Assignment on Sustainable Development Goals

1.0. Introduction
There are 17 SDGs which were adopted by UN General Assembly which are roadmap to 2030 to end intense poverty, solve inequality and injustice issues and protect our planet at large. These goals were developed in September 2015 and is applied by all countries irregardless of their development stage, including Australia.
Australia government is devoted in ensuring that the level of poverty is reduced, there is growth in sustainable development and ensuring that there is peace and prosperity of people all over the world. In order to achieve this, they are guided by Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which they refer as global approach. SDGs mirrors things that Australian highly value and look forward to protect. Every individual has a role to play in order to achieve these goals.

  1. 1. 17 Sustainable development goals
    The 17 SDGs are plan for global development achievement for 2030 and beyond. Each goal has an indicator that helps to measure the progress. There are 169 targets which are within SDGs.
    1.1.1. No poverty
    There are almost 700 million people who are not able to access basic necessities for health life World Bank (2015). Their income is very far from the income line. This issue is to be addressed by all countries FAO (2017).
    According to Australian Council of Social Service almost 3 million people Australians lives below the poverty line. In 2014, the number children living in poverty was 731,300 and indigenous and disability people also suffer disproportionately high rates of deprivation. In Australia, housing affordability is one of the issues.
    1.1.2. Zero hunger
    Food insecurity is becoming a major issue globally and at the same time the global food and agriculture system which helps to solve food insecurity issue is threatened by climate change and the degradation of natural resources.
    Around 800 people million worldwide are not able to feed well, 2 million of them suffer from micronutrients deficiency and around 3.1 children below 5 years die due to malnutrition.
    In Australia, almost 2 million people including children depends on relief food every year which is approximately one in every ten Australians.
    1.1.3. Good health and wellbeing
    This goal covers many major health issues, such as reproductive, maternal, newborn, child health, infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases, mental health, road traffic injuries, universal health care, environmental health consequences and health systems.
    Australia is in position 6 globally when it comes to life expectancy but there is a large difference between its Indigenous and non-Indigenous. Hypertension, osteoarthritis, high cholesterol, depression, anxiety, and asthma are the key chronic health issues facing Australians.
    1.1.4.Quality education
    Education is considered as a fundamental human right and a tool that helps people to fight poverty and inequality. School attendance is growing worldwide but about 124 million children and young adolescent are still out of school globally.
    Australia is ranked high when it comes to high quality education but there is a big difference between indigenous and non Indigenous students outcome. The school attendance rate for indigenous students is 93. 1 per cent while for non Indigenous students is 83.4 per cent.
    1.1.5. Gender equality
    Girls and women are disadvantaged in accessing education, job opportunity, limited resources, unable to contribute to political, civil and cultural life. The objective of this SDG is to achieve gender inequality and to empower all girls and women.
    Australia is in position 46 worldwide when it comes to gender equality in terms of economic, educational, health and political measure WEF (2016). In the Australia working place, there are more men than women and men are paid more than women. There is also a big gap between indigenous women and non Indigenous women.
    1.1.6. Clean water and sanitation
    Access to water is a primary right to every human being. In 2015 about 91 per cent of World population we’re able to access clean water and 68 per cent accessed adequate sanitation. The objective of this SDG is to ensure access to affordable, reliable and modern energy by everyone.
    Majority of Australian are able to access clean water and effective sanitation but those who lives in remote area experience challenges in accessing water and health hygiene.
    Most of Australia land is arid and highly variable climate that leads to drought, scarcity of water and flood in different places.
    1.1.7. Affordable and clean energy
    Energy is depended by other SDGs for their sucess. It can help to increase social equity and deliver people from poverty. Energy contribute to upto 60 per cent of greenhouse gas emission worldwide. About 1.1 million people globally have no access to electricity.
    Almost everyone in Australia has energy access but its performance was below OECD average in terms of energy efficiency and use of energy renewal.
    1.1.8. Decent work and economic growth
    This goal tend to promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.
    Stable employment with better pay helps on people to deliver themselves from poverty. This goal will help to support entrepreneurs, improve productivity, and reduce human trafficking.
    The unemployment rate in Australia is about 5.7 per cent in Australia and it experience slow wage growth.
    1.1.9. Industry innovation and infrastructure
    It’s objective is to construct resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustain industrialisation and promote innovation.
    Great infrastructure and sustainable industrial development contribute to growth in productivity and increase living standards.

