Literature Review on
“What and why is the long term intention of four different culture-origin students studying MPA in Australia; and how and why do they intend to accomplish these goals?”

Why do international students choose Australia as their destination for higher education?

According to Albyn, (2017), there has been a rapid growth of Australia being chosen by Indian students as a destination for educational purpose. Bret, (2016) stated that recently this country has caught the attention of the third biggest amount of global students in the English-speaking world coming after the United States and the United Kingdom. As per Britin. (2016), Knowledge as an educational destination, some countries choose Australia as the first priority. The study experience and offers provided by Australia is very different. The country offers a special sort of education and the method of learning motivates students to innovate, create and think out of the box. It is easier for graduates from Australia to find better jobs in eminent posts globally. In addition to that, well known international universities accept them cordially for postgraduate education.
Australia is capable of providing more than generally expected. According to ELIOT, (2017), the country is chosen as an education destination by many international students for its favorable, peaceful nature, splendid education system, and ideal lifestyle. At present, Australia is the third most well-known target place for international students among English-speaking countries, after the US and the UK (ELIOT, 2018). According to GEORGE, (2018), journal globally, many global students select to study in Australia for ethnic diversity, friendly relations, and the standard of education. Because of global recognition of the Australian education system, job sectors always seek for Australian school graduates highly. The government controls this system with great care for maintaining the good education standard of Australia (Albyn, 2017). The Australian lifestyle is considered one of the best in the whole world. Cost of living and educational expenses, comparing with other countries, are lesser than countries like the United States and the United Kingdom. International students are getting the opportunity to participate in part-time jobs during receiving an education which helps them to manage their living expenses.
The opportunity of scholarships helps international students to receive education spending less money. As Hally, (2015) stated that Australian Institutions provide a big range of courses and degrees. As Happy. (2016) stated that, a result, it becomes easier for international students to find their preferable field of education. While selecting a degree program to attend, at first an international student must find out which school provides the best service according to their requirements and interests. They can select from varieties of universities, employment education, and training for the English language. According to necessity, students can easily shift from one stage of qualification and from one institution to another (Albyn, 2017). The focus on scientific research is one of the most attractive features of Australia for international students. The country is at the frontline of the latest technology and innovations. Australia’s mind-blowing technology and resources can be utilized by students studying there. Multinational students can work till 20 hours every week along with studies in Australia. It’s a big chance for the students who need to earn their living expenses during their stay and receiving an education. It is also an opportunity for those who want to have working experience during studies. Here are several significant aspects to remember for the working student in Oz (Albyn, 2017).
Why Australia?

