Reliability & Validity of an Arabic-Question

Running head: Reliability & Validity of an Arabic RCI-10 1

Title: Reliability and convergent validity of an Arabic version of the

Religious Convictions Inventory – 10 (RCI-10)

EMHCA 605 Cohort 8 Assignment 1

M8000001 – Laith Abbas

Background and Rationale

Recent longitudinal research has found that religiosity (religious conviction) was predictive of

less depression over the 10 year period (Miller et al., 2012). This study followed 114 adults over

a ten-year period. The participants were split into two groups based on family history of

depression. One group comprised individuals whose parents had no diagnostic history of

psychiatric illness, the other group were the adult off-spring of parents who had experienced a

depressive episode; these were deemed the high risk group. This study took measures of

religiosity and major depression at two points in time. The study’s essential question was: does

religiosity have a protective effect against depression over a 10-year period? The findings were

affirmative, particularly amongst individuals in the high-risk group. Overall, participants

reporting high personal importance of religion/spirituality (religiosity) had one-fourth the risk of

Running head: Reliability & Validity of an Arabic RCI-10 2

developing a major depressive episode over the 10-year prospective period compared with other

study participants. More striking still, those in the depression-high-risk group with high levels of

religiosity had only one-tenth the risk of onset or recurrence of major depression compared to the

other (less religious) high-risk participants.

There have, to date, been just a few studies in the Gulf nations exploring this topic, however the

findings of these echo those reported in other nations – religiosity appears to be a resilience

factor against depression. One study in Saudi Arabia, assessed depressive symptoms, subjective

well-being and religiosity within a school-age sample of 7211 Saudi children (8 – 11). As

predicted, there was a positive relationship between subjective wellbeing and religiosity.

Similarly, the expected inverse relationship between religiosity and depressive symptoms was

also reported. A very similar study amongst 6339 school-age Kuwaitis looked at the same

variables and also reported religiosity to be positively related to subjective well-being and

inversely related to depressive symptoms (Abdel-Khalek & Eid, 2011). Similarly, a study

amongst 444 Kuwaiti adults in the workforce reported the same pattern of findings (Abdel-

Khalek, 2008). Measuring religiosity is arguably an important variable for those involved in the

emerging field of mental health promotion.

Aim

To date there is no brief instrument designed to measure religiosity in an Islamic context and in

the Arabic language. In this assignment the Religious Convictions Inventory (Worthington,

McCullough, Berry, & Ripley, 2003) is translated into Arabic and slightly modified to fit an

Running head: Reliability & Validity of an Arabic RCI-10 3

Islamic context. The RCI-10 was chosen because it is brief and has excellent internal reliability α

= .89 and adequate test-re-test reliability r = .71 (Worthington et al., 2003).

Translation and modification (Face Validity)

A bilingual (English/Arabic) postgraduate health science student translated the original RCI

scale from English into Arabic. The translation was discussed with several other bilingual

colleagues. Finally minor modifications were made (e.g. Church becomes Masjid). We kept

these changes to a minimum. The final modified Arabic version (see appendix 1) was shown to

an Imam/ (PhD for Al Ahzar) to explore face validity, the degree to which the items seem to

capture the construct “Islamic religiosity”. The Imam made minor modification and the RCI-10

(Arabic) was deemed to have excellent face validity.

Test Re-test Reliability

The RCI-10 Arabic was administered to 19 university professors at Zayed University in Abu

Dhabi on 10/April/2013. It was then read administered to the same participants on

15/April/2013. The test-retest reliability was excellent r = .91, p <.001

Alternate forms reliability

A small group (N=8) of bilingual students completed the RCI-10 in both English and Arabic

separated by 24 hours. The alternative form/language reliability was excellent r = .95, p <.001

Convergent Validity

It was hypothesized that those with stronger religious conviction would also spend more time

reading the Quran in their spare time. Participants (N = 19) were additionally asked to report an

estimate of how many hours per month they spent reading Al Quran. The self-reported Quran

Running head: Reliability & Validity of an Arabic RCI-10 4

reading time correlated positively with RCI scores with a large effect size (r = .61, p <.01) . This

suggests a source of convergent validity for the RCI-10 Arabic.