1.1.10. Reduce inequality
Inequality tends to lower human potential and capability and social stability. Inequality can be in form of gender, race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, ethnic and class. It is the top three driver to global risk WEF (2017). The objective of this SDG is to reduce inequality within and among countries.
1.1.11. Sustainable cities and communities
Most of worldwide population lives in cities. By 2030, about 60 per cent of World population will be living in urban areas. The objective of this SDG is to ensure that cities and human settlement is safe, resilient and sustainable.
1.1.12. Responsible consumption and production
About 1.3 billion tonnes of food is wasted every year, some rote in supermarket bins and other spoils in transit and at the same time billions of people goes hungry.
Renewable energy is expected to contribute to upto 60 per cent of the electricity generation growth.
Australia domestic material consumption is not a peering. It produce almost 50 tonnes of waste every year with an average of more than 2 tonnes per person.
1.1.13.Climate action
Climate change is considered as the biggest hindrance in development. Climate change results to unbalanced ecosystem and reduce food production. The objective of this SDG is to take urgent action to compact climate change and its impact.
Australia has the highest per capita greenhouse gas emissions rate among OECD countries. It is also experiencing frequent heat waves, storms and floods in many cities.
1.1.14. Life below water
Oceans contribute to weather and climate regulations and it is mostly considered as the best source of protein by many and create job opportunities to many.
Oceans have become more acidic due to exposure to carbon dioxide which has negatively affected the life cycle of marine creatures.
Australia marine covers about 14 millions square kilometres and it contributes about A$50 billion every year to Australia economy. Climate change has lead to loss of kelp forests, fish and inevitable deaths in water around Australia.
This SDG tends to conserve and sustainably use oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.
1.1.15. Life on land
About 30 per cent of land is covered by forest which provides livelihood to about 1.6 billion people. The rate of deforestation is reducing due to plantation of new forests, natural expansion of current forest and increase in land restoration effort.
Australia biodiversity is under threat due to climate change, habitat fragmentation and degradation are the major challenges.
This tend to protect, restore and promote sustainability of terrestrial ecosystem sustain forests management, fight disertification, biodiversity loss and land degradation.
1.1.16. Peace, justice and strong institution
There is an increase in violence worldwide since 2014, almost 3.34 billion of World population have been affected by violence. Corruption, bribery, theft and tax evasion are the major challenges.
Australia is in position 15 out of 163 in the Global Peace Index, therefore, Australia is relatively peaceful. It is also in position 17 out of 176 when it comes to transparency international corruption perception index.
1.1.17. Partnerships for the goal
Some SDGs such as fighting poverty and hunger, protecting our planet and peace promotion requires partnership between governments, private sectors, civil society, multinational organisations and learning institutions for them to be achievable by 2030. These will help to support developing countries.
2.0. Australia 3 goals
2.1. Sustainable cities and communities
Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities is the leading department for this SDG and is supported by Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, Department of Communications and the Arts and Department of Home Affairs (Emergency Management Australia).
2.2. Clean water and sanitation
Department of Agriculture and Water Resources is the leading department in achieving in this goal and it is supported by Department of Environment and Energy.
Australia is affected by the climate change in their water resources. The country has developed international renowned expertise and experience in order to provide high quality and sustainable water and sanitation services to both urban and remote population and industry especially during drought and water scarcity periods.
Australia is ready to share their water management expertise in order to enhance agricultural productivity, increase health results, increase economic growth and reduce poverty.
2.3. Industry, innovation and infrastructure
Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities is the leading department in Australia and its assistant departments are Department of Industry, Innovation and Science
Department of Communications and the Arts
Australia has a great infrastructure but extra investment is required in order to ensure that it stays adequate since the population is growing
3.0. SDGs in practice in Melbourne
3.1. Clean water and sanitation
Melbourne Water’s is dedicated to ensure that there is advancement in sustainability through SDGs. The city has a world class sewerage system and people who lives in this city has access to clean water.
Melbourne Water controls water supply system and make sure that there is enough water storage that can sustain Melbourne population during severe drought periods.
The city gets its drinking water from forests high up in the Yarra Ranges which travels through reservoirs, treatment plants and many kilometres of pipes and then it is supplied to residents taps.
Melbourne Water has developed a Drinking Water Quality Strategy that will help in achieving safe, secure and affordable drinking water vision for Melbourne. Also Melbourne Sewerage Strategy will help to make sure that the sewerage system has the potential to not only continue to protect public health and the environment, but also deliver enhanced value through contributing to our city’s liveability.
