Discussion on EALD Learners

How does differentiated instruction help EALD learners? You do not need to define differentiated instruction. Focus on HOW this strategy helps EALD learners.

The differentiated instructions help in the creation of learning opportunities for the EALD learners in the different ways. They depict the method how every student is learning and acquiring the concerning conceptual language. The fundamental aim of the differentiated instructions is the availability of the opportunity of learning for the different individuals based on learning styles. These help to have equal access to the academic content by all the students using different learning methods. This is the key element to teach the students who require additional attention and learning methods for the key contents. In the differentiated instructions the modification of the content occurs according to the approach of the style, and students are allowed to master the same type of key content using different approaches (Sandra and Kurniawati, 2020). The differentiated instructions are not similar to the individualized instructions. However, it focuses on the learning of the same thing by all the individuals using the different methods. Each individual does not want separate attention and method., it can help to transfer the same kind of information using different methods.
It has been recognized that it is not only a set of different strategies but also a different and effective method of teaching. It also focuses on the evaluation of the current needs of the students to enable them to absorb the maximum content. it helps to amend and improve the activities related to the design of instructions to meet the requirements and needs of the students. That is why the teachers should have extra expertise in strategies and approaches to the teaching styles and must also have thinking that is out of the box. Only then, they would be able to recognize the needs of students and can make them happen accordingly (Burns and Mosack, 2005).
In what way(s) are Berry’s and/or Schumann’s theory of acculturation important for EALD teachers? You DO NOT need to explain the 2 theories in detail. Focus on HOW and WHY these theories are important to EALD teachers
Berry’s theory of accumulation provides the process of acculturation to the EALD teachers in the form of four factors that are integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization. Firstly, it emphasizes the enhancement of the communication of the acculturation individual with the host environment. This can be done through business dealings, education purposes, or through immigration. However, the ignition of the encounters is expected from these communication dealings that can be due to food selections, clothing preferences, and language change. Therefore, the acculturation individual is required to adapt himself to the environment to cope with these conflicts and encounters. There are many models for the acculturation of individuals through different strategies. However, two basic types of issues are there encountered in the daily life of the individuals (Van Acker and Vanbeselaere, 2011). In the first case, the question of acceptance and rejection of the values of the culture for the acculturation individual is there. On the other hand, the question of customs of the background of the regions and their acceptance and rejection is there. There is a strong relationship between the ability of the immigrants to sustain the cultural values and to accept the communication with the host culture. Therefore, Berry’s model helps us to understand this relationship with the help of four models of acculturation. If this model helps to value and accept the own cultural values as well as the host culture, this will be a process of integration. However, if it inculcates the acceptance of and host culture and rejects the own culture, it will be a process of assimilation. However, it will be separation if it tells to accept the own cultural values and rejects the host culture (Bushing, 1995).
Berry’s model is important for the EALD teachers because it helps to recognize that the integration model is best suited for acculturation purposes in the different communities. It takes into account both types of cultures and their values. Therefore, the strategy of integration is preferably used in the teaching styles of EAST teachers. Moreover, the overseas students and multipolar cultures have more sustainability of the integration model. This also helps to allow the students and teachers to adapt psychologically and mentally according to the cultural values. Moreover, this model also helps to evaluate and check the different variables and their effects like language issues, nationality, mental abilities, and attitudes towards the acculturation from different types of individuals from different backgrounds (Van Acker and Vanbeselaere, 2011).

Is Krashen’s SLA theory applicable in the classroom? You DO NOT need to explain his 5 hypotheses in detail. Focus on WHY his theory is/is not applicable.

