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Discourse analysis of applied linguistics-ANSWER

Discourse analysis of applied linguistics


Applied linguistics for a long time has involved editing high-quality materials and reference books and research on practical teaching methods; these have always been a major issue in language teaching and research. Apart from general language teaching, it also serves the second purpose; language teaching, bilingual teaching and teaching the deaf-blind (Pennycook 2009). Further, Cook & North (2010) explains that practice and applied linguistic theory are combined by linguists through research and practice to summarize the theory, and then put the theory into practice. Again repeated practice eventually selects those related knowledge into the language teaching. Therefore, applied linguistics focuses on the systematic research of language structure, from first language acquisition to other languages, using second language to make communication, study the status of language as the product of particular cultures and other social group.

Discourse analysis which is a branch of applied linguistics, its main role is to study the use of language by the method of discourse analysis. Discourse is a specific speech acts that is engaged communication between people under a particular social context; it is activities between speaker and hearer under a particular social context and through a text expanded communication (Gee 2004). Discourse analysis refers to the use of the symbols in theory and discourse theory and through the communication activities of various symbols, symbols, text and discourse were dissected then to find the implicit deep intention from the appearance (Jrgensen & Phillips 2002). The role of discourse analysis is to build a variety of important entities, and in different ways to bring people into the social status of subject, which reveals the ideological of discourse constitutes social identity, social relations and knowledge and belief system of role (Johnstone, 2002). Hall, Smith & Wicaksono (2001) concluded that the discourse analysis is mainly related to general discourse meaning, linguistics methods, sociological approach, contemporary topic and how to use discourse analysis to help those people who need to apply language. This paper will focus on the Corpus linguistics and critical discourse analysis these two parts to study, and through the theoretical of discourse analysis to compare two students how to succeed in learning English at different language teaching and language environments.

Client background

The first client (A) 23 years old, He has learnt English for six years in China. His initial goal of learning English was to pass the exam, after his move to Chinese English School to learn English in order to pass the IELTS exam. Student A’s ultimate goal is going to study at a university in the United Kingdom. He acquired some simple English skills from school in the past six years ago, such as simple communication, independently to achieve 120 words English Writing. After his English ability has been greatly improved and ultimately IELTS by 6 points.

The second client (B) is 26 years old, although she participated in a normal school English education in China, however, due to various reasons, she did not get much of English, only know some simple word pronunciation. Then she transferred into an English-speaking country to learn English, from the most basic to start learning English, and ultimately she has to enter the United Kingdom’s University study.

1.     Corpus linguistics

Corpus Linguistics is a technique of performing linguistic analyses. It is essentially an analysis of naturally happening language under computerised corpora that is achieved through the help of a computer that is installed with some specialised software that considers the frequency of the occurrence of the feature that is under investigation (Nesselhauf 2011). Corpus Linguistics can be used in investigating a variety of linguistic questions because it has shown a tendency of having of producing highly interesting, elemental, and frequently surprisingly new insights into language use. It has actually become one of the widely used linguistic methods for language investigation purposes. This will at least require knowing what corpus is and what linguistics information do linguistics require to properly investigating any linguistics phenomenon. A corpus is a collection of systematically ordered text of both spoken and written of naturally occurring language (Meyer 2002). Corpus is generally restricted to a given type of texts, to a number of English varieties and to a given period of time. In the case where a number of subcategories; varieties of English, several types of texts, among others, occur, they are normally represented by the similar amount of text in a corpus. Also the information contained within a corpus that is available to the researcher comprises a distinct number of words in every subcategory, category and the entire corpus and also dictates the manner in which the texts and the entire corpus is to be sampled (Dash 2010). On the other hand, the following four forms of data are used by the linguists in investigating linguistic features, these are: introspection; the intuition of the researcher and other people’s intuition that falls under the category of that information/ data is acquired through intuition, and anecdotal evidence (randomly collected occurrences of texts) and the corpus (discussed above which is systematic and orderly in nature), that falls under the naturally happening languages (Hunston 2006). Therefore, the corpus falls under the naturally occurring languages as opposed to the data acquired through intuition.

