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DEVELOP A WORKPLACE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT: A COMPETENCY ASSESSMENT-ANSWER

DEVELOP A WORKPLACE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT: A COMPETENCY ASSESSMENT

Table of Contents

Reasons for TNA method chosen. 5

Establishing gaps between knowledge and skill 5

Gathering feedback about a team member’s performance and the sources to be referred to in order to source the information. 5

Analysing the feedback from these sources and other information obtained about their performance  5

What other information to refer to in order to find out skill gaps. 6

Part B.. 6

Conduction of Skill Analysis: 6

Part C.. 7

Code of conduct: 7

Key performance indicators. 7

WHS requirements. 7

Negotiated agreement with the individual 7

Performance standards. 7

Team Competencies. 7

Work options and processes. 7

Team roles and responsibilities. 7

Assessment 2: 10

Encouraging learner to follow the learning plan. 10

Assisting learner in identifying and applying chosen learning strategies. 10

Encouraging learner to continually assess their own competencies to identify their own learning and development needs. 10

Determining the type and extent of any additional work based work that is required. 10

Obtaining feedback and continually enhancing learning program.. 10

Maintaining record of learner’s progress. 11

Assessment 3. 12

Identification. 12

Staff consultation and communication. 12

Problem identification and resolution. 12

Record keeping process. 12

Balance of both work based and structured learning. 13

Implementation process. 13

Ongoing evaluations. 13

The importance of maintaining an effective learning environment within an organization. 13

Assessment 4: 15

  1. Coaching and Mentoring and the difference between the two. 15
  2. The benefits of having both coaching and mentoring in an organization. 15
  3. 4 different staff motivation techniques to assist in staff development 15
  4. Importance of feedback forms when evaluating skill development 16
  5. Identification of learning and development needs within an organization. 16
  6. 4 different learning delivery methods and their benefits. 16
  7. Benefits of goal setting and application of this process. 16
  8. Principles and techniques involved in performance measurement 17
  9. Honey and Mumford. 17
  10. Learning Styles. 18
  11. Principles. 18
  12. Group behaviour Theory. 20
  13. Leadership Styles. 20
  14. Step by step process on how to deal with complaints. 20
  15. Customer complaints are important because: 21
  16. 4 common reasons for why customers are difficult 21

Reference List 22

 

Assessment 1

Part A

The Training needs analysis method chosen here is on the job training in the environment of a production house.

Reasons for TNA method chosen

It is a simple and useful method where nothing needs to be explained to the person receiving the training. He can simply watch and learn. It is a cost effective method because no additional cost is required to train an employee and no extra space is required for the training as well. Because on the job training is conducted on site, the employees can actually practice with real equipments and gears. It is also a method that provides quick learning and higher productivity. Feedback is always on hand and multiple skill development also happens (O’Carroll, 2012).

Establishing gaps between knowledge and skill

Pritchard (2010) opined that First of all it needs to be seen what the person’s current level of skill and knowledge is and what level of skill and knowledge is needed to be acquired. After identifying this gap training professionals need to work with the management to come up with an effective plan.

Gathering feedback about a team member’s performance and the sources to be referred to in order to source the information

Gathering feedback about a team member’s performance can be done in the following ways. Feedback about a team member’s performance can be gathered from the other members of the team as well as the management.

Analysing the feedback from these sources and other information obtained about their performance

While analysing the feedback from the other team members and the management it has been found that the team member in question is having difficulties operating certain machines that are new to the team member and having problems in understanding certain instructions.

What other information to refer to in order to find out skill gaps

In terms of other information a survey can be conducted or a one on one interview can be taken in order to assess what exactly the skill gaps are. The data collected can be used to do a skill gap analysis of the team member in question.

Part B

Conduction of Skill Analysis:

Name of team memberElla Montgomery
Designation of  team memberAssistant to Director
OptionsGood MediumPoor
Good Listenerü     
Sensitive to body language  ü   
Keeps business calls to the point ü    
Innovative and participative in group activitiesü     
Good Speaker ü    
Ability to keep calm under stress  ü   
Good plannerü     
Spontaneous ü     
Ability to handle equipment  ü   
Abides by all rules and regulations ü    
Is a model worker ü    

 

Part C

Code of conduct: It has been said that in regard to code of conduct the team member is not sensitive to body language of others and cannot keep business calls to the point. For this the team member may be talked to in order to make her more sensitive to others’ body language and training can be given regarding keeping business calls short and to the point.

Key performance indicators: The key performance indicators of the team member in question are that she is a good listener, is innovative and participative in group activities, is a good planner and is spontaneous. More encouragement can be provided to the team member to keep up the good work.

WHS requirements: As per the WHS requirements it has been found that the team member could improve her work quality in general and could adhere to the rules and regulations a bit more. As such the team member can be encouraged to do better and certain incentives can be offered for better quality of work and more regard for rules and regulations.

Negotiated agreement with the individual: The negotiated agreement with the individual stands thus that encouragement and help will be provided to the team member in areas where she is falling behind and certain incentives will be offered for better work quality and more regard for rules and regulations.

Performance standards: As per performance standards the team member in question has good listening qualities, she is innovative and participative in group activities, is a good planner and is spontaneous. Areas where she is falling behind are sensitivity to body language, keeping business calls to the point, being a good speaker, ability to keep calm under stress, ability to handle equipment and regard for rules and regulations.

Team Competencies: Said team member is innovative and participative in group activities and is spontaneous enough, hence there is no problem there.

Work options and processes: The said team member has to keep a tab on daily progress of the filming process and how it is matching up with the proposed deadline; she has to arrange logistics, she has to keep a check on the crew and the cast and she also has to maintain order on the set.

Team roles and responsibilities: The assistant director is the director’s right hand person; hence she has to take care of all the inconsequential matters so that the director is free to do his job. The scenes have to be broken down according to shots and time of each shot must be determined. She must also draw up the shooting schedule. She needs to be an authoritative team leader and motivate her team but must also be approachable.

 Assessment 2:

Encouraging learner to follow the learning plan

Said team member will be encouraged to take part in surveys and one on one interview to continually mark their growth and incentives will be provided from time to time to encourage them in doing so. It will be impressed upon them that bettering their performance will lead to promotions and more incentives based on her needs and the needs of the team.

Assisting learner in identifying and applying chosen learning strategies

Team member in question will always be given assistance wherever she requires and to put the learning strategies in action. She will be helped in applying those learning strategies to her work. Through this she will not only better her own work but also the work of her team members and those who work under her and look to her for assistance.

Encouraging learner to continually assess their own competencies to identify their own learning and development needs

Learner will be encouraged continuously to asses her own development and competencies by listening to her peers and taking in the criticism they offer and working on them positively. This will lead to self growth. Learner will be encouraged to take the criticism in stride and reflect upon them positively and not in a negative manner.

Determining the type and extent of any additional work based work that is required

The learning in addition to her primary responsibilities of doing the director’s work, coordinating between the cast and crew and the director and keeping a check on the shooting schedule will also create the shooting schedule with assistance from the director, they must also look over complete coverage of script, assist the director in choosing the cast and crew and be aware of overshooting the budget. She will also have to hire props and check the weather conditions. She will also be responsible for everyone’s health and safety.

Obtaining feedback and continually enhancing learning program

Feedback will be obtained on a regular basis to check on the learner’s growth and accordingly the learning plan will also be continuously developed according to the needs and wants of the learner.

Maintaining record of learner’s progress

A steady record will be kept of the learner’s progress through the data obtained by surveys and interviews with the learner as well as her seniors, juniors and colleagues. This record will help chart the growth of the learner.

 Assessment 3

Identification

Hsiao (2010) commented that Identification can be done by looking at the employee’s resume. This will help determine what the skill set of the employee is and what skills they need to develop. This provides an effective skill set analysis. Then the right type of training can be determined according to the needs and wants of the employees. Time needs to be taken to design the right type of training program.

Staff consultation and communication

Before setting any learning plan in motion it is important to make sure the staff is on board. Communication with them is of utmost importance (Luttman, 2010). The senior most people must be persuaded that training is a priority. The senior most people and the entire staff must be on board with the training plan, its cost and duration and milestones and deliverables of the plan. Commitment from the employees for whom the learning process is being made is also required. They must be talked to about the training program and made to understand why it is necessary for them. This shouldn’t be a problem at employees today are far more adventurous and are constantly seeking new ways to learn more skills.

Problem identification and resolution

After consulting with the staff and the employees the problems will come out. It is important to remember that problems can crop up overnight and one needs to be patient when they do. Training someone should be thought of as a long term investment and results may not be immediately obvious in front our eyes. But patience is required to reap the benefits of such a process. The problems must be identified and their solutions provided.

Record keeping process

Records of the improvement and growth of the employees can be kept through the data collected from surveys and interviews. These results must be continuously assessed in order to track the growth and development of the employees in question.

Balance of both work based and structured learning

Work based learning can be provided by using the on the job training program by which the learners will learn by handling real time situations in a work environment and continuous assessment and help will be provided by seniors. There will be seasoned mentors and coaches available. This will also be cost effective.

But apart from that for structured learning private trainers may be hired formal seminars and conferences held. These processes are often very effective in helping the fresh employees learn.

Implementation process

The learning strategies can be implemented by one on one session as well as by group sessions; e-learning strategies can be implemented as well as personal instructors can be hired to mentor the employees, Onsite training as well as off site training can be done. All these decisions can be taken according what resources are available, what best suits the needs and wants of the employees and according to the availability of the budget.

Ongoing evaluations

The impact of the training needs to be assessed. Performance of the employees before and after the implementation of learning strategies needs to be assessed in order to track growth and development. Simultaneously surveys and interviews are to be conducted while the learning strategies are going on and the data collected can be used to identify if the learning strategies implemented are actually helping.

The importance of maintaining an effective learning environment within an organization

Gorelick et al. 2010) said that maintaining an effective learning environment within an organization is very important. Without a learning environment the employees and the higher management as well will be stagnant and now new developments will take place. New things need to be constantly introduced in order to motivate the employees; this will also act as an incentive for better work.  Without a proper learning environment the workplace will fall apart. Older as well as younger employees need to constantly keep learning something new. Simultaneously, if the employees are not willing enough and the organization of the company is not up to the mark, then the learning strategies will also not work. Thus an amalgamation of good organization and good learning strategies and willing employees need to be had. It is not difficult to find these things in a creative environment as a production house.

 

 Assessment 4:

1. Coaching and Mentoring and the difference between the two

Brockbank and McGill (2010) said that both coaches and mentors help both corporate and individuals to achieve their full prospective. They are both paid and unpaid. People who are paid do it professionally and people who don’t take payment do it philanthropically.

Coaching is oriented in task; the focus is usually on tangible issues whereas mentoring is more relationship oriented. The mentor provides more emotional support than anything else. Coaching is a short term job whereas mentoring is a long term job. Coaching is driven by performance whereas mentoring is driven by development of the individual or the group (Parsloe and Leedham, 2010).

2. The benefits of having both coaching and mentoring in an organization

Parsloe and Leedham (2010) said that Coaching and mentoring can be vastly beneficial for individuals, small organizations or big companies. Coaching and mentoring lead to connection, learning and growth. These processes help in settling in of employees and help them to learn the job quickly. This also increases loyalty towards the company the person is working for. These processes also help in cutting costs as it is a part of the on the job learning process.

3. 4 different staff motivation techniques to assist in staff development

First of all the interests of the employees must be kept in mind and opportunities must be given to them to follow these interests.

Secondly, sometimes authority must be given to the employees to make them feel more important.

Thirdly, if someone achieves their goals, it is nice to give them recognition for it. This will motivate them further.

Fourthly, motivation should be personalized. It is best to ask the employees themselves what motivates them and then make sure that these things are delivered.

 4. Importance of feedback forms when evaluating skill development

Feedback forms are a very good way of finding out the gap between skills that a person already has and skills they need to acquire. Feedback forms must have appropriate questions in order for the answers to be available for a skill gap analysis. Only from this data collected can skill development be done. First it is essential to understand where the skill gap is, and then development needs to happen on the specific area.

5. Identification of learning and development needs within an organization

Once the skill gap has been identified, teaching about these skills in order to acquire them is necessary, this is where learning and development comes into play. Then the training programs need to be devised so that they can be delivered. Accordingly leaders need to be ordained.

6. 4 different learning delivery methods and their benefits

First of all there is the lecture method. Professional lecturers can be hired to come in and lecture on the areas where there is a skill gap.

Next is the discussion method. Personal discussions and group discussions can be held in order to cover the areas where there is a skill gap.

E-learning is another effective method when it comes to learning delivery methods. This also saves time and money of the organization.

Lastly there are simulations. There can be equipment simulators, business strategy games role plays in this method.

7. Benefits of goal setting and application of this process

Kanfer (2010) opined that Benefits of goal setting include a clearer focus, a thought out process of what one desires to achieve and then set out to achieve it. Goal setting also leads to use of resources available to the optimum level. It is an effective use of the time available and also leads to peace of mind. It helps in doing activities that leads to achievement of goals set.

As for application of this process, first a goal needs to be set, and then the time in which the goal is to be completed is to be set. Activities that lead to achievement of goals must be assigned and constant motivation must be provided.

8. Principles and techniques involved in performance measurement

First of all the performance of the organization must be gauged and it is to be seen if the organization is moving in the right direction according to its vision.

Secondly there must be a balance of measurement. This must include both financial and performance aspects.

In the measures taken there must be a mix of outcome data and process data which has been taken over time.

The measures taken must be described in a language that is not filled with jargon so that everyone can understand what is being said.

9. Honey and Mumford

Activist: Activists are people who learn something by doing it. Activists are not afraid of getting their hands dirty or to plunge into any given situation. They have to have an open minded approach to everything and immerse themselves fully in new experiences (Penger and Tekavc, 2010).

Pragmatist: Scharg (2013) commented that these people need to learn and then put whatever is learnt into practise in the real world. Simulations and games are of minimal use if they can’t find a way of implementing whatever is learnt from these into real life. These people are experimenters, constantly trying out new ideas and theories and seeing if they work in real life.

Reflector: These people learn by reflecting on what happened. They avoid being involved in anything and prefer watching from the sidelines. They collect data about the situation from various angles and then work towards a proper conclusion (Stuart, 2010).

Theorist: Stuart (2010) opined that these people look for the theory behind every action. They need facts, concepts and models in order to understand what happened. They prefer to draw every action into a new theory.

10. Learning Styles

Auditory: Reid (2010) commented that auditory learning style means the person learns through listening. The most important components here are speaking and listening. The auditory learner needs to be able to hear what is being said in order to learn.

Visual: Visual learning style denotes that a person learns by visuals, or by reading and understanding information. Different styles of representation like charts, tables etc are useful to a person using this technique (Reiff, 2010).

Kinaesthetic: Mumford and Honey (2010) commented that Kinaesthetic learners are do-ers. They prefer to understand something by doing it rather than by listening to a lecture or by reading a book. They make up for roughly 5% of the world’s population.

11. Principles

Equal Opportunity: Equal opportunity means that people should be treated equally without any prejudices or made up barriers or personal preferences except for when particular distinctions are required. Selection must be made based on qualification of a person and nothing else. There should be no arbitrariness in the selection process. Well connected relations must not come into the picture and selection must be made based on the person’s own efforts (Mithaug, 2010).

Ethical Principles: Blahut (2010) said that the ethical principles of a production house are based on integrity, honesty and quality. Equipments that cause health hazards should not be used. Locations must be selected according to safety and the environment of the place. People should be paid fairly according to the amount of jobs they do and promotions should be given accordingly. Under age people should not be employed and even if employed they must be treated fairly.

Codes of Practice: Code of practice is a voluntary process but it must incorporate adhering by statutory obligations of all those involved in filming. The A to Z guidelines of filming must be understood and applied. Certain signatories outline principles of practice, these must be followed (Blanchard et al. 2010).

Privacy laws of Victoria: Hughes et al. (2010) opined that Privacy laws of Victoria dictate that any person has the natural right to protect their personal lives from being invaded into and they can also control where their private information goes. However this right is not a fixed right. It differs according to the context of the situation given. It is also affected by the common law of Australia, also the commonwealth laws, the state laws, territorial laws and arrangements of the administration.

Occupational health and safety: In Victoria, occupational health and safety is governed by certain regulations and laws and codes of compliance which line out responsibilities of workers and employers to make sure that safety is paramount at the work place. This helps avoid injuries in the workplace, provides employees with reasonable amount of insurance and helps workers who were injured back into the place of work (Murphy, 2014).

Employer rights and responsibilities: (Feldman and Klaas (2010) opined that Employers must provide and also maintain the equipment and make sure it is safe to work on. There must be restrictions regarding entering into hazardous zones and proper infrastructure must be in place so that workers do not fall from heights. There must be arrangement of safe handling of dangerous chemicals. Adequate facilities such as clean drinking water, clean toilets etc must be provided. Automatically the employer also has some rights. He can discharge workers if they do not comply with the rules and regulations. He can choose to not give promotions if the workers have not been working to their maximum potential etc.

Anti discrimination and detailed explanation of four different relevant legislations

Langwith (2010) said that Anti discrimination dictates that no one shall be treated differently based on a personal characteristic that is protected under the law. No one shall be bullied because of the same. Victoria’s law on anti discrimination laws say that protects people from harassment and discrimination in public life areas such as the school, the workplace etc.

First of all there is the age discrimination act of 2004 which says that people are not to be discriminated against in workplaces or schools based on their age.

Then there is the disability discrimination act of 1992 which says that people are to be discriminated against because of their disabilities in workplaces or schools or any other areas of public life.

After that there is the racial discrimination act of 1975 which says that people are not to be discriminated against because of their race or colour.

And finally there is the sex discrimination act of 1984 which says that no one is to be discriminated against because of their gender and there shall be eradication of sexual harassment in workplaces.

12. Group behaviour Theory

Social Identity: Social identity theory is a theory that foretells certain behaviours within groups on the basis of group status differences that are perceived, the stability and legitimacy that has been perceived of these groups’ differences and the ability that is perceived to remain mobile between the two groups. This is a contrast from when social identity is used to refer to the person’s social self (Zahavi, 2010).

13. Leadership Styles

Authoritarian (Autocratic): (Kippenberger (2010) opined that the authoritarian leadership style entails that the person keeps a close control over everything, from employees to rules and regulations. They believe in direct supervision. They do these in the fear that employees will rise up in rebellion against them. The vision of the leader and the vision of the employees may not be the same in this respect.

