Business Strategy – A Report on McDonald’s

Introduction

In this assignment will focus on the business strategy. McDonald’s restaurant will be selected to complete this assignment. This organisation is the world’s best fast food restaurant. In this assignment will describe the vision, mission, objective, competitive strategy, external fit, PEST analysis, porter’s five forces regarding McDonald. This assignment will also focus on Ansoff matrix, GE matrix of McDonald. In this way, this assignment can indicate strength, market position of the organisation.

Part A

Vision

McDonald’s is the leader in the global fast food restaurant industry. This company was founded in 1940, and it established as the McDonald’s corporation in the year of 1955. The vision statement of this company becomes the progressive modern burger company which is delivering contemporary customer services (Altinay et al. 2014). This company is reputed as the best quick service restaurant in all over the world and being the best services restaurant means providing excellent quality of food and services, value and cleanliness to the customer.  

Mission

The mission of the McDonald restaurant is clear. It wants to favourite place and way to eat and drink of the customer and want the first choice of the customer and provide top quality of products, excellent services and value for money.  This company want to be the best employer for the employee in each community in all over the world (Nyadzayo, Matanda & Ewing 2015). McDonald wants to achieve the profitable growth of this company by expanding the brand and leveraging the strong point of the system of McDonald by the technology and innovation.

Goals of McDonald’s

The main goals or objective of McDonald is to provide excellent food in the fun and friendly atmosphere and to be socially responsible organisation and also provide a good return to the shareholders of this organisation. The aim of this organisation is to establish a global strategy which is focused on the creating extraordinary customer services and maintaining the excellent quality of food (Lundgren et al. 2015). The most effective goals of this company are specific, measurable, realistic, achievable and time-bound. It wants to expand its business all over the world by expanding more store of this company.

Competitive Strategies of McDonald’s

The competitive strategies of McDonald indicate the basic approach to the development of this company and competitive advantage of the company. In the world as the biggest fast food restaurant chain, this organisation uses the intensive growth strategies to support the business development and expansion the business (Lundgren et al. 2015). The competitive business strategy of McDonald utilises the combination of the international market expansion strategies and the cost of leadership. The services and product standardisation lie in the cornerstone of the business strategy of the McDonald. The main competitive strategy of McDonald is the low prices. This organisation is involved in an extensive utilisation of economies of scale to gain the cost advantage. McDonald is the reputed for quick customer services without compromising the quality of the product or quality of the services. The universality of the taste of the food is the representative of another competitive strategy of the McDonald (Barney 2014). The competitive strategies of this company are related to the operational activities especially the action of the competitive firm and economic changes. McDonald has thousands of competitor in the market every company wants a share in the market. McDonald has recognised by its quality of food and services. This company has developed its competitive strategies that differentiate it from its competitors. All organisations require touching with the business environment because of matching the customer expectation with the customer services.

Business Model of McDonald’s

There are many business models which are related to the business organisation. In this particular assignment has focused on the world’s best fast food restaurant McDonald. In this specific assignment, the Franchisee Business Model is the best fit for McDonald. Franchising is the running of a business organisation some or all characteristics of another successful business partnership (Bereznoi 2015). In the traditional business, the business organisation would provide a right to sell a particular commodity in a particular market which is known as the distributorship. In the recent decades, the concept of franchising has grown in which the business organisation allow grants another business the license to maintain the business of the same name and can use the expertise if the parent’s company to establish the business successfully. Currently, McDonald has the franchised about 80% of its total restaurant. For the McDonald restaurant, the franchise model has led to years of growth, profitability and risk mitigation. Most of the operator or owners enter the market or system by purchasing an existing restaurant owner of the McDonald or operator of the McDonald (Gebauer & Saul 2014). Few numbers of operators enter into the market by purchasing a new restaurant. In this business model consist of some component which is the help to build the business model are the relationship between franchisor and franchisee, the agreement of franchise, benefits for the franchisor, benefits for the franchise, the cost of franchising for famous brands, etc. In this way, a business organisation can grow which is based on this business model.