There are generally a number of corpora that can be put into different kind of uses depending on the types of analysis to be carried out. There is the general corpus versus the specialised corpus, for example, the Bank of English, or the British National Corpus (BNC), whose objective is represent a variety of a language as a whole, and it contains both written and spoken language, a number of test types, among other features (Nesselhauf 2011). There is also the present-day versus the historical language corpora, for example, Helsinki Corpus, ARCHER, whose objective is to represent the languages’ earlier stages (McCarthy 2006). There are also regional corpora and a corpora representing not less than one language variety, for example, The Wellington Corpus of Written New Zealand English (WCWZE), whose aim is to represent ne regional variety of a language; like the above-mentioned one for the New Zealand variety of English (Taylor 2010). Another corpus is the native speaker corpora versus the leaner corpora, for example, the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE), whose objective is to represent the reproduced language by the learners (Roberts 2009). Also there is a single-language corpus versus multi-lingual corpora, whose objective is to represent more than two dissimilar languages, in most cases, with similar text types for the purposes of contrastive analyses (Gries 2009). There is also a corpora of spoken versus written versus mixed languages, for example, the London-Lund Corpus of Spoken English, whose goal is to represent spoken English. Finally, there is orthographic versus annotated corpora, where the annotated corpus contains a ready linguistic analysis on the texts; word classification and/or sentence analysis (Nesselhauf, 2011).

For client A, who intended to study English in order to pass his IELTS exams and then later on Study at a university in the United Kingdom, there is a variety of corpora that he can utilise to achieve his goals. Firstly, in order to pass his IELTS exams, it is recommended that he utilises the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE), whose objective is to represent the reproduced language by the learners. The International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE) comprises of written argumentative essays by English learners (mostly advanced learners in their tertiary level institutions) from varying mother-tongue backgrounds across the globe; Chinese, Turkish, Bulgarian, Japanese, Czech, Norwegian, Swahili, Russian, Italian, Dutch, German, Tswana, Swedish, Spanish, Finnish, among others (Language Technology World 2014).

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Points (1400)

Company:  Law Firm : Lincoln Partners, Esq.

A law firm has hired you as a Network Security Consultant to help its operations by providing a secure network to support its growth.  The Law firm currently has offices in Philadelphia, Cherry Hill, Wilmington, Harrisburg and Princeton.  Its corporate office out of Philadelphia will provide all of its IT support.

Philadelphia Office is the main corporate office and consists of the following groups

Legal Group

Partners:  There are 3 Attorneys that are the principals of the firm.

Associates:  There are 10 Associates, attorneys, who work for the firm but do not share in the company profits, and therefore are not partners.

Paralegals: There are 15 Paralegals, who work on a part time basis to support the law firm

Office Manager:  One manager who is responsible to support the office and she is responsible to ensure that everything runs smoothly, such as telephone, Fax, Copy, Supplies, Utilities, IT, etc. Also Manages the Cherry Hill Location.

IT Admin:  He is responsible for maintaining all of the IT equipment: Internet Services, Telephone Services, Desktops, Servers, Routers and Switches, and Website. Also supports the Cherry Hill location.

Other Offices:

Associates:  There are three associates, who help get new clients from other offices and their respective areas.

Paralegal:    There is one paralegal to support the associates

IT Background Information

PhiladelphiaOther Offices
Servers (Windows )11
Network Printers / Copier / Fax10
Desktop Printers5 – (Partners, Office Manager, IT Admin)4
Switches1 Main 2 Distributions1
Website – OutsourcedOutsourced
Email –Outsourced

Security Issues:  What concerns the partners at this firm

  • Associates and paralegals taking clients / stealing business
  • Not having the ability to monitor business in remote locations
  • Reduce Costs in IT by consolidating
  • Privacy for their clients information

Task 1: Design a Secure Network using either Visio, Paint, Word, etc showing the All locations.

Task 2: Design and provide the IP Scheme for the network

Task 3: Establish a VPN between the All offices and allow the ability to work from home.

