Social Work Theory for Practice-Answer

Introduction
There are many definitions of the term cultural competence. Davidhizar et al, (1998) defines it as the process of developing awareness about one’s own thoughts, feelings and the environment without allowing influence from the background of others. Another definition of cultural competence is the ability to have adequate understanding and knowledge of client’s culture. Yet another definition describes it as the process of recognizing, accepting and respecting cultural differences. These definitions are universal and provide definitions of cultural competence in all dimensions of life. In the context of social work, cultural competence is defined as the ability of social workers to carry out their duties in a manner consistent with the expectations of cultural groups they serve. Goldberg (2000) asserts that cultural competence is not an ultimate goal that organizations should strive to achieve but rather it is a continuous process that should progressively grow over time. Experiences during practice should enable social workers to identify strengths and vulnerabilities that will enable them to develop into culturally competent professionals.
Despite integration of comprehensive cultural studies into the academic curriculum, a gap still exists in the response to the problem and needs of the ever-growing culturally diverse community. The mainstream educational values, policy statements and practices have not effectively guided social professional activities, program techniques and approaches. For many years, the social work profession has taken pride in the recognition of its alliance with culture, gender, and racial matters and the fact that practitioners in the field do interact with diverse groups in the society. However, many scholars including Matsunaga et al, (2003) have criticized the mainstream knowledge and notions about cultural competence stating that they do not correlate with actual performance of social workers. Similarly, Tocher and Larson (1998) argue that accreditation and curriculum standards in social work education only reflect aspects of humanitarian ideologies while they tend to overlook how to work with cultures different from our own. As a result, no clear evidence of positive results can be attributed to these programs. Studies of social diversity and justice in education institutions are rather unfocused and uneven as it does not teach the actual practice of a social justice framework.
It is therefore, clear that social workers are not adequately equipped with cultural competence skills after graduation from Masters of Social Work Program (MSW). It has prompted managers in social work service to find other avenues of equipping their workers with the skills in order to practice what they actually profess. In order to explain the scope of the matter, researchers have conducted many studies across the globe. Additionally, public service managers are striving to ensure continuous cultural competence training for their staff regardless of their academic knowledge in cultural awareness.

Theories of Social work practice
Problem-Solving Theory
In a problem solving theory of social work practice “a difficulty occurs at the time a living thing has an ambition however does not identify how this objective is to be attained. Every time one cannot go off from the specified circumstances to the preferred circumstances merely by act, after that there is option to philosophy… Such thoughts have the undertaking of formulating several actions that possibly will arbitrate among the existing along with the preferred conditions.” (Cole, G.D.H., 1920. Social theory, New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co)
In relation to this description, a problem occurs when this is not obvious to the person whose acts are to be obtained to accomplish a number of preferred objectives. The act to remedy this difficulty is acknowledged as problem-solving. It initiates from a specified circumstances where the difficulty or condition of the circumstances needs extra information to work in the direction of their resolution.

The wide-ranging hypothetical approach is that problem-solving theory is reliant on a specified problem-solving state of affairs. The subsequent principle is that information is a procedure, which specifies proceedings to be executed in definite circumstances. The third principle problem solving theory is the difference among feeble and well-built techniques for solving difficulties. Consequently, a specialist is anticipated to use the procedures to discover the resolution for the specified difficulty or circumstances by using a forward way of thinking or annotations. On the other hand, problem solving can be engaged in by using comprehensive information for deductive analysis, to evaluate the strengths of the theory or objectives alongside the details specified. It is a diffident analysis approach. The theory of problem solving explains procedures for enlarging specialist schemes in cognitive psychology that outlines the foundation for other researches in definite fields. So, in the case of Lucy where his child is ill and her husband is not living with her. As a social worker I will apply problem solving theory in the case of Lucy because problem occurs when this is not obvious to Lucy who acts are to be obtained to accomplish a number of preferred objectives.