Delegative (free reign): This type of leadership is also known laissez-faire leadership style. Here all the power of making decisions is given to the worker. This is also known as the hands off leadership style because the delegator gives all the power of decision making to the workers and gives them no direction at all (Lewis, 2010).

Participative (Democratic): Goleman (2010) commented that in the participative or democratic leadership style the employer shares all decision making with the employees, thinking of the good of the group. This is why this is more popularly known as the democratic style of leadership.

14. Step by step process on how to deal with complaints

First of all the customer care department should register the complaint by listening to the customer patiently.

Next, the complain made should be given due priority and passed on to the management.

The management must then take the necessary steps of rectifying the issue.

The customer should be made aware that their complaint has been dealt with.

15. Customer complaints are important because:

Customer complaints are important because they help identify the loopholes of a company, where the company is falling short on delivering certain things to their customers. Listening and giving due regard to customer complaints can make a company further improve itself.

16. 4 common reasons for why customers are difficult

First of all if the company is the sole provider of a certain commodity in town, they often become arrogant. The customers will not like this treatment and will be difficult in turn.

Secondly customers may feel they are being charged too much for something and they want cost effectiveness, hence they will complain and be difficult.

Perhaps the company is not listening to what the customers have to say. Hence the customer will be difficult.

Lastly, customers can be difficult because of the negative attitude of the salesperson. Maybe the conversation started out wrong and the seller is only focusing on what can’t be done instead of what can be done.

 

 

 

Reference List

Books

Blahut, R. (2010). Theory and practice of error control codes. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.

Blanchard, K., Zigarmi, P. and Zigarmi, D. (2010). Leadership and the one minute manager. New York: Morrow.

Brockbank, A. and McGill, I. (2010). Facilitating reflective learning through mentoring & coaching. London: Kogan Page.

Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R. and McKee, A. (2010). Primal leadership. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press.

Gorelick, C., Milton, N. and April, K. (2010). Performance through learning. Amsterdam: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.

Hsiao, C. (2010). Identification. Toronto: Institute for Policy Analysis, University of Toronto.

Kippenberger, T. (2010). Leadership styles. Oxford, U.K.: Capstone Pub.

Langwith, J. (2010). Discrimination. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.

Lewis, A. (2010). Leadership styles. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators.

Mithaug, D. (2010). Equal opportunity theory. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Murphy, J. (2014). Community-Based Interventions. Dordrecht: Springer.

O’Carroll, E. (2012). Train the Trainer. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan.

Parsloe, E. and Leedham, M. (2010). Coaching and mentoring. London: Kogan Page.

Penger, S. and Tekavc, M. (2010). Testing Dunn & Dunn’s and Honey & Mumford’s learning style theories.

Pritchard, A. (2010). Ways of learning. London: David Fulton.

Reid, G. (2010). Learning styles and inclusion. London: Paul Chapman Pub.

Reiff, J. (2010). Learning styles. Washington, D.C.: NEA Professional Library, National Education Association.

Journals

 

Feldman, D. and Klaas, B. (2010). “Temporary workers: Employee rights and employer responsibilities,” Employ Respons Rights J, 9(1), pp.1-21.

Hughes, G., Dawson, S. and Brookes, T. (2010). “Considering New Privacy Laws in Australia,” IEEE Security & Privacy Magazine, 6(3), pp.57-59.

Kanfer, R. (2010). “It’s a goal, goal, goal setting world,”  PsycCRITIQUES, 36(10).

Luttman, P. (2010). “Knowledge, skill checklist,” AORN Journal, 19(6), pp.1355-1360.

Mumford, A. and Honey, P. (2010). “QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON LEARNING STYLES QUESTIONNAIRE,” Industrial and Commercial Training, 24(7).

Scharg, T. (2013). Deriving Deligne“Mumford stacks with perfect obstruction theories” Geom. Topol., 17(1), pp.73-92.

Stuart, R. (2010). “Book Reviews : The Manual of Learning Opportunities Peter Honey and Alan Mumford: Peter Honey,” (Maidenhead) 1989. Ringbound. ISBN 0 9508444 4 6  70.00. Management Learning, 21(2), pp.156-157.

Zahavi, A. (2010). “Indirect selection and individual selection in sociobiology: my personal views on theories of social behavior,” Animal Behaviour, 65(5), pp.859-863.

 

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ENSURE A SAFE WORKPLACE: A COMPETENCY ASSESSMENT-ANSWER

ENSURE A SAFE WORKPLACE: A COMPETENCY ASSESSMENT

 

Table of Contents

Introduction:- 3

Assessment 1:- 3

Workplace health and safety practices in social and health care organisation:- 3

Assessment 2:- 6

Detailed induction session plan for new employees:- 6

Assessment 3:- 9

Job safety analysis:- 9

Assessment 4:- 12

Policy statement of workplace health and safety (WHS):- 12

Assessment 5:- 15

Conclusion:- 20

Reference list:- 21

Introduction:-

Providing a safe and secure environment to employee at workplace is the key of success of any organisation. There are so many practices and planning has been done under workplace healthy and safety (WHS) by the organisation in order to provide safety to all stakeholders of the organisation. Duffy (2013) is noted that workplace healthy and safety (WHS) is one of the best and effective way to retain employee and others stakeholders with the organisation. Employee tends to engage with organisation where they feel safe and secure about their life in very comprehensive way.

Workplace healthy and safety (WHS) is best defined as the part of disciple which is mainly connected with healthy and safety of all stakeholders in workplace of the organisation from exposure to hazard and resulting in risk factors from the activities performed at workplace. It is really helpful for the organisation to avoid unnecessary costs and damages to the business caused by the injuries and illness in workplace.

Assessment 1:-

Workplace health and safety practices in social and health care organisation:-

In the current market situation, there are so many organisations that deal its business in local and global market generally tries to provide safe and healthy work environment so that employee can perform their work with best of their knowledge and skills for achieving goal and objectives of the organisation. Hughes and Ferrett (2011) opined that workplace healthy and safety (WHS) is really a one of the most effective tool for engaging employee and other stakeholders with the organisation. It not only provides safe and safety environment to employee at workplace but also increase the brand value and brand image of the organisation in global market.

However, WHS is required for all small and large sized enterprises in market, but in social and health care organisation, the importance of the WHS is immense. There are so many issues and problems that the employee and others stakeholders generally faced in social and health care organisation regarding safety life and healthy environment. However, it is noted that risk level in healthy and safety of stakeholders at workplace varies depending upon the nature of the business in market (Hughes and Ferrett, 2013). Apart from that it is also noted that workplace healthy and safety is considered as one of the good business in global market.  It creates a sense of loyalty and caring to the stakeholders of the organisation. In social and health care organisation, of the employees along with patients are served with great care and respect by the management of the organisation, then it is natural that stakeholders tend to feel good and loyal to the organisation.

The effective code of conducts under the workplace healthy and safety (WHS) also helps to build good relationship with employee and stakeholders in organisation. Employees get satisfied and feel that organisation always there for the safety and betterment of life at workplace (Johnstone et al. 2012). It is also a kinds of norms that organisation should have to do in order to create a good picture to stakeholders. Work Health Amendment Act 2007, Workplace Health and Safety Act 1995 and Occupational Health and Safety Act 1984 are the major practices that most of the organisation along with social and health care organisation do in order to protect the stakeholders from the harms at workplace.

There are so many duty and responsibility of employers in order to provide better health and care to employees. Price (2011) is noted that staffs of the health and safety should be highly qualified and well trained in order to figure out the issues and problems of employee and others stakeholders and give right suggestions. The employers are also responsible for maintaining the adequately records about the health and safety for the stakeholders and employees in organisation. On the other hand, employee also bears some of the responsibilities in which they have to corporate with their employers in their attempt to manage risk and hazards and do not interfere with or misuse safety equipment or any others machinery.

It is also noted that ‘Duty of Care’ is the major part under the practices of workplace healthy and safety (WHS). It is also seen that there are some areas which is still to enhance in organisation in order to provide better safety and care to employee and others stakeholders at workplace. Sargeant and Giovannone (2011) stated that training and development program must be there for the staffs of the health and safety in organisation. It is something that enhance the skills and talents of staffs to great extent and that leads in resolving the issues of the employee and others. Follows (2012) also opined that in the social and health care organisation, health and safety staffs must be trained and skilled in order to deal with the patients and make a better communication with them for the right understanding of their issues and problems.

In social and health care organisation, Health and Safety Act 1995 and Protection and Cure code of conducts is generally practices in organisation. Ostendorf (2013) noted that these two code of conducts are mainly concerned care and safety services provided to employee and clients at works. Patients should be treated by the highly qualified staffs with great respect and dignity and employee are provided better equipment for making right care to patients(Wachs, 2012). For the safety and health care for the employee at workplace, the organisation mainly follows Occupational Health and Safety Act 1984 under which they are provided various kinds of services that prevent them from the harms and injuries caused at workplace in organisation.

Averill (2013) commented that organisation also adopted various kinds of strategies in providing better safety and care service at workplace to employee in order to engage the employee with the organisation and increase the productivity of organisation in market. Berrie (2012) argued that there are so many issues and problems faced in health and social care organisation in providing better safety to employee. Social and cultural different in employee is the major issues that the organisation faced in order to provide better services to employees. The practice of WHS provided by the organisation in health and social care is generally based on the social and religious beliefs of all stakeholders in organisation.

 

 

Assessment 2:-

Detailed induction session plan for new employees:-

The primary aim of the induction session is to help new employees in organisation to adjust as soon as possible in working environment within the short period of time in order to increase the efficiency of the employee at work place. (Boussena and Locatelli, 2013) commented that induction is not the process of one day or two day, it is the process of that should take minimum two or three weeks. The employee must be trained at different level of works as per the goal and objectives of the organisation.

In social and health care organisation, the process of induction for the new employees must be carried out with great care and skills. As it has been discussed that the primary role of the staffs of the health and social care organisation is to understand the issues and problems of the patients and make a better suggestion for the right treatment (Davies, 2012). There are so many planning and actions required to do for the induction process of the new employees. There some good practice guidelines that must be implemented for the news employees in health and social care organisation.

Session-1
How effective is the WHS inductions session for new employeesWorkplace healthy and safety (WHS) is very effective for the new employees in organisation. The managers and top management of the organisation have to provide most compressive forms of information and ideas about the policies and procedure implemented by the organisation in WHS.

Workplace healthy and safety policies provided by the organisation creates a good picture of the organisation to the mind of employees and others stakeholders.

Different activities in the process of induction session for new employeesIn the process of induction for the new employees, organisation can adopt the policy of not giving overloading pressure of works to employees. The intensive information and ideas given to employees will be effective.
Session-2
How effective is the WHS inductions session for new employeesIn the induction process, providing the information and ideas about the standard and safety policies and procedure and report unsafe conditional and hazards caused at work to management is pretty much effective. New employee must be known to support one another to enable a safer working environment is one of the effective process of induction.
Different activities in the process of induction session for new employeesThe management of the organisation can explain the purpose and knowing each and every piece of information about the works and the goal and objectives of the set by the organisation. The manager must show the employee how to do the job safety at workplace.
Session-3
How effective is the WHS inductions session for new employeesProviding more and more knowledge about workplace health and safety policies and procedure to employee is helpful in emergency situation. It is also pretty much effective in taking care of themselves in injuries and harms caused at workplace.
Different activities in the process of induction session for new employeesThe organisation must have a committee for health and safety and regular meeting must be held in order to discuss about the issues in health and safety. It is noted that people have different kinds of learning style. There are some people who can easily get the fact through written material and on the other hand there is someone for whom discussion over the subject is must for the clear understanding.

Recommendation for improvement in WHS:-

There are so many improvements are required in the induction process for the new employees in social and health care organisation.

Job information:- The new employees must be provided the whole accounts of their duties and responsibilities of the post. Line of reporting and supervision must be clear to them. How the patients should be treated and what kinds of equipment are needed for the right treatment must known to them.

Actions points prior to new employees:- The management of organisation must ensure that employees know the time and place of arrival on the first day. The employees are also made them know that there is someone around them to welcome. The management of the organisation must organise a meeting to introduce them with others employees in organisation. New employee must be given a list of workplace health and safety codes of conducts and procedures.

Assessment 3:-

Job safety analysis:-

Isaksen and Karlsen (2011) opined that job safety analysis (JSA) is the set of actions and procedure taken by the employees while performing safety job at work place. It is also defined as the procedure helping integrated safety and health principle along with practices into particular jobs. Under the procedure of the JSA, each and every steps of the task is to identify potential hazards and to give suitable recommendation for the safety way to accomplish the work. Naidoo (2013) argued that most of the research is mainly based on the methodology that depicted the ideas that safety is an integral part of each and every job and not separate entity.

Figure 1: Four basic steps of JSA

(Source:  Palcic and Reeves, 2010, pp-36)

Document the activities:- Sarensen et al. (2013) opined that all jobs are mainly subjected to a job safety analysis. It is noted that there are some job in practical where risk factors lies to great extent. One of the considerable facts is that JSA must be revised whenever equipment, raw material, processes and environment change take place. For some particular reasons, it is essential to figure out that which kinds of job should be analysed. The analysis of the jobs is planned as per the nature of the works. There are some major factors which are mainly considered in analysing the jobs:-

  • The frequency and severity of accidents:-
  • Potential for severe illness or injuries:-
  • New organised jobs:-
  • Job with modified nature

Identification of potential hazards:- After the job has been broken down with specific steps, the potential hazards must be figure out of the each steps in the analysing process. Wachs (2012) argued that identification of potential hazards in JSA is not easy process, it required to be asked some more specific questions based on the nature of the jobs, knowledge of accidents, causes of injuries and personal experiences. There are some specific questions that the job analyst mainly uses that are as below:-

  • Can any body part get caught in or between objects?
  • Can the employee make harmful contact with moving objects?
  • Can the employees suffer stain from lifting, pulling and pushing?
  • Is there lighting a problem to employees?
  • Is the employee slip, trip or fail?

Document the control measures:- Ostendorf (2013) commented that the determining preventive measures is the final stage of the job safety analysis. It mainly determines a way to control and eliminate indentified potential hazards in steps. There are different kinds of measures used to eliminate and control hazards which are as below:-

  • Eliminate the hazards
  • Contain the hazards
  • Revise work procedures
  • Reduce the exposure

Identification of who is responsible: – Once the job is selected for the analysis, next step is to break the job into steps. Wettenhall and Thynne (2010) commented that jobs steps are mainly described as a segment of the operation essential to advocate the work.  Each and every steps of the job required pretty much good attention. If the any specific step is missed then the associated hazard related to the steps will not helped properly. Apart from that Palcic and Reeves (2010) stated that if the there is ample of details about the jobs then there will be so many steps in job analysing. If the more steps are needed for proper JSA, then the process of job analysing will be divided into two successive segments. One of the most important facts that must be cared in analysing job safety is that that each and every step should be kept in proper sequence, any step that is out of order can be subjected to miss serious potential hazards or introduce hazards that don’t exist. It is also noted that each and every items should be stated with the actions verbs (Davies, 2012).

Eliminate the hazard is one of the most effective measure that are mainly used in JSA. There are many techniques used for eliminating the hazards named, choosing a different process, modifications of exiting process, substitute with less hazards substances, environment improvement and modification in tool or equipments.

Sequence of eventsPotential accidents or hazardsPreventing measures
Park vehiclesA vehicle must be parked very close to passing traffic.

It may be possible that vehicle may roll.

Individual has to drive the vehicle to area well clear of the traffic and follow the emergence flashers.
Remove spare and tool kitStrain from lifting spareAn individual has to turn the spare into upright position in the wheel well.

Assessment 4:-

Policy statement of workplace health and safety (WHS):-

There are so many policies under the workplace health and safety of the organisation have been performed by the management in order to provide better safety to employee at workplace and prevent them from the harms and others injuries caused by the activities  of the jobs and works. The major policies of the workplace health and safety:-

  • Shows the commitment of the management of the organisation and workers to health and safety
  • Aims to remove or reduce the risk factors and others harmful factors to the health, safety and welfare of all workers and anyone who is more or less affected from the activities of operation of the organisation
  • Aims to ensure all works and others activities related to jobs done safely in organisation

Policies and procedure for work cover: – Accident Compensation Act 1985 is formed for the work cover in workplace healthy and safety (WHS) in organisation for the employees. The employees are given extra compensation from the organisation if the any accidents occurred with the employees at any place or at any time.

Policies and procedure for manual handling:- Victorian Code of Practices for Manual Handing 2000, Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004 and Safe Work Procedure are made for the employee in order to provide better safety and care at workplace. These policies and procedure are helpful in reducing the risk factors at workplace in life also.

Policies and procedure for emergency procedure:- The organisation mainly organised Emergency Control Organisation (ECO) in workplace for the better healthy safety to employees. Each and every workplace at organisation is required to have fully implemented emergency procedure.

Policies and procedure for fire safety: Fire Safety Order, Health and Safety Policy are made for keeping employee safe at work place. It is noted that fire safety procedure will be carried out 4 times in a years and a record will be kept on the date and time taken to evacuate the building. The extra training and development program is also provided to the staffs of fire safety department such as fire marshal (Ostendorf, 2013).

Policies and procedure for WHS representative function:- Health & Safety representative or Deputy Health & Safety representative is an employee’s representative who has been mainly elected by the members of DWG to represents their health and safety interest in organisation for 3 years.

Policies and procedure for smoking policy:- For the betterment of the employees and others stakeholders of the organisation, Smokefree Air Act 2008 has been formed where employee are given smoke free environment at workplace. The primary aim of this policy is to reduce the level of the exposure by the employee or general to environmental tobacco smoke for the betterment of employee health and safety (Hughes and Ferrett, 2013).

Sexual policy:- The organisation adopts different kinds of policy and procedure in order to protect employee from the sexual harassment at workplace. The policy of giving equality might be the good options for the majority of people in organisation. Employees’ Right and Responsibilities policy is adopted for protecting the employees at work place from the sexual harassment (Hughes and Ferrett, 2011).

Policies and procedure for risk management: – It is noted that the principle of risk management is mainly applied to the areas of risk exposure, insurable and non-insurable. For the reduce the risk factors in workplace, the organisation follow the Health and Safety Act 2004 in order to provide better services and facilities to employee at workplace.

Allow for the induction:-

It is noted that induction is the process of the giving relevant forms of information and ideas to employees and make them understand about the role and responsibilities of the post and goal and objectives of the organisation. It is also noted that induction for the new employees in organisation is needed for the betterment of the organisation (Sargeant and Giovannone, M. (2011). The management of the organisation should have to make aware of health and safety procedures at work and how to handle the work with great care.