Task 4: Allow all employees the ability to access servers at the other locations

Task 5: Show and/or document all necessary security controls and its configuration.

Task 6: Update the firewalls to ensure security policy is enforced

Task 7: Show the DMZ on the diagram and placement of servers and Eliminate Outsourcing

Additionally, a new database (DB) system has been implemented in the Philadelphia office that is accessible by all locations.  The DB holds client data that is confidential, and needs to be properly protected.  The DB system also tracks attorney hours and allows the attorneys to charge the right customers.  Many attorneys have been issued laptops and now have the ability to VPN from home.



Please submit your assignment to show all 7 tasks.

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Company:  Law Firm: Lincoln Partners, Esq.

Harishad Adulla

Web and Data Security

Wilmington University


Task 1/3: Design a Secure Network using either Visio, Paint, Word, etc showing the All locations.

While your diagrams does show all locations, you had shown connections everywhere and it was hard to understand the flow of traffic based on the diagram.   Task 3 was barely discussed and explained. No VPN configuration has been shown.

Task 2: Design and provide the IP Scheme for the network

While you provided the IP scheme, you did not provide what would the addresses for your routers, DHCP Zone, statics, etc. (150)

Task 4: Allow all employees the ability to access servers at the other locations, while your solution does involve cloud computing, Has the cloud computing internal or outsourced. This was not clear. As you can see, task 7 indicates that outsourcing needs to be eliminated. Task 4 was to show VPN configuration.

Task 5: Show and/or document all necessary security controls and its configuration. While this course discusses various levels of controls Firewalls, Configurations, policies, many of those were not covered. Discussion of physical controls is important, but so is a discussion on encryptions.

Task 6: Update the firewalls to ensure security policy is enforced. Task 6 Firewalls RuleSets was not provided.

Task 7 DMZ – while importance of DMZ was discussed. DMZ architecture was not shown or discussed. Task 7 was not discussed adequately.   No firewall configuration has been shown. No VPN configuration has been shown.

Task 1   150

Task 2   150

Task 3   0

Task 4  100

Task 5   100

Task 6   50

Task 7 50

Total 600 points.


Organizations require a robust network to manage its processes as they grow to global proportions and to support diverse applications such as distributed computing, teleconferencing, digital libraries, video on demand, and other applications. In creating these systems, it is fundamental to consider available technologies that the network will serve and the kind of architecture designed to integrate the building blocks into effective communication services. In this case study assignment, I construct a network for Lincoln Partners Esq., a law firm headquartered in Philadelphia. The specifications for the network are provided in the table below.











Task 1 & 3

Philadelphia (Main Office)                                                                                             Princeton



Wilmington                                                                                      Cherryhill

Task 2: IP Scheme

The organization has 5 locations: Philadelphia, Princeton, Wilmington, Cherryhill, and Harrisburg. The scheme is developed based on the specifications given. The IP scheme is generated from the IT Information Background provided.  Each of the company locations is given a unique IP address as depicted in the schedule.




Office Location








Task 4: Working from Home and Other Locations

The developed network is made to be flexible so that employees will be made to work from home and other locations, depending on the prevailing conditions.  Through cloud computing, the employees will access tools, applications, databases, and documents from various locations.  The idea is to provide flexibility to the organization and ability to introduce new tools and phase out old ones.  The IT Admin is in charge of the communication system. Therefore, his or her responsibilities include ensuring that all employees have the right software and hardware to perform their roles.  In the set-up developed, every employee has their own computer. An application is loaded that allows all employees to log into a service based on the web, and that hosts all programs that workers require to complete their duties.

Task 5: Necessary Security Controls

Physical Precautions

Security involves technical controls. However, there are physical measures that are taken to ensure the security of the networked system. The server is placed in a location that is safe. For this particular set-up, the servers for each of the offices will be placed in a secured placed. The place will be locked at night.  Only the IT administrator has the authority over who has an entry into the place in which the server is stored.

Enabling the Server’s Security Features

The server’s security features will be installed as appropriate. Precaution is exercised to ensure that they work properly and that existing security features are not overwritten, including any other security features.