Use problem solving theory in case of Lucy
1. Identifying the problem
First of all, we will identity the problem of Lucy which is that her husband is not living with her. Also, the child of Lucy is ill and there is no one which can take care of Lucy.
2. Describing the problem
After identifying the problem we will clearly describe the problem
3. Developing possible solutions
In the third step, we will develop possible solutions of the Lucy’s case by using the problem solving theory. We will classify the problems in two categories (ill-defined and well-defined) from which suitable explanations are to be prepared. In the case of Lucy, that do not have clear objectives are ill defined and those which have clear objectives are well defined.
4. Choosing an best solution
We will choose the best solution by dealing with logics and semantics. The best possible solution in the case of Lucy is that she needs a person which can care her and his child. Therefore, she needs to marry
5. Executing the solution
We will execute the problem of Lucy by finding a suitable person for and arranging her marriage.
The Theory of Psychoanalytic method
This Theory of Psychoanalytic method counters the practice of outer affect by proposing that individual actions are an indication of behaviors which take place throughout and subsequent to the proceedings they are engaged in. Howl and James (2008) varied from Freud’s hypothesis for analysis in the logic that they were of the view that many people could show alike actions with no psychiatric difficulties. Consequently, psychoanalysis is not fundamentally regarding the physiological affect however it is slightly connected with incentive from connections. The instigators give emphasis to new techniques for scrutinizing and understanding actions in the background of civilization and character by prearranged research tools. They suppose that the psychoanalytic arrangement has definite relations with mingling series which bring about individual associations with the surroundings, civilization and traits. It involves that psychoanalysis approaches accentuate on the function of the certified affianced in the study of individual performances and understanding of the same. The abilities at ease with infer important information regarding the character is resulting from routine procedures. Similarly, an involvement is intrinsic in the performances as well as proceedings of the individual under learning.
On the other hand, Jim Swan (1980) and Ian Jeff (1992) have completely changed the theoretical structure of psychoanalysis hypothesis and understanding. They give emphasis to on the authenticity of social build and their influence on both the person as well as the specialized. They offer the sight that resolution for dilemmas in psychoanalytic are reliant on the educational life generally. This is relied on objective information resulting from social accords and person proceedings are the description of the proceeds. Consequently, psychoanalysis is the research of the speech of the human performs and understanding of the same to symbolize probable accounts of the long-ago or current life of the person. Transactions among the psychoanalyst and the customer are built by subject knowledge, human society, and portions of division etc. As a result,
(a) It is focused in a prime manner with talking and their corresponding;
(b) Subjective knowledge, objective authenticity, and natures are all buildings enlivened in language;
(c) These current telling might be informed in additional words and do not correspond to genuine world proceedings;
(d) Unitary selves are transferred by the concept that we tell functional narratives regarding “numerous selves” with the intention to carry out our dealings; and
These subsequent theoretical structures of the psychoanalytic theory not only pretense confronts for social work practices however also present fresh aspects for examining difficult personal social issues. The function of the social employee in the psychoanalytic background is disconnect from the person and the surroundings, as she must watch impartially to understand individual actions in the psychiatric background in addition to in the circumstance of the surroundings wherein the individual live in. consequently, the specialized is separated and does not actually take part in the difficulties countenanced by the persons. It is inclined to detach the psychoanalyst from the person that sometimes delays problem declaration. Though, objective inspections in analysis allow the social work specialized to give emphasis to on interventions techniques. As interventions are not place in models or researches or procedures from information base, the social worker has a lot scope in expanding inventive interventions which convene preferred social objectives at the personal and from the wider societal circumstances.
