Discourse analysis of applied linguistics
Applied linguistics for a long time has involved editing high-quality materials and reference books and research on practical teaching methods; these have always been a major issue in language teaching and research. Apart from general language teaching, it also serves the second purpose; language teaching, bilingual teaching and teaching the deaf-blind (Pennycook 2009). Further, Cook & North (2010) explains that practice and applied linguistic theory are combined by linguists through research and practice to summarize the theory, and then put the theory into practice. Again repeated practice eventually selects those related knowledge into the language teaching. Therefore, applied linguistics focuses on the systematic research of language structure, from first language acquisition to other languages, using second language to make communication, study the status of language as the product of particular cultures and other social group.
Discourse analysis which is a branch of applied linguistics, its main role is to study the use of language by the method of discourse analysis. Discourse is a specific speech acts that is engaged communication between people under a particular social context; it is activities between speaker and hearer under a particular social context and through a text expanded communication (Gee 2004). Discourse analysis refers to the use of the symbols in theory and discourse theory and through the communication activities of various symbols, symbols, text and discourse were dissected then to find the implicit deep intention from the appearance (Jrgensen & Phillips 2002). The role of discourse analysis is to build a variety of important entities, and in different ways to bring people into the social status of subject, which reveals the ideological of discourse constitutes social identity, social relations and knowledge and belief system of role (Johnstone, 2002). Hall, Smith & Wicaksono (2001) concluded that the discourse analysis is mainly related to general discourse meaning, linguistics methods, sociological approach, contemporary topic and how to use discourse analysis to help those people who need to apply language. This paper will focus on the Corpus linguistics and critical discourse analysis these two parts to study, and through the theoretical of discourse analysis to compare two students how to succeed in learning English at different language teaching and language environments.
The first client (A) 23 years old, He has learnt English for six years in China. His initial goal of learning English was to pass the exam, after his move to Chinese English School to learn English in order to pass the IELTS exam. Student A’s ultimate goal is going to study at a university in the United Kingdom. He acquired some simple English skills from school in the past six years ago, such as simple communication, independently to achieve 120 words English Writing. After his English ability has been greatly improved and ultimately IELTS by 6 points.
The second client (B) is 26 years old, although she participated in a normal school English education in China, however, due to various reasons, she did not get much of English, only know some simple word pronunciation. Then she transferred into an English-speaking country to learn English, from the most basic to start learning English, and ultimately she has to enter the United Kingdom’s University study.
1. Corpus linguistics
Corpus Linguistics is a technique of performing linguistic analyses. It is essentially an analysis of naturally happening language under computerised corpora that is achieved through the help of a computer that is installed with some specialised software that considers the frequency of the occurrence of the feature that is under investigation (Nesselhauf 2011). Corpus Linguistics can be used in investigating a variety of linguistic questions because it has shown a tendency of having of producing highly interesting, elemental, and frequently surprisingly new insights into language use. It has actually become one of the widely used linguistic methods for language investigation purposes. This will at least require knowing what corpus is and what linguistics information do linguistics require to properly investigating any linguistics phenomenon. A corpus is a collection of systematically ordered text of both spoken and written of naturally occurring language (Meyer 2002). Corpus is generally restricted to a given type of texts, to a number of English varieties and to a given period of time. In the case where a number of subcategories; varieties of English, several types of texts, among others, occur, they are normally represented by the similar amount of text in a corpus. Also the information contained within a corpus that is available to the researcher comprises a distinct number of words in every subcategory, category and the entire corpus and also dictates the manner in which the texts and the entire corpus is to be sampled (Dash 2010). On the other hand, the following four forms of data are used by the linguists in investigating linguistic features, these are: introspection; the intuition of the researcher and other people’s intuition that falls under the category of that information/ data is acquired through intuition, and anecdotal evidence (randomly collected occurrences of texts) and the corpus (discussed above which is systematic and orderly in nature), that falls under the naturally happening languages (Hunston 2006). Therefore, the corpus falls under the naturally occurring languages as opposed to the data acquired through intuition.
There are generally a number of corpora that can be put into different kind of uses depending on the types of analysis to be carried out. There is the general corpus versus the specialised corpus, for example, the Bank of English, or the British National Corpus (BNC), whose objective is represent a variety of a language as a whole, and it contains both written and spoken language, a number of test types, among other features (Nesselhauf 2011). There is also the present-day versus the historical language corpora, for example, Helsinki Corpus, ARCHER, whose objective is to represent the languages’ earlier stages (McCarthy 2006). There are also regional corpora and a corpora representing not less than one language variety, for example, The Wellington Corpus of Written New Zealand English (WCWZE), whose aim is to represent ne regional variety of a language; like the above-mentioned one for the New Zealand variety of English (Taylor 2010). Another corpus is the native speaker corpora versus the leaner corpora, for example, the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE), whose objective is to represent the reproduced language by the learners (Roberts 2009). Also there is a single-language corpus versus multi-lingual corpora, whose objective is to represent more than two dissimilar languages, in most cases, with similar text types for the purposes of contrastive analyses (Gries 2009). There is also a corpora of spoken versus written versus mixed languages, for example, the London-Lund Corpus of Spoken English, whose goal is to represent spoken English. Finally, there is orthographic versus annotated corpora, where the annotated corpus contains a ready linguistic analysis on the texts; word classification and/or sentence analysis (Nesselhauf, 2011).
For client A, who intended to study English in order to pass his IELTS exams and then later on Study at a university in the United Kingdom, there is a variety of corpora that he can utilise to achieve his goals. Firstly, in order to pass his IELTS exams, it is recommended that he utilises the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE), whose objective is to represent the reproduced language by the learners. The International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE) comprises of written argumentative essays by English learners (mostly advanced learners in their tertiary level institutions) from varying mother-tongue backgrounds across the globe; Chinese, Turkish, Bulgarian, Japanese, Czech, Norwegian, Swahili, Russian, Italian, Dutch, German, Tswana, Swedish, Spanish, Finnish, among others (Language Technology World 2014).