For the developed network, both software and hardware firewalls are used. Hardware firewalls are located in the broadband router. Its role is to stop incoming threats such as files downloaded from the internet and that carry viruses. The problem with hardware firewalls is that they are not effective in stopping outgoing threats. For instance, if a person working within the organization downloads an infected document onto a USB drive at home and brings the file to the place of work and mails it around the office, software firewalls are effective at arresting this kind of threat. Hence, software firewalls will be installed to separate computers. This will be costly, but this essential because the developed systems allows employees to work from home, hence, opening the possibility of sharing infected files between the office computers and the home computers.

Guarding Passwords

Security codes will be given to persons on a need-to-know basis. In addition, passwords will be changed after every six months.  This is to ensure that the security codes do not find their way into the wrong hands.

Task 6: Updated firewalls

The network involves sharing information between five locations. In addition, it allows employees to work from home. Hence, it is vital to create mechanisms for ensuring the security of the system. It is important to protect information coming into the network and information going out of the network. In a couple of situations, there is a transfer of information through USB and electronic mail.  In addition, there are instances of malware attacks.  These are reasons why the system should be protected against un-trusted networks. Firewall is a piece of software or hardware that can help protect computers against computer virus and other forms of computer attacks.  For the developed network, firewalls will be introduced between the local servers for the different offices and the routers. The part of the connection will look like the one shown in the diagram. The firewall will be placed as an extension of the network; hence, the network work shown is just a part of the network created. It will be placed between all internal and external connections.


Hardware/software firewall


Task 7: DMZ on the network diagram

In computer networks, DMZ, or demilitarized zone, is a small network or host computer created as a neutral zone between the company’s private network and the outside public network. DMZ prevents outside users from obtaining direct access to servers that have company data. It is an optional and more secure approach to firewalls and effectively acts as a proxy server.

Internet/Untrusted network



Hardware/software firewall



Salamone, Salvatore.  (1998, December).  VPN Implementation Calls for a Tunnel Trip.  Internet Week.  Retrieved from

Stewart, K., Adams, A., & Reid, A. (2008). Designing and Supporting Computer Networks.  Indianapolis, IN: Cisco Press

Hanrion, P. & Stakpole, B. (2007). Software Deployment, Updating, and Patching.  Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press

Morley, D. (2009). Understanding Computers Today and Tomorrow. Boston, MA: Cengage.

Furht, B. & Escalante, A. (2010). Handbook of Cloud Computing. New York, NY: Springer

Syngress (2003). Building DMZs for Enterprise Networks.  Rockland, MA: Syngress Publishing, Inc.

Peterson, L. & Davie, B. (2011). Computer Networks: A Systems Approach. Burlington, MA: Elsevier

Boone, L.  & Kurtz, D. (2009). Contemporary Business 2010 Update.  Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons

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Arena Assignment+Report

The project consists of the purchase of a chosen artefact not exceeding £20.
The project would then consist of breaking the product into its components and development of a production process plan. The production process plan should include the methods, pathways, sequences of the production process. Also a research into the number of orders can be made by estimation. For example for a remote control toy car the number of weekly, monthly or annual orders needs to be made. A proper production plan and schedules should be created. The assembly line should be designed based on the sequence of work, system capacity, schedules, possible breakdowns, line-balancing and plant layout design.
Process times for each work-station can be defined through time and motion studies. This can either be done by practically using a stopwatch to assess the time or usage of techniques such as Maynard Operation Sequence Technique (MOST) for time studies.
This exercise is designed for you to appreciate the work and effort required to conduct a full plant layout design, creation of a workable production process and deal with system limitations. And above all utilising the capabilities of Systems Modelling and Simulation to plan and design a real system.
The assessment criteria would also include intuitive problem solving, approaches to problem definition, system design, and usage of the main subject covered in this module to solve the problem.
Deadline is: 1 January 2015
Simulation part on last version of Arena + report writing 8 pages
Discrete Event Simulation

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Mechanical Engineering Project-QUESTION