  1. Good quality
    According to Jhon. (2018) The Australian method for employment and technical study is now known as one of the best and most unconventional in the world. It celebrates a worldwide recognition for best quality in all fields of study and training. The universities of Australia are greatly known for high quality in many ways. The educational organizations offer real life and career-related training to form confident graduates who gain the experience and knowledge required by employers. This issue has a significant impact on the economy of Australia as it hugely increases the employee skills and helps to increase productivity and efficiency (Jhon. 2018).
  2. Innovation
    Australia holds the position to adopt the latest technologies at a quicker speed than most other countries in the world. As Mandal, (2017) said that The country is invading the new era with the highest rates of access to the internet in the whole world. Provisions and offers in teaching, training and research sector are first-class and of high quality, as seen in art laboratories and classrooms, amazing libraries and latest technology.
  3. Qualification recognition
    Mandal, (2017) stated that managers and officers accept Australian qualifications and major study institutions in many countries in the world. Furthermore, the Australian Qualification Framework (AQF) has been covering most of the courses and training accepted by multinational students in Australia. It is a method of learning which is allowed by the government of Australia (Jhon. 2018).
  4. Assurance of Quality
    According to Pret. (2017), Australia provides the assurance of quality in a structure that is unique and diligent. The multinational and foreign students along with their guardians can appreciate the similar level of service and economic safety or protection. Australia promises to offer good quality of education to its students regardless of the nationality of the students. The government of the country set up an approach called The Australian Quality Training Framework which has made the quality assurance method of education stronger. Australia offers the most diligent safety for international students through ESOS worldwide (Pret, 2017).
  5. Culturally Diverse society
    Australia owns a very well protected, multicultural, favorable and melodious society (Yun. 2015). The multicultural and social elegance which currently exists in Australia brought by the international students in institutions and society is appreciated by the citizens. The people of Australia take good care of the international students while the students spend time adapting to the environment and lifestyle of the country that is new to them. As per Yun. (2015) opinion from their journal Australia provides safety to the citizens because the crime rate of the country is very low and it has uncompromising gun control laws. There is no chance that any political turbulence will ruin the study plans of any student. Citizens of almost 200 countries have made the transfer to Australia which makes the country culturally very diverse in the world. This cultural diversity of the society of Australia represents how welcome and grandly accepted the international students are by other people of Australian society. The trainers and teachers are very skilled and well experienced in teaching international students (Pret, 2017).
  6. Visa red-tapism
    According to Yun. (2015), Almost all of us are aware of the egotism of the United States and the United Kingdom visa administrators. Any day, a real visa application may get rejected for some reason understood better by them only. This is slowly becoming favorable of new academic goals. The United States and the United Kingdom visa application process takes a lot of time and money which frustrates the international students. Lately, a report has been published in The Guardian that claims that the United Kingdom visas should cover the troubles experienced by one-third of students who collect visas- 18 in every hundred states that it is a long and hard procedure through the first application was ultimately successful, 8 percent of the students primarily denied but accepted a visa on a second application and 5 percent got one after appealing primary rejection.
  7. Job opportunities
    Yun. (2015) states that the United Kingdom does not welcome doctors and The United States is interested to have more IT professionals, this is the reason international students are trying to shift to Australia during their education as it provides better job opportunities in several fields according to their interest. It could be farming or aeronautics, economics or actuaries, international students are given permission to work like none other.
  8. Possibility of more scholarships
    As per Yun. (2015) Comparatively, with The United States or the United Kingdom, Australia is a bit new at appealing foreign students by giving those offers of more and better scholarship chances. Nevertheless, it must be remembered that Australia does not have much population despite being a big country. This has led to having space and scope to provide job offers more than other countries in the world.
  9. More research opportunities
    According to Yun. (2015), Australia provides chances for research to qualified individuals who would like to improve their career. The largest gain is the country offering research based on country continent-wise. Choosing this high-quality research scopes are according to intelligence and are very competitive, it proves path record of academic supremacy is required. Although the amount and ratio of student number have lessened, the UK and the US administrators look unwilling to record it even though university officials show the increase in profit. The cycle is gradually converting into a total circle. Many modifications will point towards the future of academic goals for foreign students- the figure at the moment firmly points towards the Australian region (Yun, 2015)

    What is the purpose of choosing MPA for higher studies by international students?

According to Bowman, (2016), A Master’s in Public Administration (MPA) is similar to the government and public service of the general line of business. MPA programmes are structured for succeeding leaders in institutions as a part of the government (Tulip, 2017).