External fit

The porter’s five forces tool is the simple but most essential instrument for understanding the situation in what situation the organisation is there. This business tool is the most useful because it helps to understand the strength of the organisation and the current position of the competitiveness. It is the instrument of marketing strategy. By the use of this instrument, the organisation can measure the level of competitiveness within the industry. Porter said that the understanding the level of competitiveness is essential to determine the attractiveness of the industry. Porter stated that there are five forces or factors can identify that the level of competitiveness in the market within the organisation. These factors are threats of new entry, competitive rivalry, supplier power, threats of substitution and buyer power.

Porter’s five forces for McDonald’s

Threats of new entry

The power of new entry into the market can affect the organisation which already exists. If a new organisation can easily enter into the market and start-up its business without substantial investment, then it is considered as the threats. If new entrants enter into an industry as well as into the market, it will achieve market share and rivalry will intensify. In the mar4ket if the existing firms are strong position then there is a barrier to entering the market, and if the barriers to entry are relative low, then the threats of new organisation entry will be high and vice-versa. In this context for the McDonald, there is a possibility of threats of new entry, but this company has the huge market reputation for its customer loyalty, better customer service without compromising its product quality.  

Competitive rivalry

In the business there is a key factor in the competitive intensity will be the competitive rivalry. In the traditional economic model, there is zero profit in the competition among the rival organisation. In the market of the particular industry are the importance of number and the capability of the participants (Altinay et al. 2014). If any organisations have more competitors in the market and these companies give the offer of the equally attractive products and services, the organisation should have the power to control in this situation. 

Supplier power

Supply power or an organisation is including the supply of raw materials, support of knowledge and the physical support of staff labour. There is need of buyer-supplier relationship between the organisation, and the industry to provide the raw materials and this will help to create the product (Michael 2014). If in the market the suppliers are powerful and have the ability to influence on the producing industry like selling of raw material at a high price to capture the profit of the industry. 

Threats of substitution

In the business treats of substitution is the essential factor. The customer may select to substitute product of the organisation from another organisation. This situation is not the same as switching to a different organisation to use the same product or services but switching products or services entirely. The existence of product demand of the product is affected by the change of price of a substitute product.

Buyer power

The buyers have the power to pressure to the organisation on the particular pressure at the low price (Stride & Higgs 2014). If the buyers have much option to choose from products or organisation, there the power of the buyer is considered as high.

PEST analysis of McDonald’s

PEST analysis is the business tool to measure the internal and external portion of the organisation. The PEST analysis of McDonald will explain below.

Political factors

The entire organisation is heavily affected by the political factors of individual areas, and McDonald is no exception. This company has many branches all over the world, and in this situation, there is the issue of health implication of the consumption of fast food (Nyadzayo, Matanda & Ewing 2015). The political factor may harmful elements like cholesterol and creation of any other health issues. 

Economic factors

Economic factors like currency exchange rate, policies of the government, the cost of labour and inflation rate can affect the business in the industry and the size of the company (Michael 2014). McDonald expands its business globally, so the changes in the currency of exchange rate have the impact on profit or income due to the global scope of the business organisation.

Socio-cultural factors

McDonald’s must consider the socio-cultural changes in its macroeconomic environment. International strategies of McDonald appear to act field to guarantee the lucrative return for the organisation (Rask 2014). The McDonald should understand its customer based on its characteristics. This organisation has an opportunity to develop its product and services to satisfy the target market or targeted customer.

Technological factors

Technological factors have on technological applications. The technological factors mainly affect the advertisement and product promotion. McDonald’s has the play a vital in the fast food industry (Yunna & Yisheng 2014). It uses the different technological factors to improve management and productivity of the organisation. 