Detail dissemination and implementation:-

The implementation of the policy and procedure adopted that the organisation in order to provide health and safety to employees effectively. In organisation, the effective policy and procedure make the employees feel that the organisation do care about the needs of the employees and their life. Safety in life is one of the most consideration facts that the organisation care under the section of workplace health and safety service.

Process of hazards identification-

The process of identification mainly depends upon the steps of the broken jobs. It is noted that each and every steps of the jobs depends upon the nature of the jobs. The organisation mainly identifies the jobs as per the nature of the jobs and issues of the jobs. Issues and problems faced by the employees in organisation for health and safety.

Identification of occupational injuries and disease:-

The organisation mainly identifies the issues and diseases by monitoring the each and every day activities of the employees and the harmful things caused activities at workplace. Health is the major issues that employees faced at workplace. Metal stress is the common factors that the most of the employees faced at workplace while they are working in organisation. However, organisation organises so many means of entertainment program for the refreshment of the employees(Duffy, 2013).

Company aliment with provided services:-

There are 25 employees have been recruited in Nandu’s company that consist of 13 female employees and 12 males employees. The company has recently launched its customers care service considering the facts of health and safety policy. The services that the company provides to its customers generally focused on complete satisfaction of the customers.

 

 

Assessment 5:-

  1. Code of practices and its effects on role of managers:-

Code of practices is manly defined as set of actions and activities taken by the organisation for the employee at workplace should be legal and meet to the right means of judgement. The right code of practices means each and every employee of the organisation will be treated on equally basis. It has major impacts on the role of managers. The managers have to follow code of practices in order to manage people in organisation effectively. The right means of code of practices adopted by the manager make good relationship with employee at workplace.

  1. Advisory standard and its effects on role of managers:-

Advisory standard is best defined as the capacity of giving right opinion and judgement over the some particular issues and problems faced by the employee at workplace. It is really important in workplace health and safety (WHS). The managers must be skilled and highly qualified in order to provide better judgement to employee over the issues and problems in workplace regarding health safety.

  1. Actions taken for making employees understand with different culture about WHS

The organisation has to development communication skills in order to interact with the employee with different culture at workplace. The organisation can make employees known about the WHS by placing proper interaction with employee at workplace,

  1. Three different way of alert the people to potential hazards and risks in workplace
  • Make a better communication with employees who are or will be performing any jobs to identify all hazards and select the proper way to reduce the risk factors
  • Make sure that organisation is aware of any high risk activities; work with new machinery before they happen at workplace.
  • Figure out the hazards associated with tasks that the management supervise and have risk control in place before work starts.
  1. Detailed descriptions of the measures and evaluation of WHS

It is noted that workplace health and safety policy is one of the best way to engage the employees with organisation and increase the brand value in global market. How the works should be started and how to complete safely is the process of the WHS. The management of the organisation needs to provide all information related to workplace health and safety in organisation. The evaluation of WHS can be made for providing better service and facilities in health safety at workplace.

  1. Implemented strategies to interest of people in WHS legislation

However, Health and Safety Act 2004 provided by the organisation in workplace is effective way to engage people in organisation, the organisation can also focus on the personal development of the employees in organisation. The organisation has to development a committee for the health development of the employees and how to handle the work under pressure.

  1. Strategy used for participative arrangement and maintained with employees in organisation

It is noted that in order to fulfil the duty of care, the organisation must have an idea about how to participate in workplace health and safety. The organisation can adopt the strategies like reviewing policies and procedure, critical incidents debriefing and taking up a formal role and responsibilities in WHS arrangement.

  1. Issue raised in participative arrangement and consultants are dealt with resolved promptly

Social and cultural different are the majors issues that the organisation faced in participating arrangement in organisation at workplace within employees. Apart from that the proper analysing the job types and what are the steps are needed for the analysing jobs are the also issues for the organisation.

  1. Detail of intervention point for expert WHS advice

Intervention point of expert provides better opinions and suggestions for the raised issues and problems faced by the employees at workplace in organisation. It also includes the set of actions and planning required for the training and development of for the employees.

  1. WHS hierarchy control

The primary and goal and objectives of the hierarchy control of WHS is to create a comprehensive and systematic approaches for the safety and care of the employees at workplace. The process is also carried out the under various code of practices and procedures for the betterment of employees at workplace in organisation.

  1. ( A) duty of care components

In the case, the worker has to focus on the quality of works in order to make them loyal to the organisation. Apart from that the worker has to repair considering the risk factors that raised form the works. The analysing of jobs and taken steps as per knowing the potential hazards must be proper and compressive. The main duty of care is concerned with the health issue that mainly faced while repairing the objectives.

  1. (B) Judgement of duty of care:-

The duty of care is really applicable in the process of repairing the products in the case study. The process of analysing the works as per the knowing the potential hazards are really the matter of great considerable.  Duty of care must be performed for the health safety of worker at work.

  1. (C) Repercussion of accidents under WHS legislation

The misunderstand of the job analysing and missing the proper steps for the breaking down the jobs is the primary reason for the accidents happened in the case study. The workers can easily go through the situation by consideration some rule and regulations of the traffics.

11 (D Foreseeable accidents

Yes, the accident is foreseeable. The worker can easily prevent the happening accidents through the means of right judgement over the jobs. The worker actually failed to figure the potential hazards in the various steps of the works and that lead to accident occurred.

11 (E) Actions to prevent the accidents

Performing the task or jobs with care and follow the code of practices of workplace health and safety is the best way to prevent accidents at work. The worker can also prevent the accident by analysing the jobs in best proper way.

12 (A) Its likely to happen or not

The accident is more likely to happen. It is noted that workers has ignored the role of conducts and practices that require for the job analysis and figure out the risk factors in organisation. The evaluation of jobs could not be analysed properly that why accident occurred.

12 (B) List of Hazards evident in situations

The primary hazards that found in the situation is that workers did not follow the required steps for the jobs and that leads to the emergence of the issues in WHS.

12 (C) Rate in term of risks

The rate of risk in the situation is very high. The intensity of the risk factors in situation can be measured the potential hazards in steps for the jobs analysis.

12 (D) behaviours and problems contributing to potential accidents

The behaviours and problems are the primary things that play a major role in evaluating the rate of intensity of the works at work place.

12 (E) How could be addressed these situation

The primary way to address the situation is the identification of the potential hazards in the taken steps for the jobs analysing.

12 (F) Personal holds the duty of care

Duty of care is about the how the worker did the works safely at workplace and how they save their life while repairing the products at the same time.

12 (G) Action of employees taken

An employee can take the actions as per the knowing the situation at workplace. Health and safety care is the primary factors that provided by the organisation. The employee can report these issues to the senior managers of the organisation.

  1. Role of employers in WHS

The primary role of employers is to provide better health and safety environment to employee at workplace ensuring that they all know about the role and responsibility of the post as per the goal and responsibilities of the organisation.

14 Cost associated with training to employees

The organisation really bears amount of the money in order to develop training and development program for the employees for skills and talents development.

  1. Five different potential safety hazards

The five potential safety hazards are like doing the work with care, evaluating the risk factors, corporation of employee with each others, following code of conducts at works and finding evolutions for the better judgement.

  1. Australia standards for emergency control

Australia standards mainly refer to the policy and procedure required for the workplace health and safety. It is about how the employee will analyse the work and compete it with great care without arising any risk factors.

  1. Vicarious liabilities of employees

It mainly refers to a situation where someone should be responsible for the actions and planning for the others in organisation. In the organisation, employees must be liable for the actions performed by the others employees.

18 Definition of defamation

The defamation is the actions of damaging the good reputation of the employees in organisation. It is really a part of the organisation that future leads to the betterment of the organisation.

19 Different between direct and indirect discrimination

Direct discriminations:- Direct discrimination is mainly made as per the skills and knowledge of the employees in organisation.

Indirect discrimination:- Indirect discrimination is made as per the age, gender, social and cultural life of the employee in organisation.

20 Definition of harassment

Harassment is mainly define as the unwanted conducts on the grounds of race, gender etc that has the purpose of violating the dignity of the employees in organisation.

21 Policy statement of manual handling

The policy of manual handling is to evaluating the risk factors at workplace by monitoring at different by the management and provides the better suggestions. Manual handling policy is mainly centred on health and safety of the employees at work.

 

22 Functions of WHS representative

The primary function of the WHS reprehensive is to evaluate the gaps and issues raised in organisation regarding the health and care and providing better and suitable recommendation for overcoming.

23 Victimisations and right of employee to it

The act of exploiting of employees physically and mentally in organisation at work is called victimisation and the employees reserve right to go against it legally. There are so many rules and regulations made against exploiting people.

24 Definition of sexual harassment

The sexual harassment in workplace is mainly defined as activities involving making of unwanted advanced or obscene remarks. It is noted that it is typically happed with female.

Conclusion:-

It has been seen that providing better work environment to employee is the best way to engage the employee with the organisation. Health and safety is required for the employee at workplace on organisation at different level.

Reference list:-

Books:-

Burke, R., Clarke, S. and Cooper, C. (2011). Occupational health and safety. Farnham, England: Gower

Duffy, V. (2013). Digital human modeling and applications in health, safety, ergonomics, and risk management. Berlin: Springer

Hughes, P. and Ferrett, E. (2011). Introduction to health and safety at work. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann

Hughes, P. and Ferrett, E. (2013). International health and safety at work. London: Routledge

Johnstone, R., Bluff, E., Clayton, A. and Johnstone, R. (2012). Work health and safety law and policy. Rozelle, N.S.W.: Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia

Price, R. (2011). Young people and work. Union Road, Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Pub.

Sargeant, M. and Giovannone, M. (2011). Vulnerable workers. Farnham: Gower.

Journal:-

Follows, J. (2012). Vaccine Adverse Events. Workplace Health & Safety, 60(1), pp.7-10.

Ostendorf, J. (2013). AAOHN Position Statements. Workplace Health & Safety, 61(7), pp.284-284

Rai, A., Singh, A., Singh, P. and Yadav, L. (2011). ChemInform Abstract: Stereoselective Cascade Reactions for Construction of Polyfunctionalized Octahydroquinolines via [2C + 2C + 1C,1N] Cyclization. ChemInform, 42(26), pp-25

Tetrahedron Letters, 52(12), pp.1354-1358.

Wachs, P. (2012). Negotiation Without Confrontation. Workplace Health & Safety, 60(6), pp.255-256

Averill, L. (2013). Book review: Gavin Bissell Organisational Behaviour for Social Work. Critical Social Policy, 33(3), pp.577-578

Berrie, T. (2012). Organisational evolution: New directions. Utilities Policy, 2(1), p.86.

Boussena, S. and Locatelli, C. (2013). Energy institutional and organisational changes in EU and Russia: Revisiting gas relations. Energy Policy, 55, pp.180-189

Davies, P. (2012). Defence intelligence in the UK after the Mountbatten reforms: Organisational and inter-organisational dilemmas of joint military intelligence. Public Policy and Administration, 28(2), pp.196-213

Gael A. (2010). Building blocks of organisational behaviour. Science and Public Policy, 37(4), pp.311-312

Isaksen, A. and Karlsen, J. (2011). Organisational Learning, Supportive Innovation Systems and Implications for Policy Formulation. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 2(4), pp.453-462

Naidoo, D. (2013). Reconciling organisational culture and external quality assurance in higher education. Higher Education Management and Policy, 24(2), pp.85-98

Palcic, D. and Reeves, E. (2010). Organisational status change and performance: The case of Irelandas national telecommunications operator. Telecommunications Policy, 34(5-6), pp.299-308

Sarensen, F., Sundbo, J. and Mattsson, J. (2013). Organisational conditions for service encounter-based innovation. Research Policy, 42(8), pp.1446-1456

Wettenhall, R. and Thynne, I. (2010). Ownership in the public sphere: the significance of community and organisational form. IJPP, 5(1), pp.5

 

 

 

 

 

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Management of Facility Management in Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital-Answer

Management of Facility Management in Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital

Table of Contents

  1. Summary: 2

2: Facility management in Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital 2

2.1 Transformational initiative. 2

2.2 Preventive measures. 3

2.3 Internal and external Customer services. 3

  1. Implementation of Facility management in GMC hospitals. 4

3.1 Transformational initiative. 4

3.2 Preventive measures. 4

3.3 Internal and external Customer services. 4

Reference List : 5

1.  Summary:

The Hong Kong special Administrative region outsourced the need of facility management in the clinical services which are by the means of hospitality services. There are some of the departments that help in the repairing of the structural defects of the organization. The electrical and Mechanical service department (EMSD) and the architectural service department (ASD) are the organisations that help in the repairing of the damaged buildings and scientific equipments. The heads of the repair and maintenance section in the hospitals are responsible for identification of some of the lacking in the internal and external environment. Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital under took an initiative to mend the transformational changes which revolves around topics like improving the communication system between the professionals and also with the patients. The rules and regulations of the organisation are customer centric which believes in  providing quality services in terms of clinical assistance, medication, housekeeping and infrastructural facilities. Preventive measures revolve around the damages caused to the floors of the hospital and its urgent report to the concerned authorities. Along with that the complain box will enhance the process of facility management which will be complimented with the training sessions of the professionals. GMC hospitals in UAE have been suggested to undergo the mentioned services to improve its present status in the society. The mission, vision and regulations of the hospital is assured to be improved with the introduction of ICT system, collaboration with the technical agencies and practicing the feedback policies.

2: Facility management in Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital

2.1 Transformational initiative

The management of Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital has started the facility management with a common belief of better customers service and satisfaction of internal customers. The people in the hospital started the transformational programme with the improved communication level with the hospitality professionals and the patients as well. Along with that the international practices for proliferates the services are another transformational activity of the hospital (Ha.org.hk, 2015).

Alexander (1994) stated that to practice the best services for the service users and the service providers there needs to be a good organisational structure to accommodate the internal and external customers. In this manner the rules and regulations of the hospital will be spread to the associates and there will be a practice of the centralized decision making process. Another suggestion suggests that there needs to be a balance between the internal and external environment. For this cause the strategic development procedure is followed which includes the updates of the external service uses, financial constraints, expected skills in the work place, cost efficiency of the resources (Chandler, 1962).

2.2 Preventive measures

As suggested by Brech (1957) there must be awareness about the facilities provided by the competitors. After the hospital got a review about the negligence appeared by public hospitals it appointed some of the professional to regularly check the conditions of the building. The areas included floors, electrical, toilets, ceilings and the entrance pathways. It also decided to contact the electrical and mechanical service development at the time of extensive care. The artisans appointed for this job were facilitated with tool box. With these steps the identification of the deficiencies became traceable and easily mended. The establishment of these practices has been a result of the buildup partnership with the Architectural Service department and Electrical and Mechanical service department. To omit the barriers of communication between the technical professionals and hospital professional, the organization appointed a contractor who works as a intermediate between the two entities (Gilleard et al. 2001). To ensure the quality management the relationship between them were build on the base of trust for the delivery of services treating the deficiencies properly.

2.3 Internal and external Customer services

The use of internal housekeeping has been undertaken by the hospital with the help of the Service Master to satisfy the professional and the service users. The problems like absenteeism and low work quality were resolved with the training and motivational activities. To satisfy the external customers the hospital enabled a system of feedback and complains (Do et al. 2009). Along with that the pest control system was introduced to produce customer friendly environment in the hospital. Along with the monitoring services beautification of the environment was also done (Wan Yeung KamaeShim, 1999).

3. Implementation of Facility management in GMC hospitals

3.1 Transformational initiative

The hospital follows the core values of its organisation which depends upon the excellence and ethics. The ethics are the practices emphasizing the dignity and respect for the service users. The communication levels between the service providers like the doctors, nurses and the house keepers need to be in direct contact with the service users. GMC group follows the concept of team work but it can be improvised with the integrated communication system through ICT (Mintzberg, 1979).      

3.2 Preventive measures

The patient safety and cost effective services is the mission of GMC hospitals. The research centre of the hospital can be equipped with new technological machines and latest learning. There can be a set up of a separate team for the maintaining the regular check on the infrastructure deficiencies that can be soon identified and at major cases can be shifted to the Electrical and Mechanical departments (Smith, 1995).  The partnership with the concerned bodies can be a plus point for the organisation as it will be supporting financially and ethically by giving professional suggestions for the betterment (Gmchospital.com, 2015).

3.3 Internal and external Customer services

To excel the services a continuous learning system need to be implemented in the organisation. The clinical practices that are clinically proved need to be brought into mind of the researchers in the research department. Proper training and incentives on performances can boost the process of quality service by the professionals. To satisfy the external customers a separate complain panel can be introduced in the floor of the hospital as well as online. Surveys can be a part of the facility management in which it would be able to gather dissatisfactory comments from the patients which can be resolved in future (Yik et al. 2012).

Reference List :

Books:

Brech, E. (1957). Organisation, the framework of management. London]: Longmans.

Chandler, A. (1962). Strategy and structure: chapters in the history of the industrial enterprise. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press.

Mintzberg, H. (1979). The structuring of organizations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Journals:

Alexander, K. (1994). “A Strategy for Facilities Management”. Facilities, 12(11), pp.6-10.

Do Carmo CacciaaeBava, M., Guimaraes, V. and Guimaraes, T. (2009). “Testing some major determinants for hospital innovation success”. International J Health Care QA, 22(5), pp.454-470.

Gilleard, J. and Wan Yeung Kamaeshim, M. (2001). “Putting the yin and yang into performance contracting”. Facilities, 19(5/6), pp.186-194.

Smith, D. (1995). “Changing roles and responsibilities in healthaecare facilities management”. Facilities, 13(1), pp.11-15.

Yik, F., Lai, J. and Yuen, P. (2012). “Impacts of facility service procurement methods on perceived performance of hospital engineering services”. Facilities, 30(1/2), pp.56-77.

Wan Yeung KamaeShim, M. (1999). “Managing change: facilities management at the Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital”. Facilities, 17(3/4), pp.86-90.

Websites:

Gmchospital.com, (2015). Corperate Objective-GMC Hospitals in UAE. [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Mar. 2015].

Ha.org.hk, (2015). Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital. [online] Available at: http://www.ha.org.hk/pyneh/internet/Eng/welcome_eng.html [Accessed 18 Mar. 2015].

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Harmonisation-Question

Now, I am going to present the topic about harmonization of accounting standards.

What is harmonisation?

Different countries have different accounting systems.

International harmonisation of accounting has been defined as the attempt to bring together different systems.

It is aimed at reducing differences in financial reporting processes around the world and creating a similar set of accounting procedures by setting limits on how much they can differ globally.