  1. Improving leadership and management skills
    It is important to improve leadership and management capabilities for developing a career in public service (Bowman, 2016). A Master’s degree in Public Administration will greatly help in this regard. According to Bregg. (2017), the degree is for them who’d like to grow a career in public management, policy-making, and the nonprofit department. It is formed for the individuals wanting to get in management positions regarding these departments and this degree emphasizes leadership responsibilities such as making rules and management of public funding and people (Sos, 2015).
  2. Having a national and international network:
    As per Bregg. (2017) knowledge learning Public Administration at the postgraduate level provides a huge chance to form a good network filled with different levels of experience. Students who come to be enrolled in an MPA programme will work for the public sector and they will be granted access to an amazing network of experts with various types of experience in the selected region (Bregg. 2017). Most MPA programmes emphasize on an international level, learning manners of different governments and how economies reply to public matters. Along with that, they are appealing to many foreign students worldwide (Sos, 2015). It gives us a special opportunity to enhance an international network. Practically, every main MPA schools provide the chance to receive education abroad during the programme (Pret, 2017).
  3. It’s easier than thought!
    Bright, (2016) states that it may be scary thinking about the postgraduate study but it’s not that threatening. Studying for MPA at most top schools across Europe, many of those schools recommend adjustable course systems and usually even chance to teach online (Bright, 2016).
    According to Elin. (2016), Many MPA programmes are really made for students who have little work experience for some years. It is understood by the universities that everyone will not leave their job to study full-time, so they will probably work as well as continue study at the same time. This system is great to apply what one learns into their work in the present position. If necessary, one may get some part-time MPA programmes (Elin. 2016). For example, the Executive MPA at the Hertie School of Governance in Berlin, Germany, is created for experts who are busy and needs just 43 days of attendance in campus, covered up to 4 years.
  4. Chance to become professional in public sector issues
    According to Guoter. (2015), journal the postgraduate study time is the time to learn special knowledge, same goes for MPA programmes. At this point, one becomes a professional in this field. Several public sector issues which a student might specialize in are an international improvement, public and health management, nonprofit management, analyzing and forming policy. In case of someone being interested in being professional in forming policy especially, they should think of Master of Public Policy (MPP) degree as a substitute to an MPA. This degree emphasizes the evaluation and application of public policy (Guoter. 2015).
  5. Adaptation in the job market and earning more
    As Johnson. (2015) stated that Studying MPA opens up the door to many better job opportunities since the students work on different government jobs, politics, education officials, healthcare, international development, urban planning, etc. regarding government and public service. Playing roles in leadership provides more salary (Pret, 2017). Most of the time, MPA graduates earn 30 – 50% more than other individuals without a Master’s degree. But studying MPA does not limit oneself to work for the government only. Actually, MPAs are being hired by many private corporations for different roles (Johnson. 2015). For example, news and broadcasting centers like CNN or the BBC offer job to MPA graduates for policy assessment in research for political news. Tech giants such as Google hire MPAs for their global institutional management. Various healthcare organizations like hospitals and medical insurers usually give priority to MPA graduates who are expert in health policy and health management (Johnson. 2015). Obviously, main consulting organizations like McKinsey or EY accept graduates from MPA programmes to their public service sectors. The probabilities of getting a job are endless!
  6. Opportunity to get into an important government position:
    According to Matei, (2017), Emphasizing on public sector and policy along with communication and people management, an MPA helps one to play major roles in government. One example of the area of MPA is: Former Secretary-General of the United Nations (UN) Ban Ki-moon learned abroad to study MPA degree and started leading one of the most significant organizations worldwide. The skills and probably networks offered by the MPA, one will be ready to remake and put a remarkable impact on the local and international community (Matei, 2017). Among almost 40 universities in Australia, most are public organizations, directed and sponsored by the Australian federal government. Some universities have several campuses, but most are situated in certain cities- mainly focusing on the eastern coast. According to Milan. (2017), if you fulfill their application and enrollment requirements, then you can get admitted to any Australian university. The number of fees to be paid will either is a little higher than or just as same as paid by local students (Milan, 2017).

    What are the goals that the international students want to achieve and how and why do they plan to accomplish the goals?