Conclusion

In conclusion the RCI-10 Arabic appears to be a valid and reliable measure of religious

conviction in Arabic speaking Muslim participants. After further exploration this tool could

become an important instrument for regional research and public health practice

References

Abdel-Khalek, A. M. (2008). Religiosity, health and well-being among Kuwaiti personnel.

Psychological Reports, 102, 181-184.

Abdel-Khalek, A. M., & Eid, G. K. (2011). Religiosity and its association with subjective wellbeing

and depression

among Kuwaiti and Palestinian Muslim children and adolescents. Mental Health, Religion &

Culture, 14(2), 117-127.

Miller, L., Wickramaratne, P., Gameroff, M. J., Sage, M., Tenke, C. E., & Weissman, M. M.

(2012). Religiosity and major depression in adults at high risk: A ten-year prospective

study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 169(1), 89-94.

Worthington, E. L., McCullough, M. E., Berry, J. T., & Ripley, J. S. (2003). The Religious

Commitment Inventory—10: Development, Refinement, and Validation of a Brief Scale

for Research and Counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50(1), 84-96.

APPENDIX 1

# RCI-10

Responses:

* Not at all true of me

* Somewhat true of me

* Moderately true of me

* Mostly true of me

Running head: Reliability & Validity of an Arabic RCI-10 5

* Totally true of me

اﺍلردﺩوﻭدﺩ:

*لﯿﻴس صحﯿﻴحا على اﺍلإطﻁلاقﻕ بالنسبة لي

* صحﯿﻴح اً إﺇلى حد ما بالنسبة لي

* صحﯿﻴح بإعتداﺍلﻝ بالنسبة لي

If it means “neutral” then the item would be ” محاﯾﻳد ” instead (which in Arabic sounds more

correct than the one I have)

*صحﯿﻴح في أﺃغلب اﺍلأحﯿﻴانﻥ

*صحﯿﻴح اً تماما بالنسبة لي

Questions:

Original: 1. I often read books and magazines about my faith.

Modified: 1. I often watch, listen to, or read about my religion (e.g. via TV, radio, books,

magazines, social media, or the Internet) for reasons unrelated to job or education.

1. عادﺩةﺓ ما أﺃشاھﮪﮬﻫد أﺃوﻭ أﺃسمع أﺃوﻭ أﺃقرأﺃ عن اﺍلمواﺍضﯿﻴع اﺍلخاصة بدﯾﻳني (مثالﻝ: اﺍلتلفازﺯ،٬ اﺍلراﺍدﺩﯾﻳو،٬ اﺍلكتب،٬ اﺍلمجلاتﺕ،٬ مواﺍقع

اﺍلتواﺍصل اﺍلاجتماعي أﺃوﻭ اﺍلانترنت)

Original: 2. I make financial contributions to my religious organization.

Modified: 2. I make financial contributions to religious causes (e.g. zakat, sadaqah)

2. أﺃقومﻡ بالتبرعﻉ بأمواﺍلي لدوﻭاﺍفع اﺍلدﯾﻳنﯿﻴة/خﯿﻴرﯾﻳة (كالزكاةﺓ،٬ اﺍلصدقة)

Original: 3. I spend time trying to grow in understanding of my faith.

Modified: 3. I spend time trying to grow in understanding of my faith.

3. أﺃعطي نفسي اﺍلوقت اﺍلكافي لاستﯿﻴعابﺏ تعالﯿﻴم دﺩﯾﻳني وﻭ اﺍلعمل بﮭﻬا

Original: 4. Religion is especially important to me because it answers many questions

about the meaning of life.

Modified: 4. Religion is especially important to me because it answers many questions

about the meaning of life.

4. أﺃشعر بأنﻥ للدﯾﻳن خاصﯿﻴة كبﯿﻴرةﺓ في اﺍلإجابة عن أﺃسئلة اﺍلوجداﺍنﻥ وﻭ اﺍلحﯿﻴاةﺓ فلذلك ھﮪﮬﻫو مﮭﻬم بالنسبة اﺍلي

Original: 5. My religious beliefs lie behind my whole approach to life.