However, the goal is to achieve a level of compatibility in the way financial statements are prepared and presented.

If every organisation prepares its financial reports on their own ways, it is difficult for the users to make use of the financial reports.

So, harmonisation is trying to increase the quality of reporting in terms of transparency and comparability.

Reasons for harmonisation

Now, I want to discuss about the reasons for harmonisation.

Why we need harmonisation?

The pressure for harmonisation comes from different users of financial statements.

Investors need

First, we look at the investors’ point of views.

If you are investor, when you want to invest in a company, you first look at their financial reporting and determine the wealth of the company, right? So, investors need to understand the financial statements of foreign companies whose shares they wish to buy.

If they have different sets of accounting procedures, investors may not understand the information they obtained and also have problems in comparing the financial performance between companies, in making informed investment decisions, and in achieving a more efficient portfolio of investments.

So, that is why they need harmonisation.

Multinational companies

The second group of users is multinational companies. Nowadays, many companies seeking capital outside of their home markets and expand their business globally.

So, the multinational companies are not interested in dealing with a new set of accounting standards in each country they operate their business.

With uniformed accounting standards, their subsidiaries could use the same accounting systems, so it is easier for the company to consolidate subsidiaries accounts, to do meaningful comparison and performance appraisal among subsidiaries.

Besides, multinational companies are able to fulfil the requirements for stock exchanges around the world.

Developing countries

Next, is developing countries.

The government in developing countries will find it easier to understand and will be able to exercise more financial control over the multinational companies.

If financial reporting are uniformed, it will imply greater disclosure because, multinational companies would not be able to hide behind the accounting practices that are foreign to the developing countries.

International accountancy firms

After the accounting standards are harmonised, international accounting firms like Ernst & Young, PWC, they will also find it easier to transfer their staffs from one country to another.

And it will be less expensive for them to provide training to the staffs.

Harmonisation will also help them in developing the relationship between tax authorities and their clients when dealing with those tax works.

That is why they need the harmonisation of accounting standards.

Issues in harmonisation

In the following part, I would like to talk about the issues in harmonisation. What are the factors affect the harmonisation?

Providers of finance

The three main sources for external capital are shareholders, banks, and government, but it varies from country to country.

For example, in countries like Germany and Italy, bank is the one provide capital to company. In countries like UK and US, their capital is mainly from shareholders. And, in France, government is the provider of finance.

This diversity of capital providers means that accounting practices will be different in order to satisfy the needs of those providers. For example, companies with shareholders ownerships, their reports more towards true and fair view but for those companies banks or government are the owners, their accounting practices will be more conservative in order to protect their creditors.

Taxation

In addition, the nature of accounting regulations in a country is affected by the tax systems.

For example, in UK and US, tax law is independent from national accounting rules, so they prepare two sets of accounts, one for tax accounting purpose, and for public like investors.

In France and Germany, tax law dominates accounting rules and defines the method of recording business transactions which means the profit attribute to the shareholders is the same amount with taxable income. So, they only prepare one set of account.

Nationalism

Next issue is nationalism.

Countries may unwilling to set aside their accounting standards and replaced by others. Because, they may think that they are strong in accounting, and why they want to follow other people accounting standards.

And they may not wish to lose their sovereignty.

Besides, they don’t have the knowledge and interest in accounting elsewhere.

German GAAP VS IFRS

I choose Germany as an example to illustrate the similarities and differences with IFRS.

Similarities

For the similarities,

Financial assets

Under the recognition of financial assets, the treatment of German GAAP is similar to IFRS. IFRS requires an entity to recognise a financial asset when and only when the entity becomes a party to the contractual provisions of a financial instrument.

General provision

Under the provisions, when the present obligation from a past event exists, the obligation is probable and a reliable estimate can be made, companies need to recognise as a provision. Both German GAAP and IFRS have the same recognition criteria.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

German GAAP VS IFRS

Differences

Now, I move on to the differences between German GAAP and IFRS.

Development costs

First, I talk about the development costs. Under German GAAP, internally generate intangible assets including developments costs cannot be capitalised and should be treated as expenses, but under IFRS, it should be capitalised once they meet the criteria.

Special items

Special items like extraordinary expenses, extraordinary income occur more frequently under German GAAP but it is prohibited under IFRS.

Minority Interests

The difference between German GAAP and IFRS regarding the minority interests is only the classification on the balance sheet. Under German GAAP, it is presented as a part of equity, but, under IFRS minority interests of shareholders outside the group are shown separately from equity.

Volkswagen

I want to bring in a case study to let you have a better understanding what I said just now.

This is the reconciliation of equity for Volkswagen.

So, you can see there are some differences between German GAAP and IFRS.

As I said just now, the developments costs are capitalised under IFRS, so there is an increase of €3982 in equity. And the adjustment of special items €262. And the reclassification of the minority interests result in decrease of €197 in equity, because it is not as part of equity under IFRS.

In a result, you can see that after adjustments, the figure of equity under IFRS is more than double the figure under German GAAP.

 

So that is the differences between them.

 

Recommendation

Here, I have some recommendations.From the international harmonisation process, the IASB is the one who set the international accounting standards, and I realised that IASB very close to the Anglo-American model. For the 14 board members, there are alone 4 members from US and 4 members from UK. Therefore, they have more power and they strongly influence in the changing and developing of accounting standards. So IFRS is more towards the British-American philosophies and it neglects the standards of other nations.

Here, I think is not fair to the rest of the countries and such development would be not positive for an international acceptance of IFRS.

I suggest that, they can bring along other developing countries, take them into consideration, involve them to exchange some ideas, decide together and maybe design a new international model. Sometimes, they can join in countries assessment.

I think it will be more successful to achieve the true accounting harmonisation.

That’s all my presentation,

Thank you!

 

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Manage Risk: A Competency Assessment-ANSWER

Manage Risk: A Competency Assessment

Table of Contents

Assessment 1. 4

  1. Report on the Work Health and Safety Act in the hotel industry Marriot Hotel of UK. 4

1.1 Harassment Free Workplace. 4

1.2 Maintenance of health, safety and security in the organization. 4

1.3 Privacy of the customers and the associates. 5

1.4 The current risks in Marriot hotel 5

Assessment 2. 7

  1. Risk management plan for Marriot Hotel 7

2.1 Stakeholders of Marriot Hotel 7

Risk contexts in Marriot Hotel 9

2.2 Evaluation of the risks: 9

2.3 Action Plan for risk management: 9

2.4 Possible risks: 10

Assessment 3. 10

Q.1 Define Legislation and how it affects you as a manger. 10

Q.2 Define Code of Practice and its affect on the manager. 10

Q.3 Define Advisory standards and its affect on the manager 11

Q.4 what steps can you take o ensure the awareness of WH&S information in the people of different cultures?  11

Q.5 Three ways to alert the people about the potential hazards in the work place. 11

Q.6 Evaluate the benchmarks of evaluation of the system with specific legislative and legal requirements  11

Q.7 Outline a strategy to implement the interest of the people in WH&S legislations. 12

Q.8 Outline a strategy to ensure the participatory arrangements are established and maintained with the employees of the small businesses. 12

Q.9 Outline the process used to ensure the issues raised through participative arrangements and consultations are dealt with and resolved effectively. 12

Q.10 Outline the way to identify the intervention point for expert WH&s advice with examples. 12

Q.11 Outline WH&S hierarchy of Control and its affect on WH&S. 13

Q.12A What are the duty of care components applicable?. 13

Q.12B Is duty of care breach evident here?. 14

Q.12C What are the likely repercussions under WH&S legislations in regard to worker and customer reactions?  14

Q.12D Was this foreseeable accident?. 14

Q.12E What could be the preventive measures?. 14

Q.13A What do you think is likely to happen?. 14

Q.13B List the hazards. 14

Q.13C how would you rate them in terms of risk?. 15

Q.13D What behaviors and problems are contributing to it?. 15

Q.13E At what level should it be addressed?. 15

Q.13F who holds the duty of care?. 15

Q.13G What actions should employees take?. 15

Q.14 Describe risk management 16

Q.16 List 3 risk insurances. 16

Conclusion: 17

Reference List 18

Appendix. 19

 

Introduction

In industries people are engaged in different kinds of job in kitchens, pubs, clubs and other outlets.  Hotel industry in common has developed the risk management procedure for the hotels in the UK. The risks arrive with the safety and security issues of the customers and the guests. Along with that the strength of the brand operational is the key in the management of the risks in the hotel industries. Another risk arises with the maintenance of the reputation of the companies in the industries (Bellalah, 2010).

Assessment 1

1. Report on the Work Health and Safety Act in the hotel industry Marriot Hotel of UK.

The organizational culture of Marriot hotel aims to benefit the associates, share holders and the relevant public in the work place environment with specific rules based on the human rights and beliefs.

1.1 Harassment Free Workplace

The first propriety of the top level management is to foster mutual respect and bonding among the employees of the company. There are basic two principles of Marriot that aims to blend the different cultures in the same plate by sharing the common objectives of the company. Firstly the unique skills and perspectives are identified and secondly the equal contributions of the ideas from all the members of the community.

Employment opportunities are distributed in the company regardless of the sex, religion, economic status, identity and culture (Dionne, 2013). Along with that Marriot takes care of the disabled persons working in its floor with extra accommodation facilities.

1.2 Maintenance of health, safety and security in the organization

The guests in the firm are the main focus of the providence of security measures. The protection and proper assistances is given to the associates of the company and the regular visitors.

Employers under the act of Health and Safety act 1974 have a responsibility to entertain the visitors in the domestic environment. In the regulation 2(3) it is clearly mentions that clean arrangements need to be made for the disabled people in the premises.teh areas that needed specific improvements are the doors, stairs, basins and the passage ways corridors (Hse.gov.uk, 2015).

1.3 Privacy of the customers and the associates

Marriot hotel has been concerned about the privacy of the information carried out regarding the guest, associates, employees and the customers of the organisation. The amendment of Personally Identifiable Information (PII) is accepted the hotel authority, in which the name, address, social security number, health records and other important documents are stepped apart from revelation (Hopkin, 2010).                              

1.4 The current risks in Marriot hotel

During the process of food making the hotel faces the risks of slips and trips in the kitchen area due to the harmful kitchen equipments like the knives, soap and other fluids. Other than that the existing diseases in any employees can get contaminated to the other employees and the consumers. Dermatitis can be a common disorder that can affect the employees working regularly in the premises.   (Kim et al.2013) has proposed the framework for risks in the safety and security of the hotels and the management of the arriving risks.

Figure : Safe Hotel

(Source: Kim et al.2013)

In order to maintain the risks of the hotels (Kim et al.2013) has proposed the following figure which describes the possible risks and the possible ways to overcome it.  The wheel illustrates the identified risks by the managers of the hotel industries around the world. To keep the hotel safe and secure the yellow wheel is being followed.

Figure : Managing Risk

(Source: Kim et al.2013)

As a part of the holistic technique risk management strategies are being chalked out by the management of Marriot hotel. The risks in the Marriot hotel is identified Monthly meetings for  the safety of the employees and the associates are done in the Marriot hotel.

Assessment 2

2. Risk management plan for Marriot Hotel

2.1 Stakeholders of Marriot Hotel

The internal stakeholders of Marriot hotel are the employees of the hotel who are a part of the internal organisation. (Nielsen and Einarsen, 2012) believes that there are certain risk factors that affect the operations of the stake holders of an organization that are society, domestic and global economy, technology and the legal environment of the host country. The stake holder map drawn below has been described by (Zhang, 2012) who has also given three perspectives for the strategic management of the risks that are stake holders, resources and the traditional.

 

Figure : Stake holder map

( Source: Nielsen and Einarsen, 2012)

Risk contexts in Marriot Hotel

There are certain risk factors in the group that are liable to the laws and social status of the group.

Critical success factors are some of the critical points that need to access in the hotel industries for the propagation of the jobs in the medium. Firstly it is the identification of the external factors like the economy and the political pressures. Secondly is the past history of the works of the company that involves the menu in the hotel, accommodation facilities and the services to the guests. Third it is the sharing of the success criteria for the share holders internally and externally. Next it is the training strategy in the organisations which involves the interns in the organizations which work under the guidance of the experienced professionals. Next it is the equal distributions of the duties and power to all the employees of the company (McLaughli et al.2012). A major involvement is the leadership quality of the managers of the company. (Refer to the appendix).

Monitoring the risk management strategies Includes the three steps that is to monitor, manage and improve. The growth profit continuity is the core value behind the monitoring of the risk management plan.

2.2 Evaluation of the risks:

Firstly the risks need to be curtailed in case of technological complexities. The impact of the technological risk can be on the number of customers associated which have a direct affect on the overall sales of the company.

2.3 Action Plan for risk management:

For the technological risks, management of Marriot hotel has checked upon some of the actions plans for the assessment and resolution. Firstly to avoid the crowd in the websites the company has come up with the meta website which accommodates the extra crowd of the bookings in the peak months of the year. The global technology of the hotel has also acted as an action plan for increasing its revenue difference in the global platform (JordaÌ and Sousa, 2010).

2.4 Possible risks:

First it is the protection issues of the intellectual property of the Marriot Hotels. Other than that (Huber and Scheytt, 2013) has pointed some of the other factors that has influenced the risks in the hotel. These are commoditization in which the involvement of the third party is more influential than the price and quality of the products. Another factor can be the preferences of the consumers and the perception of the group members.

Second it is the risks of political  and economic risks in the society. (Ghahramani and Khalkhali, 2015) opines that hotel industry in a global platform is liable to face a lot of problems like the inflation, recession, credit and the affordability of credit and the fluctuations of the currency.

Third is the risks of natural events that affects the domestic paradigm of the industry. (JordaÌ and Sousa, 2010) stated that the terrorist attacks, accidents, increase in fuel costs, natural calamities and some other internal issues of the hotel may arrive to disrupt the regular programmes of the hotel.

Fourth is the technology risks that arrive in most of the hotel industries as stated by (Nielsen and Einarsen, 2012). Although Marriot hotel has installed IT systems in its technological infrastructure it might be averse to dysfunction of the machines.

Assessment 3

Q.1 Define Legislation and how it affects you as a manger.

Legislation is the act of enacting the law and orders of the Government (Bellalah, 2010). As a manger of the company a manager needs to aware of the legislation meant for the welfare of the company. A manager needs to abide by the rules and regulations of the laws of the employment and workplace responsibilities.

Q.2 Define Code of Practice and its affect on the manager.

The codes of practices in the work place are the different legislations meant for the employability of the organization. The manager of a company needs to maintain the ventilation, cleanliness, seating and the proper infrastructure of the building. The traffic routes, sanitary conditions are also coming under the codes of practices that need to be understood by the manager of a company.

Q.3 Define Advisory standards and its affect on the manager

The advisory standards of a company ensure the consultation with the finance body to invest in the investment changes of the organisation. The advisory managers of a company handle the different areas of investment. On the other hand they are responsible to provide guidance to the change of the specific situation of the individuals in the organist ion.

Q.4 what steps can you take o ensure the awareness of WH&S information in the people of different cultures?

Firstly there needs to be the complete knowledge of the workplace health and security in the top level management which need to be conveyed to the other members of the company (Dionne, 2013). Formal meetings can be held to communicate the laws. Along with that orators for that reason can be hired to give the positive benchmarks of the issue in order to motivate the people.

Q.5 Three ways to alert the people about the potential hazards in the work place

First are the preventive measures in the departments of engineering, administration, and production. Second is the identification of the equipments that can cause potential hazards to the employees and a message that  it is harmful  in the work place. Third is the education given to the people about the labels, safe guards, storage emergency responses and the disposal activities of the company.

Q.6 Evaluate the benchmarks of evaluation of the system with specific legislative and legal requirements

The work place employment Relations in 2004 employed a survey for the employees in the organisations of UK (Hse.gov.uk, 2015). The benchmarks for an organization would be to recognize the trade unions in the organisation, providing equal opportunities to the employees, work life balance with ample job satisfaction and the employee information in a record keeping method.

Q.7 Outline a strategy to implement the interest of the people in WH&S legislations

The trade union recognition that comes under the Employment Relation Act of 1999 can be conveyed to the workers in positive manner. The employees will be encourages to independently put up their demands and grievances through the trade union but on the other hand the management would incorporate the informal discussions in the union in their act of improvement.

Q.8 Outline a strategy to ensure the participatory arrangements are established and maintained with the employees of the small businesses

The Disability Act can be incorporated can be in the participatory arrangements of the work place.  The employees who are physically unable to do things properly they can be given special attention and care (Hse.gov.uk, 2015). This can help to create the emotional bonding with  them

Q.9 Outline the process used to ensure the issues raised through participative arrangements and consultations are dealt with and resolved effectively

The franchisee actions of the business group to compliance with the regulation of the hotel operations can also be responsible. The first safety and the life safety including the willingness of the customers in buying the branded products of the similar company affect the brand reputation.

Q.10 Outline the way to identify the intervention point for expert WH&s advice with examples

The identification of the intervention point is done by:

  • Identification of the problem
  • Get the resources
  • Ways to partnerships

Example for intervention point is as follows:

  • Development of improvement plan in SMEs
  • Involvement of skilled employee for goal reaching
  • Capacity of the employees
  • Employee confidence

Q.11 Outline WH&S hierarchy of Control and its affect on WH&S

Hazard Source

                                                               Person

Figure : WH&S hierarchy of Control

(Source: Hopkin, 2010)

The effect on the workplace health and safety is the safe place creation due to the elimination of the hazards and the substitutions with the safe elements at the work place. Similar conditions arise with the safety of the individual in the business in the departments of engineering and the administration.

Q.12A What are the duty of care components applicable?

The Car fix owner should have replaced the damaged parts of the machinery as asked by the technician. The physical damage occurred to the employees should have been taken care of by the owner.

Q.12B Is duty of care breach evident here?

Yes duty of care breach was evident in this case in order to avoid the risks of the physical health of the technicians.

 Q.12C What are the likely repercussions under WH&S legislations in regard to worker and customer reactions?

The work place regulations in 1992 revolve around health, safety and welfare issues. The work places in the construction sites, marines and mines are excepted from these regulations.  The term workplace refers to the different parts of the buildings like the roads, estates, parks and the sites of the work place.

There need to be awareness in the firm regarding al the applicable laws in the work place in order to avoid the risks in the work place. Equal Opportunities come under the law Equal Pay act 1970 in which the proper margins if the wages are described for every sector (Hse.gov.uk, 2015).

Q.12D Was this foreseeable accident?

