Article “Pain in Children: Assessment and Nonpharmacological Management”

Background of the study:
a. The study focused on a specific health issues that is children’s experience different level of pain and the impact of that pain. Pain is a stressful experience for the children; this has negative impact on the children which is not good for the mental growth. Different psychological problems like distress and anxiety, depression and much long term impact on behavior can cause due to pain (Rasha, 2010). So, care professionals should keep this in mind and more clinical improvement is needed for bringing painless medical procedure for the children aged 0-18 years. The concern of this study is analyzing the impact of pain and distress on children.
b. Results from previous studies indicate that pain can cause emotional damage with potential tissue damage. People’s perceptions regarding pain is complex and this is connected with psychological behavior and development factors. The impact of pain is underestimated by care professionals and parents, but this can bring long term change in children’s behavior and perception.
C. the significance of the study is the impact of pain in children and the responsibilities of Health care management regarding this. The impact of pain is different in different age, so health care workers should have the ability to detect the symptoms of pain of different people. This kind of research is important for understanding the impact and

  1. Overview of Research Design:
    A. Aim of the research:
    The aim of the research is to show the impact of pain on children and why people should give concentration on this.
    B. Research design:
    It is a qualitative Open Access journal; it is research article which gives an idea about the impact of pain in infant, children and adolescents.
    C. The main characteristics of the research design are it gives a clear idea about the situation. Analysis and description has been given from the author’s perception and the data which has been collected through different research. Author has given suggestion about how this problem can be managed (Morton, 2010). Comparison among the information which is shown in other research also described here, and the problems of latest research regarding this issue also have been discussed.
    D. the aim of the study is giving an inside about the impact of pain on children’s and capturing people’s attention that they should give concentration on this issue. This article has given a clear idea about the different impact of pain and what are the negative consequences of this. This research design gave an open analysis on this topic, so people will easily understand this. This research design has achieved the aim of the study successfully by giving a open discussion on this topic, so people will understand this easily.
  2. Sampling tools:
    The participants of this research are 19 people; those are randomly chosen for this research, among them 9 mothers, 2 fathers and 4 mother and father pair. People have been chosen randomly among the people who visit in the health care organization regarding child care issues.
    This is an inclusion criteria of the sample as this article gives a clear description about the topic. The concept is completely clear in this article, and the aim also achieved successfully (McGrath, 2014).
    Identifying the criteria before starting the recruitment is important as this allows designing the research in properly. Different research is conduct for different objective so this should be clarified properly before starting recruitment.
    For this research a systematic sampling techniques has been chosen. People have been chosen carefully among the population and this has been ensured they have knowledge about this issue.
    Systematic sampling helps to get the desire outcome, the aim of the topic is pain in children, this is a health issue and many researchers are concern about this. Most of the people do not have knowledge about this and they are now aware about this issue. So, it’s important that parents and care workers become aware about the impact of pain on children.
  3. Data collection:
    Data has been collected through survey, sample has been chosen and discussion was made. This has helped to collect people’s opinion regarding the impact of pain on children’s. Parents and care workers should give focus on this, as this can cause long term impact on a children’s behavior (Hagan, 2015). Along with this secondary has been collected from previous researchers which have been conduct on this topic.
    Researchers have collected data in primary and secondary data collection method. In primary method, they chosen sample carefully, they took interview of some mother, some father and some pair of parents. This helped them to understand different people’s perceptions regarding this. This is the specialty of this research.
    The aim of the research is showing the impact of aim on children. Children of different age has different impact of the pain, the negative impact also depends on their perception, behavior and psychology. Children’s perceptions and behavior is affected by their parents, they learn from their parents (Hamers, 2010). Along with this, parents can give proper information about their children’s. So, collecting data from the father, mother and parents of children is helpful for achieving the aim of the research.
    Primary and secondary data collection methods are the most suitable and accepted methods for a research. This helps to make a research more reliable and accepted. The advantage of primary method is, it gives relevant and authentic information. Disadvantage is, it’s time consuming and require lots of resources. Secondary data collection method is simple and easy to collect data, this are the advantages. Disadvantage is the relevancy of the data cannot be ensured. So, during the data collection for this research, this advantages and disadvantages has been faced by researcher.
    Researchers can use observation data collection method as an alternative data collection technique for this research. Observation is also a useful tool and most of the case researchers get much important information which primary and secondary research cannot provide. For collecting information in this method, researchers can observe the behavior of children and their parents (Roberts, 2016).
  4. Data analysis:
    Data is analyzed after collecting those from different sources before representing those in the research paper. For this research data has been analyzed for ensuring the relevancy and then that is described in qualitative technique. Different tools have been used for successfully analyzing the data.
    Qualitative research is basically descriptive; this gives detail discussion of the issue. On the other hand quantitative research shows statistics and numerical information. Using proper data collection is equally important for both the methods. In qualitative method information is collected from different sources for providing lots of information, so for getting relevant information choosing appropriate method for analyzing data is crucial. Proper analyze helps to describe the information’s clearly (Polit, 2012).
    Rigour of the analysis is providing proper example and evaluation of the methods. In qualitative research, different examples and real scenario is described for making the research more relevant. Different case is represented and proper analysis is done for making the research completely perfect and accepted. Researchers have gave detail discussion and gave proper justification where needed. They have given description of real life situation and successfully achieved the aim of the research.
    The finding of the study is pain is not good for children’s, this changes people’s perception regarding same type of situation. Care professionals do not give any attention on this issue, but they should bring change in the system. Changes in medication and treatment process are necessary for managing this situation (Moule, 2009). Children’s are sensitive and they are emotional, they can feel the pain more extensively then adults. This can cause different kind of psychological problem. Sometime this can also cause problems in children’s growth process. This research has given detail information about the impacts of pain on children’s, and what kind of initiative responsible authority should take for managing this situation.
    This finding can be transferred in other different setting; in education sector this finding can be implemented. This can help to expend this information among people, so people will become aware. Children’s should get proper attention in every sector as they can face the pain in different aspects of life. So, parents should understand children’s problems so that they can easily solve the problems.
    Rasha Srouji, Savithiri Ratnapalan, and Suzan Schneeweiss, 2010. Pain in Children: Assessment and Nonpharmacological Management, Available in:
    Morton NS. Pain assessment in children. 2010 Paediatric Anaesthesia. 1997;7(4):267–272. [PubMed]
    McGrath PJ, Frager G 2014. Psychological barriers to optimal pain management in infants and children. The Clinical Journal of Pain. 1996;12(2):135–141. [PubMed]
    Hagan JF, Jr., Coleman WL, Foy JM, et al. 2015. The assessment and management of acute pain in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2001;108(3):793–797. [PubMed]
    Abu-Saad HH, Hamers JPH. 2010 Decision-making and paediatric pain: a review. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 1997;26(5):946–952. [PubMed]
    aylor, B. and Roberts, K. (2016). Reviewing the literature. In: B. Taylor, ed., Research in Nursing and Health Care: Evidence for Practice, 3rd ed. Australia: Cengage Learning, p.86.
    Polit, D. and Beck, C. (2012). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice, 8th edition. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/lippincott Williams & Wilkins, p.72.
    Moule, P. and Goodman, M. (2009). Nursing Research: An Introduction. London: SAGE publications ltd, p.127.

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