These days most of the research work conducted using Mathematics and complex Calculations which takes many days to calculate very simple fact and might take more than one round to reach level accuracy expected by researcher. Scientists and Engineer used simple calculators so help themselves solving those problems but after using those instruments they are not able to product effective result in reasonable time frame. (Shurkin, 1996)
Many scientist and engineers used analytical method to solve complex problems which may not need use of some calculator or non-human mechanical device like calculating derivates of very complex equation, and these equations are very first time concluded so calculating derivate and then verifying the accuracy of those derivatives is also a complex task. (Moye, 1996)
To solve verification of analytical derivative problem methods are already developed called numerical methods but these methods also require complex numerical calculations.
So, to aid above problems I am proposing an ‘Electrical Numerical Calculator’ which is able to perform complex numerical calculations in considerable amount of time. ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) can reduce time taken by an engineer to solve a specific problem from months to days. Also, Numerical methods mostly developed and used for verifying the remendability of a mathematical method can also be solve by ‘Electrical Numerical Calculator’ (ENC) and will be a ground breaking inventions to aid those problems and effectively decrease the time between abstraction of a product to producing useful meaningful results. (Schapranow, 2014) ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) use word of 10 decimal digit instead of binary ones like previous automated calculators used. ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) consist of Vacuum Tubes, Transistors, Integrated Circuits and Silicon chips. ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) consist of vacuum tubes which need to be cool down a need a big room to carry all the needed equipment’s for operating ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator).
To input ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) user has to input a punch card having instruction of program need to be process. Out will also be in punch card which is easily decodable into numerical format and easy to use. To perform arithmetic operators ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) have one multiplier, one divider, one square rooter and 20 adders act as ring counters. ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) can perform register read and write in time 0.0002 seconds making it the fastest numerical calculation machine at the time. (Adrian, 2014)
Due to logical operator ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) have this machine is able to perform logical algebra operations like XORing, ANDing and will be very efficient and helpful in solving complex algebraic problems also verifying the Boolean algebraic expression, user can input he/she’s expression in punch card which will after processing will be written to another punch card which will act as output and easily decodable into expression format.
ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) have controlling units responsible for power function of machine and also handling starting and halting of Architecture of ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) is following
Source: (Eckert, n.d.)
ACC are the accumulator units of ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) formed using electronic ring counter consist of series of flip flop or zero one counter. To perform addition operation adding two numbers ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) use technique by storing first number and then adding second numbers input after first one by using adder unit.
ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) is also capable of handing the negative numbers and subtraction is perform by similar adder unit by adding negative sign with the other number.
ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) have switched based table use for multiplication which use subsequent addition operation and store resulting output and carry in table and then use previous output to calculate final result.
Division is the complex problem for division ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) use subtraction an algorithm is develop which can perform division operation by using subtraction operation and subtraction is done using addition unit by negating the one number.
Square root is also perform using combination of subtraction, multiplication and division operations making it the most complex operation. So basic of the all operations is addition operation.
ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) use Mechanical trunks for communication of different parts to transfer data and results. Turks are mounted in trays in series fashion make it assessable to each other.
ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) is also able to perform repetitive operation which have same variables but different values of these variables, ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) called them loops to perform similar operation numbers of time again and again. ENC is also capable of handling conditional statement used to build logical statement for a given complex problems.
By using features include in ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) a scientist or engineer can formulate he/she’s problem into a program which can be fed into ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) using punch card and after processing program ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) will output the final result on punch card. ENC have two modes Addition Mode and Pulse Mode. User can choose to perform all operation at a time or one by one operation means one instruction at a time. (Adrian, 2014)
Master Programmer is another part of ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) responsible for handling looping or repetitive operations and also work as coordinator between accumulator responsible for addition, subtraction, division and square root operation.
ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) used transistors made of tubes which have diameter of half inch a very small unit, together many units of transistors make whole memory storage procedure act as storing results needed for later calculations. These units communicate through trunks connected with each other relay data stored in transistors. A flip flop mechanism is used to represent inputs and outputs results in machine specific format and to hold results. (Adrian, 2014)
Following are the claims of features ENC uniquely have and not used before ENC and how it’s different from previous calculation machines.
- ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) use decimal based counter instead of binary one making it first decimal based counter.
- ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) use registers to store calculations this technique is not used before in calculation machines.
- Punch Card based input is introduced in ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) and also used for output.
- ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) is programmable scientist and Engineer can solve their complex scientific and mathematical problem after formulation.
- Trunks act as data bus between different components of ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) is also introduced. (Moye, 1996)
With innovation in field of Mathematics, science and engineering and ground breaking scientific theories need for a system is emerged which can replace tedious and repetitive scientific calculations. Also, a need for a system is there which can help in verification of scientific work and can also help industry to evolve in much faster and efficient way.
Introducing ENC an Electronic based Numerical Calculator able to perform complex mathematical formulations in hours, task which can take months, days now can be done in hour in less error prone way.
ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) is also programmable means it can take instruction in specific format and can automatically execute those instruction. User of ENC (Electrical Numerical Calculator) can input a program on punch card after performing calculations output will be write out on punch card.
Adrian, C. (2014). Numerical Calculation of the Output Power of a MHD Generato.
Eckert. (n.d.). history-computer.com. Retrieved from https://history-computer.com/ModernComputer/Electronic/ENIAC.html
Moye, W. T. (1996). ENIAC: The Army-Sponsored Revolution. US Army Research Laboratory. Retrieved from http://ftp.arl.mil/~mike/comphist/96summary/index.html
Schapranow, M.-P. (2014). ENIAC tutorial – the modulo function. Retrieved from http://placebo.hpi.uni-potsdam.de/webhome/matthieu.schapranow/eniac/modulo/
Shurkin, J. (1996). Engines of the mind: the evolution of the computer from mainframes to microprocessors. New York: Norton. : ISBN 978-0-393-31471-7.