Yes it was a foreseeable incident as the parts of the machine were damaged there was no regular checking done on the site.

Q.12E What could be the preventive measures?

The machines could have been under the supervision of the engineers and regular checking should have been done by the technicians.

Q.13A What do you think is likely to happen?

It is expected that there will be an unexpected physical harm to the ligaments of the workers due to the oil leakage. The hands, legs or backbone of the worker might be hampered in the accident. It may also result in loss of lives of either of the workers in the field.

Q.13B List the hazards

  • Physical hazard to the limbs of the workers
  • Technical hazard to the machines
  • Damage of the floor of the firm

Q.13C how would you rate them in terms of risk?

In terms of risk this incident might b called as the Accident falls and fall of the objects which signifies the loss of the workers and the working equipments.  

Q.13D What behaviors and problems are contributing to it?

The behavior of the leader of the work place was according o the leadership style of problem management but duet to Time constraint the problem excelled and resulted in nil solution to the arising problem.

Q.13E At what level should it be addressed?

It should be addressed with the development of the Psychological capital meant for both the leaders and the employs of the organization (Huber and Scheytt, 2013). The decision making process should be transferred to the skilled employee of the firm rather than leaving it to the higher authority.   

Q.13F who holds the duty of care?

Here the plant manager olds the duty of care but he is irresponsible in performing his legal duties. On the other hand the supervisor as taken over the duty of care to the initial step in favor of the employees which could not be processed further successfully.

Q.13G What actions should employees take?

The employees should protest against the Employment Protection act 2002 in which the recruitment processes of the skilled workers are up graded in right course of time. Health and Safety Act 1974 also need to be circulated in the members of the organization and the employees should ask for the compliances.

Q.14 Describe risk management

Risk management is the risks of operations in a company that need to be minimized to retain the cultural and financial status.

Q.15 Describe the following:

Duty of care – The ethical duty of a manager towards the low level people in his employment need to be taken care of.

Company law- The company law maintains all the laws in the c

Contract law- The contracts made by the employer with the employees in terms of payment, working hours, health and safety and work place conditions in a written document.  
Environment law-
The corporate social responsibility need to be maintained by the organisation to satisfy the organisations and the relevant public.
Freedom of information-
Through the trade union the employees are free to inform its upper level about the grievances and the similar things arise for the top level management to inform the employees.

Industrial relations law- In 1971 the industrial law was passed to give the legal rights to form the registered trade unions in the firm premises instead of being a part of the illegal proceedings by the group of employees

Disability legislation – Under the act of Disability Discrimination Act 1995, the rules of supporting the disables are implemented in the organizational culture of the organisation. Constructive environment for work is developed for all the employees in the hotel (Nielsen and Einarsen, 2012).

Q.16 List 3 risk insurances

  • Transactional risk insurance
  • Warranties insurance
  • Contingent risk insurance

Conclusion:

There has been a assessment of the Marriot Hotel which is a hospitality company having its aim in creating a safe and secure environment in its work place. The workplace advancement is provided in the hotel with the opportunities for equal incentives, leaves and allowances. The maintenance of health and safety is done in the organization in respect to the employees and the frequent visitors of the firm. The operating environment of the company revolves around the stake holders that belong to the outer premises of the organization. Accumulation of all Critical success factors results in a collaborative working satisfaction among the employees of the organization. To remain competitive in the market hotel industries too need to implement the new technologies in the market.

 

Reference List

Books:

Bellalah, M. (2010). Derivatives, risk management & value. Singapore: World Scientific.

Ghahramani, A. and Khalkhali, H. (2015). Development and Validation of a Safety Climate Scale for Manufacturing Industry. Safety and Health at Work.

Hopkin, P. (2010). Fundamentals of risk management. London: Kogan Page

JordaÌ, B. and Sousa, E. (2010). Risk management. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Journals:

Huber, C. and Scheytt, T. (2013). The dispositif of risk management: Reconstructing risk management after the financial crisis. Management Accounting Research, 24(2), pp.88-99.

Dionne, G. (2013). Risk Management: History, Definition, and Critique. Risk Management and Insurance Review, 16(2), pp.147-166.

Kim, J., Farrish, J. and Schrier, T. (2013). Hotel Information Technology Security: Do Hoteliers Understand the Risks?. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 14(3), pp.282-304.

McLaughlin, H., Uggen, C. and Blackstone, A. (2012). Sexual Harassment, Workplace Authority, and the Paradox of Power. American Sociological Review, 77(4), pp.625-647.

Nielsen, M. and Einarsen, S. (2012). Prospective relationships between workplace sexual harassment and psychological distress. Occupational Medicine, 62(3), pp.226-228.

Zhang, X. (2012). Investigation and Analysis of Sexual Harassment in Corporate Workplace of China. Sociology Mind, 02(03), pp.289-292.

Websites:

Hse.gov.uk, (2015). Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 – legislation explained. [online] Available at: http://www.hse.gov.uk/legislation/hswa.htm [Accessed 27 Feb. 2015].

 

 

Appendix

 

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RECRUITEMENT SELECTION AND INDUCTION PROCESSES-ANSWER

 

RECRUITEMENT SELECTION AND INDUCTION PROCESSES

 

 

Table of Contents

Introduction: 3

Assessment 1: 3

1.1. Strategic and operational plans and policies to identify relevant policies and objectives: 3

1.2. Develop a recruitment, selection and induction policies: 4

1.3. Use of technology to improve efficiency and effectiveness of recruitment and selection process: 5

1.4. Support for the policies and procedures: 5

1.5. Measure against the objectives, procedures and induction process: 6

1.6. Explain the policies and procedures: 6

Assessment 2: 7

2.1. Reason for creating vacancies: 7

2.2. Position of description of vacancies: 7

2.3. Personnel specifications for the vacancy: 8

2.4. Job advertisement for two media streams: 8

2.5. Cost involved with lodging both job advertisement: 9

2.6. Conduct a job interview with two fellow students: 9

2.7. Select suitable candidates for the post: 10

2.8. Negotiation of salary and employment conditions: 10

2.9. Advise successful candidates of the result in writing: 11

2.10. Advise unsuccessful candidates of the result in writing: 11

Assessment 3: 11

3.1. Introduction of the business: 11

3.2. Provide employees information regarding. 12

Assessment 4: 13

4.1. Oversee the management of probationial employees: 13

4.2. Describe the principles in detail: 13

4.3. 3 different specialists that may utilise with recruitment and induction: 14

4.4. Employee contracts: 14

4.5. Need to pay work cover for: 14

4.6. 4 different way of employ someone: 14

4.7. Psychometric and skill testing programmes: 15

4.8. 2 reason that candidates not right to check reference: 15

4.9. Encourage candidate to allow reference check: 15

4.10. Encourage employer to provide reference check: 15

Conclusion: 16

Reference List: 17

Appendices: 19

 

 

Introduction:

Recruitment and selection has played important role in development of any company. In this competitive market, every commercial house is adopting advanced technology to get competitive advantage. Therefore, the companies also need skill employees managing and controlling upgraded technology in proper way. Poor selection and wrong recruitment of employees can lead the company towards its declining situation. Induction process on the other hand can assist the employers to tell organisation rules and regulation, facilities, terms and conditions of employment properly to the job seekers. In this assignment, the business industry Mark and Spencer has been selected to analyse importance of recruitment and selection for the growth of the company.

Assessment 1:

1.1. Strategic and operational plans and policies to identify relevant policies and objectives:

Strategic planning and operational plans of mark and Spencer has included product differentiation, customer perception and competitive advantage. However, to achieve these strategic plan, the company Mark and Spencer, has developed its operational plans. As per the statement of chief executive of the company Marc Bolland, it has come to know that the company has achieved £1.2 billion turn over in international market by providing customers qualitative food products and clothing’s (Corporate.marksandspencer.com, 2015).

This achievement is totally depends on the operational policy of the company M&S that is to communicate with customers and get aware about their preferences and choices to produce products accordingly. The company also make their sustainable relationship with their shareholders to keep progress in their business.

According to Burrows (2012), these operational plans and procedures has indicated the prime objective of the company and that is to gain foremost position in the market. Therefore, the company needs to recruit proper employees that can help the organisation by managing advanced technology. Davison et al. (2012) also commented that to meet with customer’s perception, it is necessary, upgraded technology like CRM, ERP is necessary for the company. Skilled employees also need to require controlling the technological device. The human resource management of the organisation therefore, plan their induction process properly that can provide a clear vision to the job seekers and they can participate within the company with their full of confidence.

1.2. Develop a recruitment, selection and induction policies:

As per the analysis of aims and objectives of mark and Spencer, it can state that the company needs to select and recruit efficient employees to develop performance in the market. As the main aim of M&S is to meet with customer’s specification, therefore, the induction process must be developed by the HRM manager of M&S.

Clark and Roberts (2010) defined induction process as the term of induction as the introduction of company to the employees or jibs seekers. Through proper induction process, the employer can provide the detail information about terms and conditions of the organisation, employee facility, working hour, rules and regulations, agreements with employees and others. Florea and Badea (2013) investigated that, the induction process therefore, primarily presented an overview of the company to the employees. As the company M&S has its brand reputation in the market, therefore, it can state that the induction process of the company will be better.

Figure: Recruitment and selection process

(Source: Florea and Badea, 2013, pp-350)

Hence, the company needs to develop recruitment and selection process make the induction process better. Georgia et al. (2013) opined that the main policy of M&S must be to appoint best candidate to strengthen the work force. For this, the company needs to,

  • Advertise the vacant posts in media streams. In this case, newspaper advertisements and online advertisements is necessary to gain attention of employees towards the vacancy.
  • Then company should select high quality and skilled employees without having any biasness
  • Human resource management musk make sure that the recruitment have the transparency
  • The company needs to arranged three minimum three months induction process to teach the staffs and judge their skill efficiency.

1.3. Use of technology to improve efficiency and effectiveness of recruitment and selection process:

Levashina (2009) commented that technology also could help any organisation to develop the recruitment and selection process accordingly. It has come to know that technology can improve the recruitment process in three ways and these are by increasing consistency and video hiring.

Consistency: Consistency can help the recruiters to look after the recruitment process and cross check, it’s every step very carefully. Ofori and Aryeetey (2011) opined that to make a successful recruitment, some effective steps are necessary and technology can provide the consistency to cross check the steps.

Video hiring: Video hiring of employees also can help the company to get their effective and efficient employees. It has come to know that through video recruitment, the company can get aware about the behaviour, patience of the employees that can be used in favour of the company in future.

1.4. Support for the policies and procedures:

As per the analysis of recruitment and selection process of M&S, it has come to know that to implement this system, the company needs to technological support that can help the firm to make effective its induction process.

It has stated in earlier that while technology can improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the recruitment process. Thoo and Kaliannan (2013) also commented that through using proper technology, the company can able to conduct video recruitment and maintain consistency in the recruitment process.

M&S therefore, has suggested adopting proper IT technology like ERP, CRM technology to communicate with its customers properly and recruit skilled employees to extend their business in the commercial market.

1.5. Measure against the objectives, procedures and induction process:

It has come to know that installation of effective IT technology within the company can boost up its performance. It also can help the company to recruit skilled employees. Through ERP and DBMS system, the management of M&S can able to get aware about the specifications of employees. Not only can that but through conducting video hiring the management also able to judge the behaviour, patience and knowledge of the job seekers. Induction process on the other hand can help the company to review strength of social participation of the employee in the market. It will help the company to create a sustainable working environment inside the organisation and project its good image in the market (Sustain, 2015).

1.6. Explain the policies and procedures:

After analysing the importance of technology and effective recruitment, as a trainer, I have developed some human resource policies and procedures in order to develop the performance of job seekers in the market.

Policies and procedures:

  • Make advertise the vacant posts in the media houses
  • Review the profile of job seekers properly
  • Conduct both writing and video tests
  • Cross check the references of the job seekers
  • Assess their quality as per the requirements of the vacant posts
  • Arranged proper training for the employees to develop their skills
  • Induction process may be organised to judge social participation of participants in the market

Assessment 2:

In this assessment, as a researcher I have developed a business plan for a coffee shop company that is appeared newly in the market. I need one store manager for managing the performance of the coffee shop company in the market. I therefore, have post the vacancy advertisements in news papers and websites of the company to gain attention of job seekers.

2.1. Reason for creating vacancies:

The coffee shop company has appeared in new in the market. Therefore, it is necessary that the shop needs one store manager. As being new in the commercial place, as a business man want an experience and skilled store manager who can manage the store properly and motivate employees to perform well and satisfy customers needs.

Levashina (2009) commented in this case that the company can face lots of challenges fork the market and therefore, it is necessary for the store manager to develop its marketing strategy in such ay that can meet its competitive objectives and properly overcome upcoming obstacles.

2.2. Position of description of vacancies:

The job description of store manager post is mentioned in below:

Salary package-£300000-£350000 per year

Duty time-37 hours weekly

Experience: Minimum 4 years experience in working as store manager in any retail company

Qualifications:

  • Managing store and recruit staffs
  • Have the efficiency to judge the job quality of staffs
  • Able to motivate staffs in proper way
  • Must has the efficiency to teach and train staffs to meet with the objectives of the organisation
  • Must has the efficiency to achieve the financial goals that is set for the coffee shop
  • Able to identify current issues of the shop and future outcome
  • Must has the efficiency to take quick decision in risk time
  • Can able to formulate the pricing strategies as per the changing nature of the market
  • Must has the capability to determine and reviewing the changing nature of marketing and develop marketing plan accordingly (Babcock-Roberson and Strickland, 2010)

2.3. Personnel specifications for the vacancy:

After analysing the job description for a store manager, it has come to know that the manager must have the capability to tackle employees and motivate them in order to produce best service and lead the company towards its success.

Therefore, as recruitment manager, I have pointed out some specifications for the store manger post that can increase value of the vacancy and lead the coffee shop towards its success. Personal specifications for the store manager are:

  • The employee must have patience to tackle the risk factors and issue of the shop carefully
  • The employee must show polite behaviour towards its staffs and customers. According to Balet al. (2013), it can attract customers’ attention and increase customer engagement within the coffee shop
  • Must have effective skill about computer and able to take work pressure

2.4. Job advertisement for two media streams:

It has come to know that the coffee shop has appeared newly in the market. Therefore, it is necessary for the owner of the company to advertise the vacancy of the posts in the media streams to gain attention of job seekers. As per concerning in the current market position, the owner mainly give advertise in online media and newspapers.

Fu et al. (2010) stated that mainly websites of the coffee shop, face book and twitter are concerned as the main online media while top local newspapers also considered as the main advertising space of job vacancies. The job provider has mentioned the job description of that position in detailed and the package of salary. Working timing also has stated in the advertisements.

2.5. Cost involved with lodging both job advertisement:

As a recruitment manager, I have given advertisement in both local newspapers and online media in order to gain attention of job seekers. I have posted advertisement for store manager in both of these media houses. Cost involved in both the media streams are  mentioned below:

Online media:

Space accommodation: Face book- Minimum 80 words to 100 words

Twitter- 50 words

Cost for the space: Minimum 200 words to 250 words

Newspapers:

Space accommodation: Face book- £5 for per word

Twitter- £7 for per word

Cost for the space: £250 for quarter page of newspaper

2.6. Conduct a job interview with two fellow students:

In the analysis, it has come to know that the recruitment manager has seeking for the post of store manager for new appeared coffee shop in the market. As a recruitment manager, I therefore, have asked interview question two applicants for the store manger post. I keep in mind that the question must cover the job description that has mentioned in the advertisement in both online media and local newspapers.

Question for applicant 1:

I have asked question to the first applicant. These are,

  • Introduce him/herself that is not mentioned in his/her CV.
  • What is the role of store manager?
  • How you can motivate your staffs to project their best performance in the market?
  • How you managing the risks factors which arise in the shop?

I mentioned in personal specification that the candidate must have patience in order to control the crisis very carefully. Therefore, behaviour judgement is necessary to develop the post.

Question for applicant 2:

I have asked same question to applicant 2. These are,

  • Introduce him/herself that is not mentioned in his/her CV.
  • What is the role of store manager?
  • How you can motivate your staffs to project their best performance in the market?
  • How you managing the risks factors which arise in the shop?

2.7. Select suitable candidates for the post:

However, after having the interview, I have selected second candidate because of his/her excellent performance. I was impressed by his/her academic qualification and excellent speaking technique. I think, it will help the coffee shop to attract customers and motivate staffs to perform well. The main positive point is that the second candidate has the patience to understand the question and answer it very carefully.

First applicant also have good academic qualification but he/she seems not suitable for the post because of nervousness. The main negative point is t5hat he first applicant have 3.5 years experience while the second applicant is 6 years experienced.

2.8. Negotiation of salary and employment conditions:

I have noticed that applicant 2 have 6 years experienced of working as a store manager in reputed food Retail Company. The candidate has wanted to change the existing job because having offer of better opportunity.

In previous store, candidate has received £310000 package yearly. It is natural that the candidate has the expectation of better opportunity. Therefore, as a recruitment manager, I have offered the successful candidate £330000, as I consider it as the best offer for him/her.

I also offered the candidate facilities of provident fund, medical leave, incentives and yearly increments along with yearly salary package. The candidate first disagreed with the package because she/he has the expectation of £35000 package yearly. However, in the negotiation table I assured the candidate by offering monthly incentives that the candidate not gets in previous company.

2.9. Advise successful candidates of the result in writing:

However, the candidate is experienced and has excellent speech power, but still as a senior, I have advice some points to the successful candidate. First, I have advised the candidate to keep patience for controlling the crisis issues. I also advised the candidate how to plan marketing strategy for the coffee shop and get competitive advantage from the market. As per the changing nature of market, I noticed that the candidate must have technical skill and speaking quality. The candidate has excellent speech power but the candidate not have the technical skill that is necessary for the growth of the business. I therefore have advised the candidate to develop technological skill in order to lead the newly coffee shop towards its success.

2.10. Advise unsuccessful candidates of the result in writing:

I have stated earlier that the major inefficiency for unsuccessful candidate is that his/her nervousness. As I not selected the candidate therefore, a first I have assured the candidate that he/she will get further better opportunity and encourage him/her. With this, I also advised the candidate to listen the question of interviewer very carefully and give answer with patience.