Internal fit Analysis of McDonald’s Using Value Chain

The internal fit is one of the components that a company or organisation should consider when an organisation was trying to establish a sustainable competitive advantage (Leea et al. 2015). The internal fit is considered when the organisational system, technology and structure are aligned with the human resource system of the company. In the internal fit, all the internal component of the organisation reinforces and complements each other (Leea et al. 2015). The alignment between environment contingencies and organisational contingencies are positive affects the performance of the organisation. Internal fit indicates the value chain of the organisation. The value chain analysis is an analytical framework which is identified the activities of the business which can establish value and competitive advantage to the business (Lundgren et al. 2015). The value chain of McDonald can be categorised in two segments inbound logistic and outbound logistic. The inbound logistic are consist of operations, conventional franchising, developmental license and affiliates (Lundgren et al. 2015). The outbound logistic of the McDonald are consist of marketing and sales and services. 

Value Curves of McDonald’s

In the business, the value curve is an instrument for the strategic managers to observe how the strategy works in relation with the close competitions (Benjamin & Wesseler 2016). A value curve is a diagram which is used for identity where the value has established the services and product within the organisation. Value curve shows that current market position of the organisation and this value curve allows using the information to build the new offer, and compete with the existing competitors (Gebauer & Saul 2014). The value curve of the McDonald indicated the current market position of the organisation.

Part B

Ansoff Matrix of McDonald’s (Product/ market matrix)

In this part shows the Ansoff matrix of the McDonald which is consisting of new product and markets and existing markets and product (Barney 2014). This matrix is explained below.

Existing ProductNew Product
Existing marketsMarket PenetrationProduct Development
New MarketsMarket DevelopmentDiversification

GE/ Mckinsey Matrix of McDonald’s

In the business world, GE is the business framework that can evaluate the business portfolio, and provide further strategic implications and help to order the investment required for each business organisation (Altinay et al. 2014). This matrix helps to indicate the problem of resources scarcity is affected the decisions the companies make.

C:\Users\All We Write\Desktop\ge-mckinsey-matrix-blank.png

 Conclusion

This assignment had completed on focusing on McDonald fast food restaurant. This assessment describes the business analysis of McDonald. The main objective of this organisation is to provide better services without compromising the quality of the service. In this assignment described the different business tool to measure the current position of McDonald in the marketplace. In this way, this assignment had described the different matrix to measure the potential of this company. The competitive strategy of this organisation is very strong to control the competitor in the market.

Recommendations

McDonald required focusing on the service differentiation strategy in the fast food industry and should provide superior services to the targeted customers. This restaurant is the powerful brand name. This organisation faced many considerable issues which are based on emerging conditions in the global market. This organisation has limited process flexibility, and the product diversification is quite low. In this situation, this company may diversify on its product and services. This organisation may have flexibility in responding to the market variations. 

References

Altinay, L, Brookes, M, Madanoglu, M & Aktas, G 2014, ‘Franchisees’ trust in and satisfaction with franchise partnerships ‘, Journal of Business Research, vol 67, no. 5, pp. 722-728.

Barney, JB 2014, ‘How marketing scholars might help address issues in resource-based theory’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, vol 42, no. 1, pp. 24-26.

Benjamin, EO & Wesseler, JHH 2016, ‘A socioeconomic analysis of biocontrol in integrated pest management: A review of the effects of uncertainty, irreversibility and flexibility’, NJAS – Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, vol 77, no. 1, pp. 53-60.

Bereznoi, A 2015, ‘Business Model Innovation in Corporate Competitive Strategy’, Problems of Economic Transition , vol 57, no. 8, pp. 14-33.

Gebauer, H & Saul, CJ 2014, ‘Business model innovation in the water sector in developing countries’, Science of The Total Environment, vol 488-489, no. 1, pp. 512-520.

Leea, Y-K, Kim, S-H, Seo, M-K & Hight, S 2015, ‘Market orientation and business performance: Evidence from franchising industry’, International Journal of Hospitality Management, vol 44, no. 1, pp. 28-37.

Lundgren, JG, McDonald, T, Rand, TA & Fausti, SW 2015, ‘Spatial and numerical relationships of arthropod communities associated with key pests of maize’, Journal of Applied Entomology, vol 139, no. 6, pp. 446-456.

Michael, SC 2014, ‘Can franchising be an economic development strategy? An empirical investigation’, Small Business Economics, vol 42, no. 3, pp. 611-620.