1. Design of a cam system – Aortic Pressure. A cam-driven pump to simulate
aortic pressure is needed to serve as a consistent, repeatable pseudo-human input
to a hospital’s operating room computer monitoring equipment, in order to test it
daily. The figure shows a typical aortic pressure curve and the pump pressurevolume
characteristic. (Assume the diameter of the cylinder is 1 unit.)
a) Design a displacement function to drive the piston to follow as close as
possible the aortic pressure curve. Make sure that the jerk is finite along the
whole rotation of the cam.
b) Create the equations and plot the cam profile for a radial, knife-edged
follower (not a roller follower like the one in the figure) using Maple or
c) Create a prototype of the cam and follower system and simulate using
2. Design of a cam system – Footwear. An athletic footwear manufacturer wants a
device to test the rubber heels for their ability to withstand millions of cycles of
force similar to the force that the human’s foot applies to the ground. The figure
shows a typical walker’s force-time function. Consider that a loading cycle lasts
for T = 0.5 sec. (Assume the diameter of the cylinder is 1 unit.)
a) Design a displacement function to drive the piston to follow as close as
possible the aortic pressure curve. Make sure that the jerk is finite along the
whole rotation of the cam.
b) Create the equations and plot the cam profile for a radial, knife-edged
follower (not a roller follower like the one in the figure) using Maple or
c) Create a prototype of the cam and follower system and simulate using

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Digital Electronics-Question



You need to include Your Schematics, Your Netlist, Your Plots, and Your Hand Calculations (Analytical Results) for both questions in your report.


Question #1 Design and simulate (using SPICE and the MOS model parameters used in ECE442-lab) A Full-Adder using:

  1. a) CMOS AOI (AND-OR-Inverter) Logic
  2. b) Transmission Gates
  3. c) Dynamic Logic (assume the clock has a frequency of 100 MHz)


Choose an appropriate value for the load capacitor say 0.2pF.

Calculate (analytically) the TPHL and TPLH for part “a” and verify through simulation using SPICE


Calculate (analytically) the VOL, VOH, VIL, VIH, NML and NML for case “a” ONLY and verify through simulation using SPICE


Question #2 It is desired to simulate (Generate timing diagrams for the The Clock, the D-input and the Q-output) the following Static, edge triggered, Master Slave FF shown below. Describe the set-up and the hold times. Investigate the effect of clock skew via simulations.
















Question #3 In the class we discussed the single input CMOS Inverter. We saw that the output high-to-low transition and low-to-high transition occur for the same input voltage (we called that input voltage VM or the inverter threshold). In the following circuit, you will demonstrate that the low-to-high transition and the high-to-low transition occur at different input voltages. This phenomenon is called “hysteresis”. Circuits that exhibiting this phenomenon are called “Schmitt Triggers”. Assume:

For the NMOS No & NI : (W/L) = 8m/2m

For the PMOS Po & PI: (W/L) = 20m/2m

For the NMOS NF: (W/L) = 24m/2m

For the PMOS PF: (W/L) = 60m/2m


You are to perform Transient SPICE simulation on the following using SPICE MOS Level-1 Device Use SPICE MOS Level-1 Device with the following parameters:

VTO = Zero-Biased Threshold Voltage

 Assume VTO = 1 volt for NMOS and -1 volts for PMOS


Trans-conductance Parameter

 Assume KP = 16*10-6 amps/volts2 and Kn = 40*10-6 amps/volts2


GAMMA = Body (Bulk) Threshold Parameter

 Assume GAMMA = 0.4 volts1/2 (for both types)


LAMBDA = Channel Length Modulation

 Assume LAMBDA = 0 (Long Channel)


PHI = Surface Potential (2 f )

 Assume PHI = 0.6 volts (for both types)



Assume the load capacitor = 0.5 PF and VDD = 5 volts. The input PULSE stimulus has duration of 40 nsec with 10 nsec of rise and fall times as shown in the figure. Plot the output voltage between 0 sec and 50 nsec (in steps of 10 nsec) and find the input voltages (different) that result in high-to-low and low-to-high transitions. Find these voltages analytically (Set up the VTC like we did in class for the regular CMOS inverter) and compare with the simulation results.







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