Assessment 3:

3.1. Introduction of the business:

The coffee shop company is appeared in the market newly. The name of the coffee shop is ‘Coffee Cafe’. The shop needs one experience store manager to control customer’s preferences and motivate staffs to produce their best service and satisfied needs of customers. The coffee shop has space of 2,300 sq. ft that can arranged seats for around 100 customers. 25 tables are there that contains seating arrangement or four people.  The coffee shop has offered different kinds of coffee like coffee late, cappuccino, black coffee and beverages. The shop has 4 operating staffs with one store manager in front door service. 4 back door staffs are also required for back office service. 2 sweeper and one security guard also has appointed to maintain cleanness and safety of the shop. However, to start up the business the company has invested £140,000 in the market. After investing in the market, the shop is looking for ne experienced store manager who can able to manage the shop effectively and assist it to gain success from the market.

3.2. Provide employees information regarding

Salary- As per the market, pay scale of store managers in reputed retail supermarkets are £390000-£720000 per year. As the coffee shop Coffee Cafe is appeared newly in the market, therefore, the shop has offered salary package for store manager is £300000-£350000 per year.

Conditions of employment

  • The candidate must have experience of minimum 4 years of working as a store manager in any retail company
  • The candidate must have excellent speaking and technical skill
  • The candidate must able to motivate staffs to produce better performance
  • The candidate must have the patience to control any crisis situation properly and resolve any problems that may arise in the shop.
  • The candidate can able to take work pressure while it seems necessary

KPI’s– As per the assumption, if the shop will perform effectively in the market then £150,000 annual revenue will generate in first year. Therefore, to assess the performance of the store manager, the manager has asked to achieve the target of generating £150,000 revenue in first year. It also helps to judge the market assumption and performance of the store manager in the commercial ground in first year of appearance of the shop.

Accountability– The employee or the store manager must be accountable to the owner of the shop Coffee Cafe. Karatepe and Aga (2012) commented that the store manager must have truthfulness towards the shop. The candidate also seems liable and answerable in front of the owner and government for practising any unethical issues inside the shop. Therefore, the candidate or the store manager must be aware about current rules and regulations of government in UK market.

Internal procedures– The store manager must have to follow some instructions that have developed to control the performance of the coffee shop in competitive market. The store manager must has the capability to judge performance quality of employees the store manager must verified all legal documents of employees before appointing them as the staffs of the coffee shop (For legal documents, refers to Appendix 1).

Assessment 4:

4.1. Oversee the management of probationial employees:

Paillé et al. (2014) defined the term probationial employees as all classified employees who are recruited in the company to develop its performance. Therefore, as human resource manager, it is necessary to manage the probation employees to understand right process of recruitment. Oversee of probation employees can help the HR manager to judge that whether the selection of the candidate is right for the company or not.

Therefore, the HR manger needs to

  • Describe the job in detail that can help the candidates to understand the service
  • The candidate must appear in written test to show their capability
  • Must show their efficiency in training period

4.2. Describe the principles in detail:

Equal opportunity The human resource manager must have the principle of projecting equal opportunity in the society. This principle may be projected while recruiting male and female candidates and diversifies segmented candidates
Industrial relationMust have the capability of providing employees proper wages, training and able to control their grievances
Anti-discriminationAccording to Anti Discrimination Act 1977, every employee should get equal opportunities in work lace despite of their sex, age and culture.
Ethical principlesEthical principles stated to maintain fairness and  truthfulness within the company
Code of practicesProviding proper wages and show respect to other’s culture are main code of practices in any work place
Privacy laws VictoriaAccording to Omolo et al. (2013), honesty, integrity and maintain promises are the part of privacy laws Victoria that can create a safe and secure work place
Occupational health and safetyIt provides employees the right to perform in secure and safe work place.
Employer rights and responsibilityThe employees have the right to claim for proper wages and secure environment to perform.

 4.3. 3 different specialists that may utilise with recruitment and induction:

Recruitment AgenciesRecruitment agency can suggest the name of the company to the employees. It can refer employee the name of the company.
Remuneration specialistsRemuneration specialists are offer proper wages to the employees to recruit them.
Security checksIt offers employees secure jobs to make their lives better.

4.4. Employee contracts:

Employee contracts depend on employee conditions, their rights and responsibilities in the market. It has come to know that work in secure environment is the right of every employee and therefore, it is necessary for the recruitment manager to provide the basic rights to the people to make their lives better in the market (Yoon and Thye, 2012). According to employee contract, it also has noticed that the employees needs to clear the terms and conditions of their facilities and wages before joining in the company.

4.5. Need to pay work cover for:

As a recruitment officer, I would like to pay the owner of the company or the recruitment agency as they are offering employees about the job. It is the necessary duty of the recruitment manager satisfies the agency as they also supplied employees to the company.

4.6. 4 different way of employ someone:

Compton et al. (2010) stated about main four ways that can use to recruit people are

  • Through telephonic interview
  • Video calling interview
  • Writing test
  • Group discussion

4.7. Psychometric and skill testing programmes:

Psychometric test is necessary to differentiate individual from others. It also has noticed that through conducting psychometric test and skill test, any company can able to recruit high skill employee in the market. Ivancevich (2009) commented that psychometric test is depends on theory, data collection and statistical analysis. It also can help the recruitment manager to judge quality of employees, their patience and efficiency.

4.8. 2 reason that candidates not right to check reference:

  1. Reference can help the recruitment manger to recruit reliable candidate within the company. It also has come to k now that recruitment manger has relation with the reference person, therefore, the reference can help the manger to recruit reliable person in the company to boot up its performance.
  2. Reference employee or job seeker has the efficiency to keep attach themselves with the organization and from well in developing the performance of the company.

4.9. Encourage candidate to allow reference check:

Reference check has seems more effective for any candidate who is seeking for a job. it has come to know that if a candidate apply any company with the help of his/her reference, then it reflect that the candidate must have the faith on that company about its performance, payment options and other employment rights. It can help the candidate to apply in right company to make their lives secure and safe.

4.10. Encourage employer to provide reference check:

Reference checking also can help any employer to get right candidate that is necessary for the growth of the company. Sometime, male practices within the company harm its reputation in the market. McGrath (2014) ttherefore, commented that if the employer can recruit employee with the help of any reference, then it has seemed to be effective and growth of that particular firm. It also has noticed that it can help the organisation to make their position beneficiary ands project ethically strong image in the commercial place accordingly.

Conclusion:

In the concluding statement, it has come to know that human resource management has play its effective role in recruiting or selecting someone within the company. the HR manager therefore, be very careful in order to recruit the right person for the growth of the company. It has noticed that sometime, selection of wrong people can harm the image of the firm in the market. Therefore, it is necessary duty for the HR manger to maintain the recruitment process by maintaining all kind of government laws and regulations to make the company ethically strong in the market.

Reference List:

Books:

Compton, R., Morrissey, B. and Nankervis, A. (2010) Effective recruitment and selection practices, Boston: Sage Pub

Ivancevich, J. (2009) Human resource management, Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin

McGrath, A. (2014) Getting the Right Balance, Cork: BookBaby

Journals:

Babcock-Roberson, M. and Strickland, O.J. (2010) “The Relationship Between Charismatic Leadership, Work Engagement, and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors,” Journal of Psychology, 144, pp. 313–326

Bal, P.M., de Cooman, R., and Mol, S.T. (2013)  “Dynamics of Psychological Contracts With Work Engagement and Turnover Intention: The Influence of Organizational Tenure,” European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22, pp. 107– 122

Burrows, A. S. (2012) “The Relationship between Common Law and Statute in the Law of Obligations,” Law Quarterly Review, 128, pp. 232

Clark, L.A. and Roberts, S.J. (2010) “Employer’s Use of Social Networking Sites: A Socially Irresponsible Practice,” Journal of Business Ethics, 95(4), pp.507–525

Davison, H., Maraist, C., Hamilton, R. and Bing, M. (2012) “To screen or not to screen/ Using the internet for selection decisions,” Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 24,(1), pp.1-21

Florea, V. N. and Badea, M. (2013) “Acceptance of new Technologies in HR: E-Recruitment in Organizations,” Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Management & Evaluation, pp. 344-352

Fu, P. P., Tsui, A. S., Liu, J., and Li, L. (2010) “Pursuit of Whose Happiness? Executive Leaders’ Transformational Behaviors and Personal Values,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 55(2), pp. 222-254

Georgia, A., George, A. and Labros, S. (2013) “Employee recruitment and selection in the insurance sector – the case of the Greek insurance group,” European Journal of Management Sciences, 1 (1), pp. 1-20

Karatepe, O.M. and Aga, M. (2012) “Work Engagement as a Mediator of the Effects of Personality Traits on Job Outcomes: A Study of Frontline Employees,” Services Marketing Quarterly, 33, pp, 343– 362

Levashina, J. (2009) “Expected practices in background checking: review of the human resource management literature,” Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 21, pp. 231–241

Ofori, D. and Aryeetey, M. (2011) “Recruitment and Selection Practices in Small and Medium Enterprises,” International Journal of Business Administration, 2(3), pp. 45-60

Omolo, J. W., Oginda, M. N. and Otengah, W. A. (2013) “Influence of Human Resource Management Practices on the Performance of Smalland Medium Enterprises in Kisumu Municipality, Kenya,” International Journal of Business and Social Science, 4(1), pp. 130-136

Paillé, P., Chen, Y., Boiral, O. and Jin, J. (2014) “The Impact of Human Resource Management on Environmental Performance: An Employee-Level Study,” Journal of Business Ethics, 121(3), pp. 451-466

Thoo, L. and Kaliannan, M. (2013) “International HR Assignment in Recruiting and Selecting: Challenges, Failures and Best Practices,” International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 3(4), pp. 143-158

Yoon, J. and Thye, S. (2012) “A Dual Process Model of Organizational Commitment: Job Satisfaction and Organizational Support,” Work and Occupations, 29, pp. 97-124.

Websites:

Corporate.marksandspencer.com, (2015) Home. Available at: [Accessed 27 Feb. 2015]

Sustain, S. (2015) Solihull Sustain. Solihull-sustain.org.uk. Available at: http://solihull-sustain.org.uk/ [Accessed 27 Feb. 2015]

Appendices:

Appendix 1:

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OBSERVATIONS: A COMPETENECY BASE ASSESSMENT-ANSWER

 OBSERVATIONS: A COMPETENECY BASE ASSESSMENT

Table of Contents

Assessment 1: 3

Assessment 2: 3

Reference List: 8

Assessment 1:

As being a senior administrative staff, I have arranged both annual and general meeting contain 8 members of ach meeting. The annual meeting is set within the company at 12 pm. In annual meeting, student 1 is considered as chairperson and student 2 is secretary. Rest of two are shareholders. Chairperson has set the change agenda to keep progress of the organisation. Student 3 and 4 has seconded this agenda.

The second meeting is general meeting in which, students 5, 6, 7 and 8 are the employees. Students 1 and 2 are proposed their agenda to the employees and seeking for their vote. The general meeting is set at 3 pm after the annual meeting. Student 2 that is the secretary has noted the minutes and distributed it to all the participants.

Assessment 2:

Q1:  Difference between general meeting and annual meeting:

According to sec 302 of UK company law, annual meeting has a fixed time while general meeting can be arranged in any time of a year. In annual meeting presence of director and other shareholders of the company is necessary while in general meeting, the director or general manger has collected vote from employees of that organisation.

Q2: Meeting requirements for the following types of companies:

Types of companyNature of meeting
Proprietary company Proprietor company is the types of company where shareholders are gained more protection in liability (Collings and Mellahi, 2009). Therefore, annual meeting has arranged in such company to organise and managing its performance.
Public company Various investors own public companies and therefore, both annual meeting and general meeting are arranged in such organisations.
Listed company Shares of such companies are being trade in the market and therefore, general meeting along with annual meeting is most important for organising the performance of such companies.

Table 1: Meeting requirements for companies

(Source: Ucsfhr.ucsf.edu, 2015)

Q3: Role of these in a meeting:

ChairpersonsControl the meeting and set an agenda for the organisation, lead the team to focus on the discussion and make clear any misinterpretation (if necessary)
Secretary Consult with the chairperson and set an agenda, time and venue for the meeting and prepare a notice for this.
TreasurerPrepare the annual audit report, budget report and financial plan for the year. Also, keep record of financial crisis if the company faced and present it to the chairperson.
Abstention Abstentions can only participate in the meeting and listen the speech of the chairperson and secretary.
Adjournment It means the meeting is suspended for few time or days due to arise of some certain obstacle.
Agenda Agenda can lead the company towards its right direction and help to get advantage from the market.
Motion Motion also played its important role in leading the meeting towards its right direction.
Casting vote Casting vote is used in case of tie. Therefore, the chairpersons or the secretary can cast vote if there is tie among the decisions.
Proxy Proxy can help the shareholders to hold on their demands sustainable in the meeting. The unit of shareholders can give proxy on behalf of any person who is absent at that time.
Tabled The chairperson signs the final decision that has decided by all and therefore, the decision is tabled or passed.

 

Table 2: Role of the terms in meeting

(Source: Wood and Wright, 2010, pp-1279)

Q4: Documentation required to organising and managing a formal meeting:

Generally, secretary, chairperson and board of directors are played their important role to arrange a meeting. Dries (2013) stated that the secretary along with chairperson first set an agenda for the meeting that needs consideration of boards of directors. After that, the secretary prepares a notice for that meeting in form of letter, poster or e-mail communication. Then the secretary with the help of chairperson and board of director’s invited shareholders to discussed about the agenda. During the meeting, all important points must be noted down by the secretary and arranged a voting system to pass the agenda (Sqa.org.uk, 2015).

Q5: Role of minute taker:

The role of minute taker can be segmented in four steps and these are:

  • Noted all important points during the meeting
  • keep record about the speech of directors in the meeting
  • Copied the speeches and distributed it to the participants
  • Help the secretary for future development of the company

Q6: Develop an agenda for ALT international:

As the company ATL international has conducted a meeting for team leaders and it run for 1 hours, therefore, it is necessary to set agenda of change management that is suitable with the changing nature of the market. It has come to know that many organisations are faced problems for unable to keep change with changing market. Therefore, change management agenda for team leaders can help them to motivate staffs and increase profitability of the organisation (Ucsfhr.ucsf.edu, 2015).

Q7: List of tasks for managing and planning a meeting:

List of tasks
Select spaceThe secretary of the person who is going to arrange the meeting needs to select proper place.
Set time and venueThe person must set right time and venue.
Set agenda for the meetingThe person needs to set an agenda along with chairperson to select a topic for the meeting to discuss.
Prepare speech for chairpersonsThe person or the secretary needs to develop proper delivering and grateful speech for the chairperson that will be presented in beginning if the meeting

 

Table: List of tasks

(Source: Collings and Mellahi, 2009, pp-304)

Q8: Preparation of minutes:

Old Spice paper products members meeting- 15th July

Meeting called to order at 10.30 am by meeting chair Jack Stone

Members present:

  • Chairperson- Jack Stone
  • Deputy Chair- Gillian Collins
  • Silvia Devola
  • Katherine Montrigo
  • Joseph Patulio
  • Janice Bennett
  • Albert Brockwook
  • Saul Rickman

Guest Speaker– Robinson

Agenda– New range of party good products

Approval of minutes– motion proposed by Saul Rickman and agreed by Katherine Montrigo

Meeting adjourned: 1.30 pm

Schedule for next meeting: 15th August

Q9: Six points to communicate with culturally diverse people:

In brief, the six points for effective communication with culturally diverse people are mentioned in below:

  • Know about diverse culture
  • Give proper training to employees to know about international culture
  • Increasing self-monitoring process
  • Increase awareness among people
  • Promote diverse culture
  • Create friendly behaviour to know about the culture (Wood and Wright, 2010)

Q10: Role of code of practice in business:

Anti-discrimination legislationIt can help the organisation to reduce all kind of rationality and religious tolerance
Ethical principlesFairness, male practises and truthfulness necessary to maintain the couture of the organisation
Code of practice Privacy lawRespect of educational qualification, proper wages is the code of practices for any commercial firms.
Privacy lawPrivacy law gives the right to keep confidential information regarding company or its employees in the society
CopyrightIt provides the right of ownership
Occupational health and safetyIt provides the right of performing in healthy band secure work place.

Table 4: Role of code of practice

(Source: Dries, 2013, pp-272)

Reference List:

Journals:

Collings, D. and Mellahi, K. (2009) “Strategic talent management: A review and research agenda,” Human Resource Management Review, 19(4), pp.304-313

Dries, N. (2013) “The psychology of talent management: A review and research agenda,” Human Resource Management Review, 23(4), pp.272-285

Wood, G. and Wright, M. (2010) “Private equity and human resource management: An emerging agenda,” Human Relations, 63(9), pp.1279-1296

Websites:

Sqa.org.uk, (2015) Available at: [Accessed 27 Feb. 2015]

Ucsfhr.ucsf.edu, (2015) Available at: http://ucsfhr.ucsf.edu/ [Accessed 27 Feb. 2015]

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AET TRANSPORT PVT LTD: A COMPETENCY ASSESSMENT-Answer

 

AET TRANSPORT PVT LTD: A COMPETENCY ASSESSMENT

Table of Contents

Introduction: 3

Assessment 1: 3

Assessment 2: 6

Assessment 3: 11

Assessment 4: 13

Conclusion: 14

References List: 16

 

 

Introduction:

The study comes to focus on the understanding of the customer service management as essential aspects for the profit making aspects of the company of AET Transport Pvt. Ltd. This study intends to focus on the various notes of customer services, in respect to deliver their satisfaction or dissatisfaction rate in terms of the customer service strategies. Moreover the study comes to denote the understanding of the customer service manager for the best possible note of customer service management aspects (Barnes, 2006).

Assessment 1:

Customer Service Strategy of AET Transport Pvt. Ltd:

The company AET Transport Pvt. Ltd has its origin in the year 1997 as the first tankers company to export and import fertilisers and chemicals as well as anhydrous ammonia. The company stand out to become a reputable institution and serve as the best customer service policy fir the commercial purposes of the customers. The company managed to develop a stricken and effective customer service strategy in order to initiate in the profit making pattern of the transportation facilities (Brock, 2009). Therefore in respect to the demand of the export and import customers around for the best business profit making sections.

The requirement of the global customers comes to focus on the demand which goes in compliance to their vision and mission approaches. Thereby being the customer service manger the company must deliver a comprehensive as well as safe, secure at the same trust oriented quality delivery of the goods in terms of the policies that has already been accelerated by the US operational activities. Thereby they pay importance to the matters of safety orientation to the export and import sector in the management of handling hazardous chemicals. This is for the sake of the countries whereby the commercial enterprise has its dealings. As a matter of fact an agreement in respect to the legal perspectives of the international laws of commerce and transportation sector comes to strict vigilance. Furthermore this comes to provide an effective implementation of customer relationship management (Cook, 2012). The staffs and client rapport in terms of the maintenance of goodwill, best communicational networkings are suited as the essential elements so that proper channel in terms of the delivery and the safe use of the products comes to be addressed. a feedback mechanism must be created in order to record the delivery of the product, in which the rules and regulations whether they are properly meet must be looked into the state of affairs.