Simultaneously, there are definite boundaries to the premise of psychoanalytic. There is over prominence of the personal and not as much of consideration of interference for the wide social background. As persons reside the civilization – act together, manage and have relations with other persons inside the surroundings – this is usual to suppose that any difficulties or concerns which they countenance must be determined in the framework of the society they reside. This is not usual to suppose that the difficulty is intrinsic inside the atmosphere as well as the intervention method must be for the person only. From this point of view, this theory is restricted.
Consequently, the psychoanalytic theory does not actually cope with the strengths approach that fundamentally put emphasis on resource development. Even though psychoanalysis accentuates on problem declarations, it is restricted to the concerns faced by persons – not from a shared or large-scale. So, it can be adopted in the case of Lucy where the individual interest is preferred. I would prefer this theory in the case of Lucy to assist and co-operate with her in order to resolve her concerns and problems. As the individual actions of Lucy to save the life of her child as well as other problems she is facing I will apply Psychoanalytic method theory in that case.
Development on the customer and ethical issues
As a specialized of social work, the person is accountable for the development of the customer. The difficulties or concerns my customer countenances possibly will be from the micro, mezzo as well as macro surroundings and consequently need various approaches in the direction of interventions. Hence, I would keep the psychoanalytic approach for small intrusions so that I would know how to examine the psychological in addition to physiological problems, and eventually work out interferences which deal with the basis of problem. alternatively, if the nature of the difficulty that my customer is experiencing trunks from the beginning and needs an extensive viewpoint in assessment, subsequently I would take on the problem-solving strategy to deal with the difficulty, initially from the macro stage after that slight it below to the micro level afterward determine it consequently. The approaches vary for the reason that, as a social work practitioner, I have to use flexible gear to assess the development of my customer. It can only be probable if I utilize a grouping of theories and approaches to present me suppleness in addition to energy in my profession.
The solitary moral and ethical issue I have concerning the relevance of such theories would conceivably be the range as well as boundaries every cause for social work carries out. The problem-solving theory which is argued previously accentuates in excess of on the procedures that sometimes possibly will consequence in compromised interventions. Alternatively, the psychoanalytic approach is extremely slight and imperfect in their range in tackling individual viewpoints and be inclined to overlook the wider circumstances. In determining individual difficulties, maybe I would overlook to integrate the superior representation and, by this means, unintentionally damage the society rather than assisting it all together in the course of my social work practice.
Strengths and weaknesses of theories of Social work practice in the given case study
The strengths of psychoanalytic theory in the case of Lucy are as follows:
The main strength of psychoanalytic theory is that provides serene the chance to discuss issues with a specialized, that could assist ease indications of psychological sickness of Lucy. In spite of this, the majority of psychoanalytic theories are hard to determine and frequently overstress the comatose brain, gender, violence and infancy. Psychoanalytic theory was formulated by Sigmund Freud as a source of raising an awareness of the internal mechanism of the human brain. This theory is concentrated with the research and examine of the identification, personality as well as psyche. The identification denotes the excellence of being comatose and includes all which is available at birth, counting the characters. The personality is accountable for calculating the commands of the identification and the natures and provides as a connection among the identification and the exterior world. The psyche signifies the effect of others, as well as the effect of ethnic, communal and enlightening society.

Strengths and weaknesses of problem solving are as follows:

Strengths:
Social problem-solving includes numerous aptitudes and services that bring about adaptive consequences for numerous dissimilar inhabitants. Generally, operative problem-solving abilities can have numerous assistances. These abilities can upsurge situational managing and decrease expressive suffering. Study has exposed that one’s problem alignment is exactly linked to levels of mental pressure and modification. Obviously, the conflicting usually leads to undesirable consequences.
Weaknesses:

Problem-solving investigates are hard for people who are sensing astounded or frightened. Some amount of confidence is essential by an individual, illustrative or ethnic member.

Problem-solving wants a person to be clear, as well as includes time, information and operation charges.

Problem-solving operates on expectations that persons distinguish what is “upright” for us; and in what way to realize those “upright” objectives and requirements. These norms are obviously untruthful for some people maximum; as well as for all people some of the time.
Problem-solving still needs sensibly correct) information or suppositions regarding “moralities”, the numerous methods of “control”, and “market charges”. Intelligent decisions need several knowledge of replacements or contingency consequences.

Some hard or budget-cognizant customer’s famine one stop shopping – procedure/admiration/message, information and assistance.

Theory Key Concepts
Systems Theory • People are not isolated individuals but operate as part of wider networks or “systems”
• Systems may be informal (e.g. family or friends), formal (e.g. clubs, support groups) or public (schools, hospitals)
• Difficulties may arise if there is a lack of fit between the person and the systems they operate within.
• Systems can be employed to support the service user to achieve change.
Ecological Approach • Germain and Gitterman – “Life model” (1980 / 1996) -people are interdependent with each other and their environment – each influences the other over time.
• People move through their own unique life course and may encounter “stressors” – some of which may make them feel they cannot cope.
• People employ coping mechanisms and draw on resources in the environment, social networks and inner resources.
Task Centred Approach • Brief work within explicit time limits
• Collaborative approach between worker and service user – based on a contract.
• Systematic work
• Includes some behavioural ideas but mainly a cognitive approach
• Usual to take action to get what you want
• Action guided by beliefs about self and world
• Time-limits help motivate service users
• People may “get stuck” if they have to deal with a certain issue over and over
• Problems defined as “unsatisfied wants”

Crisis Intervention • Brief intervention – deals with immediate issues rather than longer term problems
• Based on ego-psychology and cognitive-behavioural models – serious events have an impact on the way people think about themselves and their emotional reactions
• Assumes we live in “steady state” – able to cope with change
• Crises upset the steady state and provide opportunity to improve skills / risk of failure
• Period of disorganised thinking / behaving
• Crises can reawaken unresolved issues from the past but offer a chance to correct non-adjustment to past events.

Cognitive-behavioural approach / Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy • Rather than being an “insight based therapy” it uses techniques from behaviourism, social learning theory and cognitive theory.
• Based on the assumption that our thoughts, beliefs, images and attitudes influence our behaviour and if these are changed, our behaviour will change.
• “Self-talk” reinforces irrational thinking.
• Involves identifying and reframing unhelpful beliefs. Worker teaches service user to challenge own beliefs.
• Can involve modifying behaviour using a system of rewards.
• Use of ABC system – activating event – belief – consequence and Ellis (1962) extends to DEF – Dispute beliefs, replace beliefs with Effective rational belief, describe the Feelings which will be the result.
Motivational Interviewing • Applied form of CBT, developed by Miller and Rollnick (1991, 2002) defined as “a person-centred directive method for enhancing an intrinsic motivation to change by exploring and resolving ambivalence.”
• Worker adopts an empathic and non-confrontational approach but worker is directive.
• Worker is alert to language person uses and looks for language of change.
• Worker provides education / information about situation the service user is in (e.g. effects of smoking / drinking alcohol / taking drugs etc)
• Worker encourages service user to list benefits and costs of lifestyle and alternative lifestyles
• Explore barriers to goals
• Reframe past events – focus on more positive aspects.
• Supported by an understanding of the cycle of change (Prochaska and DiClemente 1986) [Pre-contemplation / contemplation / decision / active changes / maintenance / lapse.

Conclusions
Identifying and understanding all the exceeding conditions, my opinion is that every one of the theories has their individual value and purpose in anticipated perform. This is hard to prefer one in excess of the other, as social work specialized understand no social concerns or difficulty matching with another. Every difficulty is exceptional and needs exceptional declarations. As creatures are full of life, their difficulties are vibrant too, involving variety in decisions and intervention techniques. Although, from a wider viewpoint, I would have a preference on psychoanalytic theory over the problem-solving theory because it would normally be utilized for the individual issues not for the wider perspective therefore in the given case study of Lucy this theory can be used. Alternatively, for simple crisis I would have a preference to utilize the problem solving approach.

Reference
Adams, S. (1990). “An observation from medication” In on the way to an amalgamated Theory of Problem Solving: ISBN 545-35345435
Berlin, S. (2001) Social Work procedure Social Casework: A Problem-Solving Process, The academia of UK Press
Chris, F. S. (1987). Analysis and communal Science Jeff, Alaska. pp. 54
Fredrick, A. D., Heinz, G.W. & David, Z.A. (2000) Methods & strategy for Social Work carry out.
Steven, H. (1990). Psychological fitness Work in the group of people: hypothesis and Practice in communal Work Nursing. Falter journalist’s pp. 42.
William F. and Bash (2009) various theories and practices of social work in the context of individuals: ISBN 543253

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