Question Answers

Question 1

Eleana has been suffering from ulcerative colitis for 17 years which is an acute or chronic inflammation of the membrane lining the colon (large intestines or large bowel). The inflammation occurs in the innermost layer of the colon that may result in the formation of sores (ulcers) (Mayo, 2019). Because of ulcerative colitis Eleana has symptoms of severe pain in the lower abdomen, diarrhea, fatigue, tiredness, blood in stool (SACHAR, 2012).Though the main cause of ulcerative colitis is unknown but it is thought to be the result of a problem with the immune system called autoimmune condition in which immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue .Also it can be derived from genetics and environmental factors and Lifestyle. Due to diarrhea she has been deprived of essential minerals and nutrients that may lead to malnutrition and anemia. Besides lack of appetite, fatigue, fever lead to losing weights (Stephanie, Joy & Joseph, 2019).
Question 2

As undesirable as it might seem pain is actually a very important defense mechanism. It warns the body about potential or actual injuries or diseases so that protective actions can be taken (Solovyeva, 2014). Basically noxious Signal send impulses to the spinal cord which relays the information to the brain and the brain interprets the information as pain, localizes it and sends back instructions for the body to react (Mayo, 2019). Pain sensation is mediated by pain receptors or nociceptors which are present in the skin superficial tissues and virtually all organs except for the brain .these receptors are essentially the nerve endings of so-called first order neurons in the pain pathway and through these the pain is transmitted to brain. In short this is pain path way. Morphine is an opioid found naturally in the opium poppy plant, making it an opiate. It’s a very euphoric, pain relieving and sedating drugs that’s been used in recreational and medicinal settings for thousands of years (SACHAR, 2012).
Question 3

The inflammation and sores like ulcers in a person’s digestive tract is known as ulcerative colitis which is also known as inflammation bowel disease. It creates impact on the large intestine names colon and rectum in innermost lining (Solovyeva, 2014). The symptoms of this disease develop over the time lasses and causes long lasting ulcers which names sores and inflammation that is called ulcerative colitis. It is such kind of disease which causes debilitating and becomes life- threatening for a person’s life. But the most dangerous thing is it doesn’t have any known cure or treatment which can be given by health care practitioner (Stephanie, Joy & Joseph, 2019).
The symptoms of this disease vary from one body to another because of inflammation severity. The possible and common symptoms of this disease is given below-

  1. Blood comes with diarrhea disease
  2. Cramping and abdominal pain
  3. The pain in rectal point
  4. Coming out small amount of blood by stool which is called rectal bleeding
  5. The urgent scenario to defecate (Stephanie, Joy & Joseph, 2019)
  6. Losing excessive weight
  7. Fatigue or high fever
  8. Children whose height doesn’t increase (Fichera & Ferrari, 2016).
    Reasons of occur
    There are many reason of ulcerative colitis among all one is because of maintaining diet, extreme level of stress bear by a person may cause this disease. Previously these above reasons are considered as cause but now actually these factors are causing irritation except nothing. There is one possible cause which is known as immune system that fight with invading virus or any kind of bacteria may cause of responding in immune system for stacking on the cells if digestive system (Fichera & Ferrari, 2016).
    Because of generic matter this kind of disease may cause in common people body. In the he family there might be any member having this disease because of. This reason it is high chance to get affected by it but it has been find out that most ulcerative colitis patients doesn’t have any symptom of the disease in family background (BARGEN, 2015).
    Question 4

The endoscopy with biopsies is one of the core diagnoses; in this case, family history regarding health can be highly useful in determining the risk level for UC, one of the biggest risks for UC is having positive UC in intermediate family (BARGEN, 2015). Fecal calprotectin in terms of diagnosing disease activity is considered to be sensitive even though more in UC than Crohn disease. In this case, genetic testing can be useful for the patient’s reasons for developing these symptoms (Solovyeva, 2014).
In order to classify the severity of the UC it is essential to understand that, the journey of determining the severity level can be more challenging than the disease itself, it varies from instruments or criteria to determine the classification in superior manner (Solovyeva, 2014). Peyrin-Biroulet and colleagues stated that, there is no definitive definition and determined consensus regarding mild, moderate, or severe IBD criteria in terms of fully diagnosing the severity level of UC in the existing algorithms’ initiation to classify disease’s severity level (Fichera & Ferrari, 2016). It includes- Montreal classification of inflammatory bowel disease (MCIBD), Truelove and Witts’ severity index, American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Guidelines, Mayo Score, and Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index and these factors make it even more complicated to determine how severe the level of UC could be (BARGEN, 2015).


Fichera, A., & Ferrari, L. (2016). Totally Laparoscopic Total Proctocolectomy for Ulcerative Colitis. Csurgeries, 12(2), 12-14. doi: 10.17797/ukm5thekea
Mayo, C. (2019). Ulcerative colitis – Symptoms and causes. Retrieved from
SACHAR, D. (2012). Management of acute, severe ulcerative colitis. Journal Of Digestive Diseases, 13(2), 65-68. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-2980.2011.00560.x
Solovyeva, O. (2014). P374 Probiotics can extend remission of ulcerative colitis. Journal Of Crohn’s And Colitis, 8(2), S221. doi: 10.1016/s1873-9946(14)60494-3
Stephanie, D., Joy, V., & Joseph, L. (2019). Primary care management of ulcerative colitis. Retrieved from

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