Figure 1: Customer Service Model

(Source: Faed, 2013)

The organisational potential comes to relate to the understandings of customers which come to ensure the protective management in terms of the shore based an activity which comes to access the complete compliant nature that comes in respect to the national, regional as well as international perspectives. The additional focus comes to state the operational standards that comes to focus on trade facilities focusing on the standardised approaches which at the best denote the effectiveness in terms of the customer service management. Thereby that tends to allow in respect to the trading facilities concerning the regional competencies in compliance to the other trading facilities as per the demands of the international customers (Horovitzband Horovitz, 2004).

As a part of the customer service potential the company intend to adopt the trading facilities in respect to the other regions denoting the customers’ demands. The health, safety, security and environmental team as regarded as the HSSE has been developed by the company in order to focus on the notions in respect to oversee potential activities of the nation state focusing on the varied departments of the company (Ambro and Praprotnik, 2008). The main aim possesses the ability to inculcate the standardised notions of the organisation to mark reputable competencies benefitting the company as well.

Assessment 2:

Customer Complaint Management:

The company on a recent note has been found to denote the grievances of the customers, in respect to their 3 important clients who have given their brand support for a long period of time. As a part of the customer service management sector, and in being the manger of the said department a detailed investigation of the grievances comes to state in concerning the reasons for the compliant done (Clatworthy, 2012). This is primarily focused on the basis of the registered complaint by the clients as a part of the company feedback procedures. By considering and identifying those grievances the department comes to focus on the understanding of the complaints as registered by the clients. These include of the possible reasons or causes made by the customers that made them dissatisfied on the services organisational.

As per the registered grievances made by the first customer the decline stipulated time of delivery has been ignored by the company. Thereby the maintenance of transparent as well as best known company which comes as the effective potential comes to state the nature of the organisational condition which comes to relate with a decline in the company policies which goes with the company vision (Dr.K.Vanitha, 2012). This comes to state that the fact comes to state that the company relates to the potential aspects which goes in accordance to the decline of the company management aspects in the long run.

Moreover as per the second compliant made by the second client comes to state that the organisation intends to state the focus which comes in the context of the poor service quality of the product. This refers to the fact that the customer is not satisfied with the product quality which covers to compose the chemicals, fertilisers, pesticides needed and the company have ignored to deliver the key products. At the same the company fail to understand the fact that comes in accordance to their promises which made them to suffice and that they have ignored them. This comes to note mainly with the dissatisfaction note of the customers and thereby comes to hamper the brand loyalty of the customers. As per the complaint delivers it comes to mention a task which conveys the grievances as intend to mention the vessels fail to contain the stipulated quantity of the bottles (Liang, 2013).

The third complaint comes to note of the grievances of the customer’s brand loyalty perspectives which is very much at stake. This at the same comes to convey the organisational element which comes to signify the reputation of the organisation which comes at stake with that of the customers choices. In respect to the defects in the services of the products comes to signify the organisational in competencies. Thereby the customers who has relied and trusted the services of the products for a long time and helped to create a brand loyalty by helping the enterprise to summon brand retention (Maricic et al. 2012). Consequently the customer does not come to accord the decline of the services of the company in terms of the customer service facilities and the particularly in connection to the product value services.

In respect to these registered complaints as made by the clients the company does come to hold an important investigation and come to identify some suitable reasons for the part of the organisational services in the long run (Sara Arancibia Carvajal, 2011). The identifiable factors which the company regards to be responsible for the causes of the hamper in the delivery of the services comes to access following factors:

  • The company came to realise the fact that the drivers of the vehicles does not have proper transportation facilities. This comes to note that the fact in respect to the vehicles come to denote that the organisation does not have proper and suitable vehicles found sufficient in number. This also comes to state the fact that the company failed to provide the drivers vehicles found in proper condition to carry the products and delivery them within the stipulated or mentioned time (Smith, 2006).
  • The company again comes to state the fact that the organisation put to deny any enforcement of the fact coming in accordance to the lack of the motivational potential coming in respect to the drivers. Thereby the lack of employment motivation at best has been ignored by the company. Employment motivation comes in respect to the increased appraisal format of the customers (Tronvoll, 2011). This at best also comes to state the ignorance of such recognition of the performance of the drivers and denial to give them extra benefit or an increase in the wages which will motivate the drivers to give their best performances.
  • The company do not possess such a man power potential in respect to the number of drivers that comes to state the delivery of the goods and the products on an immediate basis. The reason may be the grievances of the drivers who are not paid well or maximum number of the drivers have resigned and gone for a strike. Thereby creating turmoil like situation within the company (Witkowska and Lakstutiene, 2014).
  • Moreover the climatic condition does not go at par with the driver’s choice to carry the goods by driving the vehicles at risky affairs. This goes as a mark of the organisational competency which comes to guarantee the delivery of goods based on a safe and secure format. This also rules the safety and security context meant for the staffs as a part of their human resource management (Barnes, 2006).
  • Other these reasons the problems of getting the legalised note from a nation state on a global context in respect to the export and import facilities of the country, the drivers fail to carry certain goods that are banned in the respective nation state. This came to refer to the quantity of the chemicals, and the hazardous pesticides that are loaded for delivery to the customers. But in the last moment the paper works fail to give any conformity in regard to the delivery of the mentioned products by the customers. In this respect the international law making subjugations on the business laws as per the international agencies come in the state of affairs (Cook, 2012).

These factors play a pivotal role in respect to the export and import facilities and tend to give rise to the level of dissatisfaction to the customers. Herein the reputation, especially the brand value, brand entity which comes in compliance to the brand loyalty of the company come at stake (Horovitz and Horovitz, 2004). As a result the company and specially the customer service management department focusing on the customer service manager’s role have been taken into consideration to provide some important solutions to these problems. According to the customer service manger’s perspectives some crucial recommendations are stated in this respect. These recommendations come to include of the following:

  • One of the crucial recommendation to the problem of defecates in respect to the vehicles denote to the act that the proper and regular maintenance of the vehicles and the replacement of any of the tools, parts in respect to the machineries must be addresses on an immediate basis. This also comes to state that a weekly check up of the vehicles becomes necessary.
  • Another important facet of the recommendation part relies upon the increase conditional benefit in respect to the employment motivational This refers to the fact which comes to denote an increment in respect to the honour for their recognition of their job performance, an appraisal concerning the wages benefit comes in this state.
  • The company must retain the man power potential by increasing the employment motivational expertise.
  • Finally the transparent communicational management notion which comes to state the interpersonal management to a great extent that must not hamper the brand loyalty of the company.

Figure 2: Customer Service Management

(Source: Ambro and Praprotnik, 2008)

Assessment 3:

Conflict Resolution Skills:

The focus on understanding the real reasons which are crucial to vary the customer services relies to the fact in respect to the customer services (Clatworthy, 2012). Thereby the conflict resolution skills deliver to notify the following emphasis:

  1. Establishment of a good rapport with the customers: The key area of resort any conflicting situation comes to relate to the development any bond or goodwill management in respect to the customer and the staffs. The staffs must create an interpersonal rapport with the customers and this gives a positive note of emphasis.
  2. Establishment of a dialogue and negotiation: Conversation comes to note the positive results concerning the achievement of a shared aim. This relates to the solution of the problem connecting to the security perspectives in terms of the agreement made at the time of the delivery of the products. This creates much of a transparent business approach of the organisation in respect to the delivery of the services.
  3. Ending the Conflicting Note of Understanding: The perspective of the organisation comes to refer to the identification of the difficult issues and apply some crucial strategies in this connection.
  4. The application of law as a mark of reciprocity: This refers to the development of a mode of understanding, trust and cooperation basis as well as that of the collaboration consideration denote of the relationship which comes to consider the potential perspectives of resolving the conflicting state of nature. In this state of concern the perspectives of the social awareness consciousness lament the picture which comes to define the possibilities of the organisation which comes to state the consideration of the fact.

The role play as cited in consideration to the customers and drivers perspectives put a detailed consideration to the fact which signifies both of them on a separate context. The role play of the customer denotes to the inclusion o the possible context of late arrival of the goods which at best hampers the cost services of the commercial note refer to the loss and the increase in the expenditure structure of the organisation (Dr.K.Vanitha, 2012). Again the professionalism context comes at check with the drivers failed to deliver the good within a stipulated. This put some consideration focusing on the lack of the motivational potential for the drivers.

On the other hand as a part of the role play in reference to the drivers comes to signify the lack of motivational skills which comes to state the interpersonal requisites considering the lack o increments to their wages, no consideration given to their emotions and feelings. This at best denote of the fact that come to lie in accordance to the potential understandings of the migration policies as a part of their working environment for the drivers who has to stay far away from their families (Liang, 2013). They do not possess any working conditions in reliance to the list of holidays or as a mark of their recognition for their performances with the bonus point that they possess.

In order to meet the grievances the organisation comes to consider as a part of being the customer service manger to meet the conflicting state of nature for both the parties. These include of the following questions that can be asked and as a result responses can be generated at best.

Q1. How can conflict benefit the companies?

A: For the part of the customers the services can best be accelerated and proper communication medium can be cited in this respect which comes to impact the company to develop a more effective customer service management and regularly connect with the customers. As per the responses of the drivers they comes to consider the focus which they hold as per the prospective area of management can best be meet with the communicational facilities.

Q2. How to manage conflict for high performance?

A: For the customers the high performance ratio can be meeting to resolve conflicting state of nature in compliance to the performance perspectives. This comes to access the high potential advantageous position as encountered with the establishment of a strong rapport with the client and the delivery of the service within the stipulated date can resolved the problem. In connection to the drivers that comes to state the increased focus on their recognition against their performances.

Assessment 4:

Steps to Deal with the Customer Complaints:

Some of the best possible steps which comes as a source of solution to the customer complaints relates to the following consideration:

  • Listen to them intently: this refers to record the grievances of the customers uninterruptedly.
  • Thank them: after recalling to the problems the customer should be thanked as a mark of honour.
  • Apologise: the company must deliver a note of apology for the customers in respect to their complaints.

Significance of Customers Complaints: Some of the crucial phase that comes in respect to the importance concern denote to the fact that the customers grievances becomes a good context for the organisational management (Sara Arancibia Carvajal, 2011). These generally include three important points like that of the facts:

  • Updating the product services of the organisation based on the preferences of the customers.
  • Scope for improvement which comes in respect to the organisational scenario focusing on the products exclusively.
  • Engagement of the complaints management in terms of the feedback procedures which comes to highlight the problems in the services.

Strategies to Implement for the Identification of the Customers Needs:

Some of the important strategies intends to refer in the global context focusing on the modern world denotes to the use of the social media networking sites. This comes to indicate the perspectives of the customer feedback procedure at best. The review mechanism as well comes to indicate of the following perspectives.

Factors Required Ensuring the Effectiveness of the Customer Feedback Mechanism:

The very procedure can best be served in terms of the perspective which comes to send a greeting message to the customers for their first time feedback process. Moreover this comes to pull the potential in respect to the reviews coming from the platform of the social media sites like that of Face Book, Twitter and many more.

Conclusion:

As a mark of conclusion the study managed to focus on the customer service management expertise which is crucial for the organisational growth. The customer complaint at best comes to note by the application of some effective strategies. Moreover the strategy which comes to deliver in the effective implication that comes in respect to the organisational potential.

References List:

Books:

Barnes, J. (2006). Build your customer strategy. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley.

Brock, D. (2009). Aftersales management. London: Kogan Page.

Cook, S. (2012). Complaint management excellence. London: Kogan Page.

Faed, A. (2013). An intelligent customer complaint management system with application to the transport and logistics industry. Cham: Springer.

Horovitz, J. and Horovitz, J. (2004). Service strategy. Harlow [England]: Prentice Hall/Financial Times.

Journals:

Ambro, M. and Praprotnik, M. (2008). “Organisational Effectiveness and Customer Satisfaction”. Organizacija, 41(5), pp. 187-199.

Clatworthy, S. (2012). “Bridging the gap between brand strategy and customer experience”. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 22(2), pp. 108-127.

Dr.K.Vanitha, D. (2012). “Customer Relationship Management on Customer Satisfaction”. IJSR, 3(4), pp. 1-3.

Hultén, P. (2012). “A Lindblomian perspective on customer complaint management policies”. Journal of Business Research, 65(6), pp. 788-793.

Liang, P. (2013). “Exit and Voice: A Game-theoretic Analysis of Customer Complaint Management”. Pacific Economic Review, 18(2), pp. 177-207.

Maricic, B., Veljkovic, S. and Djordjevic, A. (2012). “Customer satisfaction measurement”. Marketing, 43(4), pp. 235-244.

Sara Arancibia Carvajal, (2011). “The impact of personalization and complaint handling on customer loyalty”. African Journal of Business Management, 5(34), pp. 209-218.

Smith, A. (2006). “CRM and customer service: strategic asset or corporate overhead?”. Handbook of Business Strategy, 7(1), pp. 87-93.

Tronvoll, B. (2011). “Negative emotions and their effect on customer complaint behavior”. Journal of Service Management, 22(1), pp. 111-134.

Witkowska, J. and Lakstutiene, A. (2014). “Social Insurance Service Quality Surveys as a Customer Orientation Strategy”. EE, 25(1), pp. 93-108.

 

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INTERMEDIATE MACROECONOMICS- Question

INTERMEDIATE MACROECONOMICS I

(Economic Fluctuations)

Problem Set No. 1

(Due date: January 19, 2015)

Section I: Analytical Problems (40 Marks)

Please read the piece, \Premier Wynne says … “, published in The Globe

and Mail on January 5, 2015 as attached at the last page herein. Answer the following questions in view of the above piece, and the Aggregate demand and aggregate supply model we discussed in class.

  1. Premier Kathleen Wynne says Ontario is ready to shield Canada from

the economic tsunami caused by declining oil prices and sinking dollar.

Explain why Canada should expect a large economic loss caused by the

declining oil price and sinking dollar? [10 marks]

  1. Why does Premier Wynne expect a large economic gain from the cheap

gasoline and weakening loonie? [10 marks]

  1. Using the AD 􀀀 AS model, assess the validity of RBC’s claim that the

fall in oil prices will actually help Canada overall. [10 marks]

  1. RBC economists expect investment in the oil and gas exploration and

development industry to fall by three percent this year. What would

be, if any, the e_ects of such a reduction in investment on the Canadian

economy? [10 marks]

Section II: Numerical Problems (60 Marks)

Consider an economy described by the following AD and AS model:

AD : M=P = 0.05Y ;                                                                              (1)

LRAS : Y = 1,000  and                                                                         (2)

SRAS : P = 25;                                                                                      (3)

where, M is the money supply, P is the price level, and Y is real GDP.

  1. Provide an economic interpretation of the coefficient of Y in the aggregate demand equation (1). Determine the velocity of money implied by the aggregate demand equation. [10 marks]
  2. Suppose that central bank of the country sets the money supply at 1,000

so that M = 1,000. Determine the short-run and long-run equilibrium

values of P and Y . [10 marks]

  1. Now, suppose a favourable supply shock such as the decline in oil price,

reduces costs and prices so that new short-run aggregate supply function

is:

SRASnew : P = 10:                                                                     (4)

Determine the short-run and long-run effects of the favourable supply

shock on the equilibrium P and Y . [10 marks]

  1. How would your answers to part c change, if the central bank chooses to

accommodate the supply shock? What are the drawbacks, if any, of such

a decision? Please be specific. [10 marks]

  1. Now, suppose LRAS changes to:

LRASnew :  Y = 2, 000:                                                                (5)

  1. Explain why might the long-run aggregate supply increase. [10

marks]

  1. Determine the effects of the increase in LRAS on equilibrium P and

Y . [10 marks]

January 5, 2015

Premier Wynne says Ontario ready to play leading role in economic growth

By ADRIAN MORROW and JEFFREY JONES

Province’s manufacturing sector poised to gain on cheap gas, weak dollar while energy producers suffer

Premier Kathleen Wynne says Ontario is ready to shield Canada from the economic tsunami caused by declining oil prices and a sinking dollar.

While petroleum-dependent provinces such as Alberta are taking a financial walloping, Ontario’s manufacturing heartland is poised to take advantage of cheap gasoline and a weak loonie this year.

“Ontario’s economy can be a buffer,” Ms. Wynne said in an interview at her Queen’s Park office. “We have a diverse economy and it can be a buffer, in a time like this, against some of that volatility.”

It is a sudden shift in national fortunes. In recent years, oil-rich Alberta, Saskatchewan and Newfoundland have boomed, while Ontario has been sluggish. Now, Ms. Wynne’s province is set to lead the country in economic growth.

“I don’t wish for low oil prices and a low dollar for Alberta,” she said. “But at the same time, we want our manufacturing sector to rebound. So if that [low oil price] helps, then that’s a good thing.”

A new report from the Royal Bank of Canada backs up Ms. Wynne’s optimism. RBC estimates the fall in oil prices will actually help Canada overall.

Cheaper petroleum will boost household purchasing power in the United States by $86-billion, the report projects. Combined with a lower dollar, this should increase Canada’s exports to its largest trading partner. What’s more, Canadian consumers are reaping rewards from sharply lower prices at the fuel pump, saving an estimated $8.9-billion this year.

Even if they spend just half that money, it will pour billions into the economy.

These benefits are expected to more than offset a projected $2.1-billion drop in investment by energy companies this year.

“If you get consumers responding to these lower gasoline prices and you get exporters managing to respond to the strength in the U.S. economy plus the weaker Canadian dollar, it can provide a significant offset to what we’re likely going to see on the investment side,” said Paul Ferley, RBC’s assistant chief economist. “Where’s the offset going to play out? Well, certainly the manufacturing sector to the extent that they see improvement in terms of exports to the U.S., benefits from both the stronger U.S. economy and the weakening of the Canadian dollar.”

Over the longer term, Ms. Wynne is prepared to help Alberta get more of its oil to market. Last month, she said Ontario would not consider greenhouse gas emissions from the oil sands when deciding whether to support the proposed Energy East pipeline, which would carry crude from Alberta and Saskatchewan to Eastern Canadian refineries and export terminals.

She told The Globe and Mail that climate-change talks should be done separately – as part of a broader Canadian Energy Strategy to be negotiated this year – from discussions over Energy East.

“I’ve always separated those things. I’ve always talked about the need for a Canadian Energy Strategy, from the time I came into this office,” she said. “At the same time, I’ve talked about the Energy East project, I’ve talked about that pipeline project as one that we needed to do right but that we needed to work with Alberta.”

“Alberta’s well-being and Ontario’s well-being are interconnected, so we want everyone to be doing well,” she said.

Alberta will need all the support it can get if oil prices continue their slide.

RBC economists expect investment in the oil and gas exploration and development industry to fall by three per cent this year, from an estimated total of $71.6-billion in 2014, assuming West Texas Intermediate oil averages $65 a barrel. WTI crude fell 58 cents to settle at $52.69 a barrel Friday.

Numerous energy companies have already announced sharply lower capital spending for the year – with some already cutting budgets more than once – due to crude prices that fell 46 per cent through 2014. Longer-term oil sands and offshore projects were among the first to be delayed.

Investment in oil and gas and related industries, such as pipelines and oil-field services, has amounted to a third of the business outlay in Canada. However, that was less than 5 per cent of total Canadian GDP, as all business investment makes up 13 per cent of GDP, according to the report. A 3-per-cent drop in energy spending would cut GDP growth by 0.1 percentage points. A 10-per-cent drop would still mean a modest 0.3-percentage-point hit to GDP growth.

The Globe and Mail: Premier Wynne says Ontario ready to play leading ro…

2 of 2 1/6/2015 1:03 PM

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Electric Age Answer

Electric Age

Obaid Lootah

English 204

Dr. Sana Shamaileh

5 January 2015

Table of Contents

Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3

Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………4

Electric cars…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…….5

Electric cars over gasoline cars………..…………………………………………………………………………..….7

Efficiency………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………….……7

Performance benefits………………………….………………………………………………………………………8

Anti-pollution………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……9

Renewable source of energy……………………….………………………………………………………..……10

Comparatively cheap value……………………………………………………………………………..…………11

Safety………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………11

Electric cars: A sustainable way out………………………………………………………………………….……12

Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………13

References…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….15

Abstract

In the past two decades the world has tremendously developed. Remarkable inventions have occurred and one amongst them is cars that have become a necessity in the modern day lifestyle. However, it has been noted that there are several aspects of a gasoline cars that pose serious threat to environment. Electric cars that run with the help of electricity have been seen as a valuable alternative to gasoline cars. The paper makes several arguments in favor that can electric cars replace gasoline cars. Benefits of electric cars over gasoline cars have been discussed. The paper researches the answer as why electric cars must be brought into use? It concludes with assertion that electric cars can definitely replace gasoline cars.

Introduction

The world is developing at and extremely rapid pace and new inventions occurring in the society has completely changed our lifestyles. The rapid progress that has been made in the past two hundred years has been remarkable. The lifestyle, the society, science, technology and almost every field have rapidly advanced. Motor cars are one such innovation that completely changed the face of transportation and made individuals mobile (Angell, Comer & Wilkinson, 1991). The 20th century saw cars becoming common amongst people. The 21st century marked rapid utilization of cars and it has been considered as a necessity at every house. However, in our quest of development and technological advancement, we have far left behind the environmental factors (Hester & Harrison, 2007).

Today ecological imbalance has become one of the biggest threats on the earth. Pollution, global warming, waste generation, climatic variations, rise in sea level, health hazards, extinction of many species are becoming common consequences (Angell, Comer & Wilkinson, 1991). The world is gradually becoming aware of these harmful changes and now many alternative means are looked for. Cars are undoubtedly, a lifestyle necessity, but also equally responsible in having negative impact upon the environment (Edelstein, 2014). The gasoline cars have great threat to the environment and produce large amount of pollution. Other than pollution it uses non renewable source of energy, which cannot be easily replenished (Angell, Comer & Wilkinson, 1991). Most of the environmentalists have devised and alternative to gasoline cars and opined that electric cars can be a beneficial alternatives (De Waard & Klein, 1977).

Electric cars have engines that work on electricity and owe no dependence upon non renewable sources of energy (MIT Technology Review, 2013). However, there is a never ending debate regarding the feasibility of electric cars and reasons to replace gasoline cars by electric cars. It must not be denied the environmental condition of the earth is at very appalling position. Environmentalists have even quoted that “the mother earth is dying” (Hester & Harrison, 2007). The natural source of energy has been over used and they are not replenished at the pace at which, they are being over used. In such a situation it is necessary to switch to as many as possible means that our eco friendly (Hester & Harrison, 2007).

Electric cars are seldom criticised for not having high range and runs on a restricted speed. After a limited time running, electric cars require charging for long durations. The cost of fuel is reduced in electric cars, but the initial cost of the car is comparatively higher than gasoline cars (Whitacre, 2011). Electric cars generate minimum noise pollution, but the silence of electric cars has resulted in many accidents. Frequent charging, limited speed and uncertainty of battery in electric cars are few demerits of electric cars (Perkins, 1997). But in the era of energy crisis and ecological imbalance, replacing gasoline cars with electric cars is definitely a productive idea and can be one of the most optimistic steps towards environmental friendly initiative (De Waard & Klein, 1977).

Electric Cars

In the decade of 1880s, electric cars were first created. They utilized electricity for running of the engine. With the advent of the 20th century combustion engines became cheap because of their mass productivity. As a result the wave of electric cars became dormant (Mackay, 2012). However, when the global energy crisis occurred all across the world and oil prices hiked overnight people became to look for alternative means for transportation. Gasoline cars became unaffordable for people belonging to middle classes (De Waard & Klein, 1977).  By the end of the 20th century it became clear that the environmental crisis is becoming common because of the harmful effects of gasoline cars (Edelstein, 2014). The awareness towards environment and concern related to depletion of natural resources paved the way to popularity of electric cars. Being laden with multiple advantages, people began to prefer electronic cars (Alternative-energy-news.info, 2014).

Electric cars are becoming the latest trend in the 21st century. They work on the concept of utilization of electricity for their functioning. The energy used by electric cars for propulsion of vehicle is derived from the energy stored in a battery or multiple batteries. The combustion within the engine of the car occurs in a very safe and clean way (Alternative-energy-news.info, 2014). Electric cars have been especially designed to replace the traditional motor and gasoline consumption cars. Electric cars are far better and advantageous than gasoline cars. The gasoline engine is replaced by an electric motor to provide power to an electric car. It is not easy to identify that a car is a gasoline car or an electric car from their outer appearance (Mackay, 2012). It becomes nearly impossible to identify because nowadays, the gasoline powered cars are being changed and modified into electric cars by changing the functions of the engine (De Waard & Klein, 1977). As for driving of gasoline and electric cars, both work upon the similar pattern and it is only the silent engine of electric cars that makes them different from gasoline cars. The visible and physical differences between gasoline and electric cars are difficult to trace (Mackay, 2012). However, there are many technological variations that distinguish the very purpose and intentions of electric cars from gasoline cars. In an electric car, an electric motor replaces the gasoline engine (Edelstein, 2014). The controller derives its power to run from the electric motor fitted in the engine. There are a series of rechargeable batteries place that enables the controller to get charged and derive the needed power (Mackay, 2012).

A large number of initiatives have been taken all across the globe to make people aware of the negative impacts caused by gasoline cars. These initiatives are also working as a propagator of electric cars. People are guided and motivated to switch to electric cars and march towards an environmental friendly change (De Waard & Klein, 1977). However, there are groups worldwide that support gasoline cars and criticize that electric car require long duration of charging. They have also been considered to have a very short distance range as compared to other motor cars (Mackay, 2012). Despite the criticism, it must not been forgotten that electric cars are becoming a reality today and have continuously increasing number of buyers bringing into use the electric cars (Alternative-energy-news.info, 2014).

Electric cars over gasoline cars

Following are certain advantages to depict reasons for the remarkably beneficial demand of electric cars:

  • Efficiency

The concept of energy has always been a matter of concern with motor vehicles. The cars that utilize energy most effectively as well as efficiently are considered as better. The first choice of every buyer purchasing a car is to grab an energy efficient car (Alternative-energy-news.info, 2014). Gasoline cars were considered to be very efficient in the 20th century. However, the advent of the era of electric cars completely changed the car productivity scenario of gasoline cars (Fuel economy.gov, 2014). The electric cars are far better than the gasoline cars because they are highly energy efficient. It has been estimated that gasoline cars and vehicles have the ability to convert nearly 17% to 21% of the energy that has been derived from gasoline (Fuel economy.gov, 2014). On the other hand, it is noteworthy that nearly 59% to 62% of the electric energy is utilized in electric vehicles by the controller to provide power at the wheels (Fuel economy.gov, 2014). Thus, the engine of electric cars are nearly three times more energy efficient than the gasoline cars. Being energy efficient, not only the speed of car and driving goes smooth, but also the maintenance cost of engine is reduced (Edelstein, 2014). The electric cars are energy saving and they tend to reduce the global warming and create a breathable and eco-friendly environment for the upcoming as well as the existing generations. The gasoline cars often face the problem of inefficiency and engine failure because of continuous combustion of fuel. On the other hand electric cars being energy efficient vehicles tend to increase the life of the engine and thus, life and durability of a car on the whole.

  • Performance benefits

The pleasure of driving is only achieved when the car gives highly beneficial performance. Most of the gasoline cars require high maintenance and demands regular servicing and care of the vehicle. When it comes to performance not extremely praiseworthy results are achieved (Brain, 2014). The gasoline cars run smooth and give a good performance only when they are new or till few days after their servicing done (Fuel economy.gov, 2014). However, cars are not always accessible to servicing or regular maintenance. Drivers always wish for a car having minimum maintenance cost and maximum performance benefits. The electric cars have high end performance benefits when compared to their counterparts that run on diesel and petrol (Fuel economy.gov, 2014).  The petrol and diesel cars have a good acceleration but the smoothness and pick up of the engine is not comparable to as that of an electric car (Edelstein, 2014). When it comes on monetary grounds, it is also a pointer that the electric cars are a big value for money for the individual owning it, whereas the petrol and diesel cars today are a big spend on because of the constantly hiking prices of them. The electric cars have desired performance benefits because of the electric motor used in the engine (Brain, 2014). The working of electric motors includes a strongly accelerated, smoothly run and quietly operated functioning (Fuel economy.gov, 2014). When the engine works smoothly, automatically the maintenance effort upon the electric car becomes less as compared to the gasoline cars.

  • Anti-pollution

Air Pollution has become one major form of pollution in the society. Rapid development, industrialization and urbanization give rise to environmental pollution, which are very harmful for the environment. It must not be forgotten that vehicles add great amount of pollution (Angell, Comer & Wilkinson, 1991). Gasoline cars work upon the principle of combustion of gasoline to run the engine. As a result combustion causes great amount of pollution. Since cars has become a necessity and is a part of every household, it is necessary to switch to non polluting cars. It is noteworthy that electric cars are completely non- polluting (De Waard & Klein, 1977). Pollution is one the alarming and rapidly rising issues in today’s times. Every national or international summit being held today focuses on this main agenda. Each and every sector is trying hard to bring down the levels of pollution on a global scale. When it comes to the automobile sector, a new innovation of electric cars has totally revolutionized the scenario (Fuel economy.gov, 2014). With the introduction of the electric cars in the market circuit, the pollution levels are expected to come down by 60% globally which is a remarkable amount. The engine of an electric car works on the principle of converting electrical energy to mechanical energy for the acceleration of the engine (Brain, 2014). Since no kind of combustion occurs, electric cars are extremely non- polluting. However, there is some level of pollution generated by the power plants that are installed for the charging of electric cars. But the king of pollution caused can be very easily controlled as compared to the pollution that millions of gasoline cars generate (Mackay, 2012).

Noise pollution has also become a great cause of nuisance and is becoming harmful for living creatures. When motors of gasoline cars run, a lot of loud sounds are produced and when multiple gasoline cars run, noise pollution is caused. This pollution not only is harsh to hear, but the fumes emitted are lethal in nature (Angell, Comer & Wilkinson, 1991). A very high amount of poisonous gases and several heavy metals like lead and arsenic are emitted into the environment which once settle in the vapors come with the downpour. These chemicals get mixed with the soil; get inhaled by individuals leading to such fatal diseases which take direct toll on the lives of the individuals. On the other hand, electric cars have a silent functioning mechanism. Similar to their smooth performance, they run generating no noise. In every sense, electric cars are environmental friendly.

  • Renewable Source of Energy

The crisis of energy has been an issue of global concern. The rise in population and demand of resources is rising day by day. Today is the era when the renewable or the inexhaustible sources of energy are being taken into advantage so that, the inexhaustible and non renewable sources of energy do not get totally depleted. The renewable sources of energy are a good to go choice for all, as they do not pollute the environment, do not stress out the ecosystem and have all positive effects on the health of the individuals too. Since the utilization of resources has become a greed based agenda and not a need based requirement, threat to resources is high (Angell, Comer & Wilkinson, 1991). The rate at which the consumption, overutilization and exploitation of resources takes place, it is far less than the rate at which the resources are getting replenished. Exhaustion over non renewable resources of energy has become most potential risk. Gasoline cars utilize gasoline, a petroleum product and are non renewable source of energy. On the other hand, electric cars utilize electricity, which can be produced from renewable source of energy such as wind, water, solar energy, etc. Renewable sources of energy can be produced soon and have nearly no risk of their exhaustion and it is feasible to promote electric cars. Electric cars support the environment and a one step towards sustainable development (Mackay, 2012).

  • Comparatively Cheap Value

Gasoline cars use non renewable source of energy and being present in limited supply, gasoline is expensive. As far as maintenance cost is concerned, gasoline cars require high cost of maintenance and followed by regular servicing. On the contrary, expenses of gasoline cars, electric cars are comparatively cheap (MIT Technology Review, 2013). The charging of the engine in an electric car is relatively cheap. Being easy to maintain, electric cars tend to require minimum cost of expenditure for their maintenance. In the era where inflation is rising rapidly and use of cars is unavoidable, it is essential to promote cheaper alternatives such as electric cars (MIT Technology Review, 2013).

  • Safety

Apart from maintenance, environmental sustainability and lesser cost, electric cars have another extraordinary advantage. Electric cars are safer than gasoline cars and hence must be brought into practical use (MIT Technology Review, 2013). In gasoline cars, there is a single large tanker to store gasoline. Gasoline is flammable and there are chances that the gasoline car catches fire. The engines in gasoline cars work under a complex mechanism having multiple moving parts and there are high probabilities of breakdown of one part or another (MIT Technology Review, 2013). It has been estimated that mechanical breakdown in gasoline cars is one of the major cause of fires in them. Health and life hazards are maximum when it comes to the cars which run on gasoline, but when we talk about the electric cars, the health and life risk are minimalistic (Kasperson & Kasperson, 2001). The electric cars have almost negligible risk of catching fires which can be a big threat to the life of the individual driving it. The chances of such risk are very less in electric cars. They are not only durable, highly efficient, but also safe (MIT Technology Review, 2013).

Electric Cars: A Sustainable Way Out

Global environmental issues are becoming agendas of urgent concern. The Rio Summit or the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) was held in June 1992 at Rio de Janerio (De Waard & Klein, 1977). The conference warned against the leading environmental problems such as pollution and global warming as well as pressure upon resources. It advised the member nation states to switch to vehicles that have less pressure upon non renewable sources of energy (Kasperson & Kasperson, 2001). UNESCO launched a decade as United Nations Decade on Sustainable Development from the year 2005 to 2014. Sustainability has become the new alternative concept in the 21st century and electric cars are undoubtedly a symbol of sustainability (Brain, 2014). There is urgent cry to minimize ecological imbalance and combustion of fuels add on to the existing environmental problems. It cannot be denied the world is accepting electric cars, but there is need to rapidly increase the use electric cars by replacing gasoline cars (Angell, Comer & Wilkinson, 1991). United States followed by Japan and then China are presently largest producers of electronic cars. Mass production of electric cars and other electric vehicles including two wheelers, vans, and heavy vehicles have been promoted all over the worlds. It has been estimated that in the year 2011 there were nearly 500000 electric cars being used all across the world (Mackay, 2012).

 

Conclusion

The choice between electric cars and gasoline cars is like selecting between the right way and the wrong ways. People are now becoming aware and increasing concerned about environmental problems. Under such crisis, electric cars have evolved to provide some sort of solution to the pollution and pressure over the resources problem. It cannot be denied that the most feasible replacement to gasoline cars is electric cars. Electric cars are environment friendly because they create neither air pollution nor noise pollution. Electric cars have multiple benefits when it comes to the grounds of using them, as in:

  • The electric cars reduce the yearly cost of running of the vehicle to almost half which can result into a lot of money saving.
  • An individual can easily charge the car at home over night and can bring the car into use the next day, which is a big lifestyle convenience for all.
  • Electric cars are eco-friendly and cause no distress to the ecosystem.

The electricity used for running the engine is produced from recyclable sources of energy such as wind, water or solar energy. As a result, non renewable sources of energy which are over used by gasoline cars are not pressurized by the electric cars. The engine in electric cars is more long lasting than gasoline cars. The better performance yield of the electric cars and very little expenditure upon the maintenance of electric cars make them comparatively cheaper than gasoline cars. Undoubtedly, electric cars are a symbol of sustainable development. The electric cars concept has come up as a savior in this hour of need when the renewable sources need to be harnessed and the non renewable resources are in the need of being saved so that they can have time to multiply and they can be used by our future generations as well. In this global cry for environmental protection and maintenance of ecological balance, it is necessary to replace gasoline cars with electric cars.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

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Angell, D., Comer, J., & Wilkinson, M. (1991). Sustaining earth. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Brain, M. (2014). An Electric Car Example – HowStuffWorksHowStuffWorks. Retrieved 23 November 2014, from

De Waard, E., & Klein, A. (1977). Electric cars. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday.

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Hester, R., & Harrison, R. (2007). Biodiversity under threat. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.

Kasperson, J., & Kasperson, R. (2001). Global environmental risk. Shibuya-ku, Tokyo: United Nations University Press.

MacKay, J. (2012). Electric cars. Detroit: Lucent Books.

MIT Technology Review,. (2013). Why Electric Cars Could Be Safer than Gasoline-Powered Ones | MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 23 November 2014, from

Perkins, S. (1997). Electric Cars… Fueled by Gasoline?. Science News152(18), 279. doi:10.2307/3981081

Whitacre, J. (2011). Charging Up Electric Cars. Science333(6040), 290-290. doi:10.1126/science.1208784