Krashen’s SLA theory is very helpful for the teachers in the classroom. This theory focuses the attention of the EALD teacher on the input method as the acquisition of the language is supported by the context instead of the rules. The learning of the language is more appropriate when the student has acquired the significant input level for that language. The reason is that it helps to investigate and research different strategies and approaches to second language acquisition. The main factors that make it applicable in the classroom are explained here (Binte Mohd Salleh, 2016). The studies have shown that the acquisition of the language becomes a tough process if the students are suffering from the emotional disharmony like depression and anxiety. Sp, the teacher should devise the innovative methods that encourage the learning of second language for the students rather than only focusing on the academic studies. This theory tries best to implement the acquisition learning of the language learners. This is the most fundamental and beneficial strategy and approach in this model. Moreover, it also focuses on the importance of learning the process of acquisition of a second language. There is a significant impact of these two factors on each other in the process of acquisition. However, this effect is practically seen with the help of learned grammar. Also, this theory helps in the implementation of the natural order during the acquisition process. Therefore, the acquisition of the grammatical facts about any second language has a natural order that is also implemented in this theory. The feedback by the peers and healthy relationships with them will also promote the learning of second language too. This theory tells the teacher that the students can acquire the second language well with the help of the input method. However, it also describes the different affective variables that can impact the process of acquisition of the second language like the extent of motivation, level of confidence, and many factors like this. In this way, the learning of second language can be encouraged in the classroom (Binte Mohd Salleh, 2016).
Why is Cummin’s theory on BICS/CALP important to EALD teachers? You DO NOT need to explain his theory in detail. Focus on WHAT is important and WHY this is important.
Cummin’s theory helps the EALD teachers to make a difference between the linguistic levels of the students and thus to describe the BISC and CALP and difference between them. Therefore, the teachers can increase the linguistic pedagogies in both languages and improve the outcomes for the EALD students. The concept of common underlying proficiency (CUP) presented by Cummin’s theory helps to the EALD students to consider the both first and second languages. This theory helps the EALD teachers because the acquisition of optimum level of the first language will affect the acquisition of second language in a positive way. This theory helps to attain a certain set of skills and abilities that are essential for the acquisition of the second language as well as the first language. However, the skills acquired during the acquisition of a first language are also helpful during the acquisition of a second language. Therefore, it is helpful to acquire multiple languages easily for the EALD teachers using common underlying proficiency. The two languages having a different structure will have a common underlying proficiency. The factors that are included in the common proficiency is the use of conceptual knowledge and linguistic (Lok, McNaught, and Young, 2015).
However, research has also shown that the use of bilingual conceptual development in the EALD students can also cause the low performance and negative results of the cognitive development. The reason is that the awareness level is very crucial for the understanding of the languages. So, the conceptual development is also an important factor. The conceptual knowledge learned in one language can be made more comprehensible if you input that conceptual knowledge in the second language. Therefore, it is helpful to repeat or revise the learned facts in the academic language to make them comprehensible in the native language. Therefore, the learners of the academic language should be encouraged to revise the conceptual knowledge in the native language. This will help in the acquisition of the second language as well as comprehension of conceptual knowledge (Bender and Thiele, 2014). The theory helps to identify the fact that learning of two languages is easy for the EALD students once they reach the appropriate level of their age. Because the understanding of one language with the conceptual knowledge will also encourage the acquisition of the conceptual knowledge of the other language. If a student is aware of the meaning of one word in the first language, he will also develop the concept about this work in the other language too. In this case, he does not have to struggle to understand the concept of both languages.
How can formative and summative assessments support learning? You do not need to define these types of assessments. Focus on how these SUPPORT learning
The EALD teacher should know the difference between the formative and summative assessment to evaluate their performance and improvement in the learning process. The summative and formative assessments are a great source of encouraging the learning process. The summative assessments can easily tell us about the extent of knowledge of the students in a particular period as semester or year or a chapter. We can access through these tests what conceptual knowledge has been covered by the students and what has not been. The summative assessments are not only the type of standard tests. They are also important and significant in the classroom and district-level assessment. They can be used as a grading process for the classroom level and district level tests too (Roberts, Newble and O’Rourke, 2002). The summative assessments are considered a way to enhance the learning process for students, besides, to make the content standards at a particular time. The information that we obtain from the summative assessment is important and can be used to evaluate the process of learning in different types of aspects. These assessments can be held once a week, month, or year. They can be used to evaluate the efficiency and performance of the programs, institutions, and students.
The formative assessments are easily implemented in the class room. The reason is that they are informal and The formative assessments are a crucial section of the process of instructional learning. When the formative assessments are implemented in the classroom, they can help both the learners and teachers to adopt the appropriate methods for the learning process. Therefore, these assessments can help to improve the styles of teaching as well as learning during the happening of these processes. We can say that formative assessments can tell the optimum time when adjustments are needed in the learning and teaching process. The implementation of these adjustments can help to improve the performance of the students and achieve the desired goals (Royal and Guskey, 2015).
The formative assessments also promote the learning process to give descriptive feedback to the students. Through this descriptive feedback, the students would be engaged well in the learning process. Moreover, they would also move forward easily in the learning process through this feedback. They can develop an understanding of the extent of the conceptual knowledge and what they are acquiring during the process. It can also help them to enhance the methods of acquiring conceptual knowledge.

How can criterion-referenced and norm-referenced assessments promote learning? You do not need to define these types of assessments. Focus on how these PROMOTE learning
The criterion reference and norm-referenced assessments can promote the learning process. The criterion reference assessments can help the teachers to assess the extent of the performance of students in the class. They can give an idea of the advancement and progress of the students concerning the specific criterion. A series of these assessments can evaluate the conceptual knowledge and involvement of the students in the class. However, the evaluation of the students’ performance cannot be done through the criterion-referenced assessments only. There are many other parameters like participation in the class discussions and debates, classwork of the students, the accomplishment of the projects, and doing essays. All these parameters can collectively tell us what the students have acquired in the class (Wolf, Guzman-Orth, and Hauck, 2016).
However, all the students don’t respond better to the criterion-referenced assessments well. These are the students who need more attention and time as compared to the other students. If these students are not performing well on the criterion-referenced tests, you should use other multidimensional measures to evaluate their performance and make appropriate amendments. On the other hand, norm-referenced assessments help the learning of students in activities that are other than academic work. Therefore, the academic progress may decrease in the process of norm-referenced assessments. These types of assessments are important for the EALD learners and teachers. These assessments can create a self-fulfilling prophecy if the academic expectations are concerned (V., 2020).

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Sandra, L. and Kurniawati, L., 2020. Differentiated Instructions in Teaching English for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder. JET ADI BUANA, 5(01), pp.41-53.
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V., M., 2020. Formative Assessments in Indian Context and Its Role in Active Learning Approach. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 24(5), pp.3846-3856.
Wolf, M., Guzman-Orth, D. and Hauck, M., 2016. Next-Generation Summative English Language Proficiency Assessments for English Learners: Priorities for Policy and Research. ETS Research Report Series, 2016(1), pp.1-23.

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