Nyadzayo, MW, Matanda, MJ & Ewing, MT 2015, ‘The impact of franchisor support, brand commitment, brand citizenship behavior, and franchisee experience on franchisee-perceived brand image’, Journal of Business Research, vol 68, no. 9, pp. 1886–1894.

Rask, M 2014, ‘Internationalization through business model innovation: In search of relevant design dimensions and elements’, Journal of International Entrepreneurship, vol 12, no. 2, pp. 146-161.

Stride, H & Higgs, M 2014, ‘An Investigation Into the Relationship Between Values and Commitment’, Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, vol 43, no. 3, pp. 1-11.

Introduction

In this assignment will focus on the business strategy. McDonald’s restaurant will be selected to complete this assignment. This organisation is the world’s best fast food restaurant. In this assignment will describe the vision, mission, objective, competitive strategy, external fit, PEST analysis, porter’s five forces regarding McDonald. This assignment will also focus on Ansoff matrix, GE matrix of McDonald. In this way, this assignment can indicate strength, market position of the organisation.

Part A

Vision

McDonald’s is the leader in the global fast food restaurant industry. This company was founded in 1940, and it established as the McDonald’s corporation in the year of 1955. The vision statement of this company becomes the progressive modern burger company which is delivering contemporary customer services (Altinay et al. 2014). This company is reputed as the best quick service restaurant in all over the world and being the best services restaurant means providing excellent quality of food and services, value and cleanliness to the customer.  

Mission

The mission of the McDonald restaurant is clear. It wants to favourite place and way to eat and drink of the customer and want the first choice of the customer and provide top quality of products, excellent services and value for money.  This company want to be the best employer for the employee in each community in all over the world (Nyadzayo, Matanda & Ewing 2015). McDonald wants to achieve the profitable growth of this company by expanding the brand and leveraging the strong point of the system of McDonald by the technology and innovation.

Goals of McDonald’s

The main goals or objective of McDonald is to provide excellent food in the fun and friendly atmosphere and to be socially responsible organisation and also provide a good return to the shareholders of this organisation. The aim of this organisation is to establish a global strategy which is focused on the creating extraordinary customer services and maintaining the excellent quality of food (Lundgren et al. 2015). The most effective goals of this company are specific, measurable, realistic, achievable and time-bound. It wants to expand its business all over the world by expanding more store of this company.

Competitive Strategies of McDonald’s

The competitive strategies of McDonald indicate the basic approach to the development of this company and competitive advantage of the company. In the world as the biggest fast food restaurant chain, this organisation uses the intensive growth strategies to support the business development and expansion the business (Lundgren et al. 2015). The competitive business strategy of McDonald utilises the combination of the international market expansion strategies and the cost of leadership. The services and product standardisation lie in the cornerstone of the business strategy of the McDonald. The main competitive strategy of McDonald is the low prices. This organisation is involved in an extensive utilisation of economies of scale to gain the cost advantage. McDonald is the reputed for quick customer services without compromising the quality of the product or quality of the services. The universality of the taste of the food is the representative of another competitive strategy of the McDonald (Barney 2014). The competitive strategies of this company are related to the operational activities especially the action of the competitive firm and economic changes. McDonald has thousands of competitor in the market every company wants a share in the market. McDonald has recognised by its quality of food and services. This company has developed its competitive strategies that differentiate it from its competitors. All organisations require touching with the business environment because of matching the customer expectation with the customer services.

Business Model of McDonald’s

There are many business models which are related to the business organisation. In this particular assignment has focused on the world’s best fast food restaurant McDonald. In this specific assignment, the Franchisee Business Model is the best fit for McDonald. Franchising is the running of a business organisation some or all characteristics of another successful business partnership (Bereznoi 2015). In the traditional business, the business organisation would provide a right to sell a particular commodity in a particular market which is known as the distributorship. In the recent decades, the concept of franchising has grown in which the business organisation allow grants another business the license to maintain the business of the same name and can use the expertise if the parent’s company to establish the business successfully. Currently, McDonald has the franchised about 80% of its total restaurant. For the McDonald restaurant, the franchise model has led to years of growth, profitability and risk mitigation. Most of the operator or owners enter the market or system by purchasing an existing restaurant owner of the McDonald or operator of the McDonald (Gebauer & Saul 2014). Few numbers of operators enter into the market by purchasing a new restaurant. In this business model consist of some component which is the help to build the business model are the relationship between franchisor and franchisee, the agreement of franchise, benefits for the franchisor, benefits for the franchise, the cost of franchising for famous brands, etc. In this way, a business organisation can grow which is based on this business model.

External fit

The porter’s five forces tool is the simple but most essential instrument for understanding the situation in what situation the organisation is there. This business tool is the most useful because it helps to understand the strength of the organisation and the current position of the competitiveness. It is the instrument of marketing strategy. By the use of this instrument, the organisation can measure the level of competitiveness within the industry. Porter said that the understanding the level of competitiveness is essential to determine the attractiveness of the industry. Porter stated that there are five forces or factors can identify that the level of competitiveness in the market within the organisation. These factors are threats of new entry, competitive rivalry, supplier power, threats of substitution and buyer power.

Porter’s five forces for McDonald’s

Threats of new entry

The power of new entry into the market can affect the organisation which already exists. If a new organisation can easily enter into the market and start-up its business without substantial investment, then it is considered as the threats. If new entrants enter into an industry as well as into the market, it will achieve market share and rivalry will intensify. In the mar4ket if the existing firms are strong position then there is a barrier to entering the market, and if the barriers to entry are relative low, then the threats of new organisation entry will be high and vice-versa. In this context for the McDonald, there is a possibility of threats of new entry, but this company has the huge market reputation for its customer loyalty, better customer service without compromising its product quality.  

Competitive rivalry

In the business there is a key factor in the competitive intensity will be the competitive rivalry. In the traditional economic model, there is zero profit in the competition among the rival organisation. In the market of the particular industry are the importance of number and the capability of the participants (Altinay et al. 2014). If any organisations have more competitors in the market and these companies give the offer of the equally attractive products and services, the organisation should have the power to control in this situation. 

Supplier power

Supply power or an organisation is including the supply of raw materials, support of knowledge and the physical support of staff labour. There is need of buyer-supplier relationship between the organisation, and the industry to provide the raw materials and this will help to create the product (Michael 2014). If in the market the suppliers are powerful and have the ability to influence on the producing industry like selling of raw material at a high price to capture the profit of the industry. 

Threats of substitution

In the business treats of substitution is the essential factor. The customer may select to substitute product of the organisation from another organisation. This situation is not the same as switching to a different organisation to use the same product or services but switching products or services entirely. The existence of product demand of the product is affected by the change of price of a substitute product.

Buyer power

The buyers have the power to pressure to the organisation on the particular pressure at the low price (Stride & Higgs 2014). If the buyers have much option to choose from products or organisation, there the power of the buyer is considered as high.

PEST analysis of McDonald’s

PEST analysis is the business tool to measure the internal and external portion of the organisation. The PEST analysis of McDonald will explain below.

Political factors

The entire organisation is heavily affected by the political factors of individual areas, and McDonald is no exception. This company has many branches all over the world, and in this situation, there is the issue of health implication of the consumption of fast food (Nyadzayo, Matanda & Ewing 2015). The political factor may harmful elements like cholesterol and creation of any other health issues. 

Economic factors

Economic factors like currency exchange rate, policies of the government, the cost of labour and inflation rate can affect the business in the industry and the size of the company (Michael 2014). McDonald expands its business globally, so the changes in the currency of exchange rate have the impact on profit or income due to the global scope of the business organisation.

Socio-cultural factors

McDonald’s must consider the socio-cultural changes in its macroeconomic environment. International strategies of McDonald appear to act field to guarantee the lucrative return for the organisation (Rask 2014). The McDonald should understand its customer based on its characteristics. This organisation has an opportunity to develop its product and services to satisfy the target market or targeted customer.

Technological factors

Technological factors have on technological applications. The technological factors mainly affect the advertisement and product promotion. McDonald’s has the play a vital in the fast food industry (Yunna & Yisheng 2014). It uses the different technological factors to improve management and productivity of the organisation. 