Melbourne City has provided sanitation services which helps to protect public health for its population. The city has also invested on research and development and publish in public realm and fostering innovation in all industries worldwide. It has also partnered with the Eliza Hall Institute in development of accessibile technology which will help to determine water borne illnesses
3.2. Sustainable cities and communities
The population is growing every day and it is placing pressures on cities capability to sustain prosperous of the community. In 2018, Melbourne had a population of 5 million which is expected to reach 8 million by 2050.
Melbourne has a long term interests on its community and their future generations which is its major concern on decision making process. Community engagement in projects and partnerships helps to provide significant community benefit from our land, and by using IWM approaches to help develop sustainable new.
Melbourne Sewerage Strategy supports the transition of sewerage management and helps to reduce water bills since they treat almost 60 per cent of Melbourne’s Melbourne’s sewage at the Western Treatment Plant. The plant uses low energy and use bacteria to breakdown organic matter in wastewater.
There is also development of Flood Integrated Decision Support System that helps to keep Melbourne safe. It provides emergency services partners with timely, high quality information on flood risks.
3.3. Industry, innovation and infrastructure
Melbourne economic growth, social development and climate actions depends on investment in infrastructure, sustainable industrial development and progress in technology.
Melbourne is in the middle of a population boom. Currently, more than 5 million people lives in the city and the population is expected to rise by 3 million by 2050.
Melbourne Water focuses in investing on infrastructure improvement which will help to reduce the environmental and economic costs when delivering services to the community.
The city is doing research and it has partnerned with programs support innovation and develop industry capacity in water and sanitation both in Australian and overseas. Melbourne invested $530 million between 2017 and 2018 to upgrade existing infrastructure in their water supply, sewerage and drainage network in order to support Melbourne’s growing population.
The city have partnered with development organisations in capacity building programs which will help to support innovation in water and sanitation in developing countries
4.0. Are the SDGs achievable by 2030?
4.1. Clean water and sanitation
This SDG is achievable by 2030 since Melbourne has a great strategy in ensuring that there is enough clean water supply even in drought periods. The city plan to utilise all their water sources in order to deliver sustainable water and sewerage services, this will help to manage risks that are associated by drought environmental degradation.
Seeking significant opportunities which can help to increase water supply that is not used for drinking purpose. It is also planning to continously identify efficient and innovative ways that can help to manage emerging water quality risks in its water supply catchments.
The city also plans to invest on climate research and operationalise outcomes to build resilience and climate risks to environmental values of waterways and wetlands. It is also partnered with retail water corporations and DELWP in ensuring that water is continued used efficiently and enhance liveability for the community, increase the level of affordability and help in drought preparation.
4.2. Sustainable cities and communities
Due to increase in Melbourne population, the city needs to continously developing researching and developing strategic plans that will help to sustain the city and the its community so that it can achieve this goal by 2030.
The city is planning on integrating with councils, water industry and developers and collaborate on driving IWM and achieve the target of using 80 GL of water in a year from non-traditional sources by 2065.
The city also wants to achieve 100 per cent sustainable reuse of the annual production of biosolids from the Western Treatment Pl.
4.3. Industry, innovation and infrastructure
Although Melbourne has various vulnerabilities such as ageing infrastructure, coastal flooding, bushfires and floods and the city population is expected to increase. Melbourne can manage to achieve this goal by 2030 if they invest and implement on emerging trends in infrastructure. These new trends such as Datadrives operational efficiency, Sustainability goes mainstream, increase in new technologies competition, Interdependence which helps to creates opportunities.
5.0. Recommendation
Peroloni (2017) recommends urban designers to research on new approaches that will be used in redesigning Melbourne City.
Melbourne should invest on the emerging new infrastructure which will help the city to clear vulnerabilities that are currently existing.
Most of the SDGs depends on each other and should be given equal opportunity and effort.

6.0. Conclusion
Irregardless of the difference between cities all over the world in terms of population growth, climate conditions and social economic conditions, most of the cities especially in developing countries face similar environmental challenges, a top down governance structure, they lack climate change policy, limited public participation and limited resources.
The SDGs number 17 makes it possible for these countries to partner with developed countries who will assist them to achieve 16 SDGs. This will boost them and they will realize that it is possible to achieve UN goals.
The developing countries will not pull down developed countries in achieving these goals by 2030.
7.0. References
ClimateWorks Australia (2018) Tracking progress to net zero emissions: National progress on reducing emissions across the Australian economy and outlook to 2030
Department of Foreign Affairs and Tradev(2018) Report on the Implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals, AustralianvGovernment
Peroloni, P. (2017). Practice, practitioners and redirection for adopting Australian Cities. In ISD book of proceedings 2017 (pp. 65–72). Italy: European Centre of Sustainable Development (ECSDEV).

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *