure vocabulary, learn the use of complex sentences, as well as they improve understanding when habitually visible to stories. They use this method for making their students learn words and using strong and long sentence. And they ask the children to repeat the story that confines their concentration level while hearing the story. This a very effective way for interactive communication.

Toddlers who rehearsal wonderful stories that was told by their whole-hearted teacher that give benefit in various ways connected to the development of language as well as literacy. They practice active participation in the making of another story. They construct understanding of the story as well as they discover the resolutions of the form of literary. They sympathize with as well discuss the moods of the persons and the impasses they overwhelmed. This make them explore their thinking as well as understandings about things. Visiting the day care center, the researcher justified the fact that Matrix Early Learning is a center that follows the rules of mental and physical building of a child. Children are very easy with the staffs. They consider them as family both staff and children. Children are easy to ask for any help from them and as well to play with them. They are very well preserved with discipline to control behave with the children. Children are also very easy with each other. They play like friends and help each other in doing any tough thing that could not be done alone. It was also remarkable that they have strong bonding between them and this could be feel at the time of their going back to home. They also care for the proper nutrition of children. They do not increase the number of student more than they manage. They have highly qualified teachers. A pre-emptive approach is imperative, safeguarding that families are braced in their part as their first knowledge educators of their children with the intention of preventing the social as well as economic problems accompanying with low levels of literacy, predominantly in less privileged population zones. So they manage parents meeting for the better building of the children they are taking care of. For ensuring the best early learning of children, Matrix provide training for the parents. Their highly expert consultants consults with the parents every month discussing the progress of the children.


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