Modified: 5. My religious beliefs lie behind my whole approach to life.

5. توجﮭﻬني معتقداﺍتي اﺍلدﯾﻳنﯿﻴة في اﺍلتعامل مع اﺍلحﯿﻴاةﺓ.

Original: 6. I enjoy spending time with others of my religious affiliation.

Modified: 6. I enjoy spending time with other Muslims with similar religious views and

commitment.

6. أﺃستمتع بقضاء وﻭقتي مع مسلمﯿﻴن آﺁخرﯾﻳن ﯾﻳبادﺩلونني نفس اﺍلاھﮪﮬﻫتماماتﺕ وﻭاﺍلمعتقداﺍتﺕ اﺍلدﯾﻳنﯿﻴة

Original: 7. Religious beliefs influence all my dealings in life.

Modified: 7. Religious beliefs influence all my dealings in life.

7. تحكم معتقداﺍتي اﺍلدﯾﻳنﯿﻴة تصرفاتي وﻭ طﻁرﯾﻳقة تعاملي مع اﺍلحﯿﻴاةﺓ من حولي

Running head: Reliability & Validity of an Arabic RCI-10 6

Original: 8. It is important to me to spend periods of time in private religious thought and

reflection.

Modified: 8. It is important to me to spend periods of time in private religious thought

and reflection (e.g. voluntary salah [prayer], du’a [supplication], tilawah [recitation of the

Quran], dhikr [litanies], or fikr [contemplation]).

8. أﺃشعر أﺃنﮫﻪ من اﺍلمﮭﻬم أﺃنﻥ أﺃخصص لنفسي وﻭقتا للتفكر في اﺍلأمورﺭ اﺍلدﯾﻳنﯿﻴة وﻭ اﺍلتعالﯿﻴم اﺍلاسلامﯿﻴة (كصلاةﺓ اﺍلنواﺍفل،٬ اﺍلدعاء،٬

تلاوﻭةﺓ اﺍلقرآﺁنﻥ،٬ اﺍلذكر وﻭاﺍلتأمل)

Original: 9. I enjoy working in the activities of my religious organization.

Modified: 9. I enjoy working on activities of a religious nature (e.g. lectures and talks

related to religion, preparing for meals & guests during Ramadan, attending tarawih,

preparing for Eid).

9. أﺃستمتع بالمشارﺭكة في اﺍلأنشطة اﺍلدﯾﻳنﯿﻴة (مثل: اﺍلمحاضراﺍتﺕ وﻭاﺍلندوﻭاﺍتﺕ اﺍلإسلامﯿﻴة،٬ تحضﯿﻴر أﺃوﻭ تقدﯾﻳم اﺍلطعامﻡ للمحتاجﯿﻴن

في رﺭمضانﻥ،٬ تأدﺩﯾﻳة صلاةﺓ اﺍلتراﺍوﻭﯾﻳح جماعة ،٬ توزﺯﯾﻳع اﺍلعﯿﻴدﯾﻳة)

Original: 10. I keep well informed about my local religious group and have some

influence in its decisions.

Modified: 10. I keep well informed about religiously significant events in my locality

(e.g. lectures and talks related to religion, trips for Hajj & Umrah, janazas & ta’ziyah

[funeral prayers & visiting the family of the deceased])

10 . أﺃحب أﺃنﻥ أﺃكونﻥ على دﺩرﺭاﺍﯾﻳة دﺩاﺍئمة بمختلف اﺍلفعالﯿﻴاتﺕ اﺍلدﯾﻳنﯿﻴة في اﺍلمناطﻁق اﺍلمجاوﻭرﺭةﺓ لي (كالمحاضراﺍتﺕ اﺍلدﯾﻳنﯿﻴة،٬

رﺭحلاتﺕ لأدﺩاﺍء مناسك اﺍلحج وﻭ اﺍلعمرةﺓ،٬ تأدﺩﯾﻳة وﻭاﺍجب اﺍلعزاﺍء)