Long term intention of students to study in Australia:
A long term fundamental success is goal setting. Getting the desired destination is difficult without clarifying about the destination is. Students are focusing on achievement by the help of the goal (Abroad, 2015). That also means their resources allocation, effective time and accessing this motivation at the time when they feel to giving up. According to Abroad, (2015) in a perspective of academic, Cadet failures and success meaning ensure with the help of improving performance of goals and also goals help to propel them in the small achievement of selection that designing for breaking a larger purpose. Goal setting and achieving translation feel in success and the student’s confidence as well (Armyan, 2017). That also turned in the lead with confidence and productivity in a greater way.
Permanent residency intentions to study in Australia
The permanent residency people in Australia think about study on their own country because they are holding permanent visa. Permanent residence has the power to live, or work anywhere they want to and have power to study besides the study. On the other hand, the cost of the permanent residence while studying in Australia is low compare to the other residence.
Goals Keep Students Moving Forward
According to Armyan, (2017), Calendar or journal goal writing within a specific goal gives the student to working and planning something. In external representation inner desire is writing down a goal of getting a higher grade, supporting skills progress and new mark achievement. The student accomplish is constantly reminded by them (Bret, 2017). At the difficult period determination encourage that setting up ambition and confidence of goal and offer a pride since that time success arrives finally.
Students are floating in a different area in life without goal setting, accomplish achievement, and do their best. A clear sense is created with goal establishment and also the correction in hard working process and something significant accomplishment. For this, the motivation energy is accessing through cadets whom they used in working periods and beginning focuses on the win.
Goals Break Down Insurmountable Mountains
According to Clack, (2016), at first, most young adults dream seems impossible to accomplish. It is very discouraging that the future dreams seem large to achieve. Though setting proper goal it breaks larger and additional scary desires achievement down into step stones. The smaller goal planning is very easy for formation a plan that one accomplishment can prompt another (Clack, 2016). However, research suggests the contentment and motivation level offers great in smaller milestones achievement.
As per Faul. (2017), Short term and long term goal have interconnection towards the student to encourage their work, their energy and time spending given more focus. Thus the smaller goal cans pursuit. Cadet knows about their weakness, skills and their want is accomplished (Faul. 2017).
Goals Hold Students Accountable
Harvard Study, (2018) stated that the cadet actions are accountable for having a goal. Their effort, skill of time management, goal obligate set is an individual action take. Paying little heed is to the impediments that might be set up. That makes student encouraging to critical thinking development, techniques of problem-solving, and overcome any issue understands better (Harvard Study, 2018).
According to Ilian. (2017), the goals set accountability encouraging student over the success and failures in the past, their improvement in area evaluation. In that capacity, it can urge understudies to create basic reasoning abilities, new critical thinking procedures, and a superior comprehension of how to beat issues techniques realize is helpful for cadets which are not working and that are why they seek alternative one for their achievement (Ilian, 2017).

Goals Make Students Want to Be Better
According to Jhony, (2015), Success increase in setting goals is showing in numerous experiment and correlation rate in every setting. Apart from this adults goal push to articulate about their want of life that they may lives consciously.
Default and natural action set for the student subject without goals that also make them feel comfortable and safe, that also not offer in a growth opportunity (Jhony, 2015). Cadet is discovering themselves and works in the best version with goals. In other sense set goal for student to inner potential giving targets to towards strive. For young adults, this target makes a new situation, context, and new challenge. In growth and development is that also place in the right position.
Goals Prepare Students for Adulthood
According to Kitty, (2016), the success key depends on goal setting that a student can learn the good habit and hard work. The determination and dedication level of respect with the achievement of further goals in life by this. Student academic experience more important not only at setting a goal but that means to continue use in future application job or achieve promotion (Kitty, 2016). The progress measurement through life, leadership skill, critical thinking, and determination is given by goal to the cadets and young adults.
According to Shim, (2015), If young people are prepared in what happened in after high school, the first things are to help them with their futures. At the birth time, human beings are most dependent species on the planet and their independence level come out slowly over course with many years. The dependence reinforces +adult longer than their health. Other side young people measuring the body that shows about the thought which means very little maturity. Though they learn to build Lincoln Logs®, wood blocks, couch cushions, and LEGO® blocks, not learn how to lives. People depend on others for happiness, direction, purpose, values and also means. About goal setting they learn so little (Shim, 2015). They don’t know about the goal setting if they do have some knowledge turning objectives in something real.
Follow a Plan – Set Goals
SNHU, (2016), In LEGO® blocks building put random bricks together that take shapes is much fun. That also true life. The seemingly random occurrences are building best of life. As erratic as this may appear, the developer of an astonishing life quite often begins in view of something when they begin assembling things (SNHU, 2016). The building instruction is followed by them to build a career and also opportunity, joy, and relationship. If children are learning about the importance of starting plan variable visual descriptions in intend building than they are more effective. When there is a clear picture in their head about their want and do and also have then the amazing life building is far better than the uncontrollable circumstances (Theater, 2017).
The research Gap:
Under this literature review the research gap of the researcher is to face problem at the time of finding theoretical solutions and quantitative data. Another research gap that the literature review is being facing given below-
• Time management
• Resource to analyze the data
• Lack of data to elaborate the study

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