Internal fit Analysis of McDonald’s Using Value Chain

The internal fit is one of the components that a company or organisation should consider when an organisation was trying to establish a sustainable competitive advantage (Leea et al. 2015). The internal fit is considered when the organisational system, technology and structure are aligned with the human resource system of the company. In the internal fit, all the internal component of the organisation reinforces and complements each other (Leea et al. 2015). The alignment between environment contingencies and organisational contingencies are positive affects the performance of the organisation. Internal fit indicates the value chain of the organisation. The value chain analysis is an analytical framework which is identified the activities of the business which can establish value and competitive advantage to the business (Lundgren et al. 2015). The value chain of McDonald can be categorised in two segments inbound logistic and outbound logistic. The inbound logistic are consist of operations, conventional franchising, developmental license and affiliates (Lundgren et al. 2015). The outbound logistic of the McDonald are consist of marketing and sales and services. 

Value Curves of McDonald’s

In the business, the value curve is an instrument for the strategic managers to observe how the strategy works in relation with the close competitions (Benjamin & Wesseler 2016). A value curve is a diagram which is used for identity where the value has established the services and product within the organisation. Value curve shows that current market position of the organisation and this value curve allows using the information to build the new offer, and compete with the existing competitors (Gebauer & Saul 2014). The value curve of the McDonald indicated the current market position of the organisation.

Part B

Ansoff Matrix of McDonald’s (Product/ market matrix)

In this part shows the Ansoff matrix of the McDonald which is consisting of new product and markets and existing markets and product (Barney 2014). This matrix is explained below.

Existing ProductNew Product
Existing marketsMarket PenetrationProduct Development
New MarketsMarket DevelopmentDiversification

GE/ Mckinsey Matrix of McDonald’s

In the business world, GE is the business framework that can evaluate the business portfolio, and provide further strategic implications and help to order the investment required for each business organisation (Altinay et al. 2014). This matrix helps to indicate the problem of resources scarcity is affected the decisions the companies make.

C:\Users\All We Write\Desktop\ge-mckinsey-matrix-blank.png

 Conclusion

This assignment had completed on focusing on McDonald fast food restaurant. This assessment describes the business analysis of McDonald. The main objective of this organisation is to provide better services without compromising the quality of the service. In this assignment described the different business tool to measure the current position of McDonald in the marketplace. In this way, this assignment had described the different matrix to measure the potential of this company. The competitive strategy of this organisation is very strong to control the competitor in the market.

Recommendations

McDonald required focusing on the service differentiation strategy in the fast food industry and should provide superior services to the targeted customers. This restaurant is the powerful brand name. This organisation faced many considerable issues which are based on emerging conditions in the global market. This organisation has limited process flexibility, and the product diversification is quite low. In this situation, this company may diversify on its product and services. This organisation may have flexibility in responding to the market variations. 

References

Altinay, L, Brookes, M, Madanoglu, M & Aktas, G 2014, ‘Franchisees’ trust in and satisfaction with franchise partnerships ‘, Journal of Business Research, vol 67, no. 5, pp. 722-728.

Barney, JB 2014, ‘How marketing scholars might help address issues in resource-based theory’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, vol 42, no. 1, pp. 24-26.

Benjamin, EO & Wesseler, JHH 2016, ‘A socioeconomic analysis of biocontrol in integrated pest management: A review of the effects of uncertainty, irreversibility and flexibility’, NJAS – Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, vol 77, no. 1, pp. 53-60.

Bereznoi, A 2015, ‘Business Model Innovation in Corporate Competitive Strategy’, Problems of Economic Transition , vol 57, no. 8, pp. 14-33.

Gebauer, H & Saul, CJ 2014, ‘Business model innovation in the water sector in developing countries’, Science of The Total Environment, vol 488-489, no. 1, pp. 512-520.

Leea, Y-K, Kim, S-H, Seo, M-K & Hight, S 2015, ‘Market orientation and business performance: Evidence from franchising industry’, International Journal of Hospitality Management, vol 44, no. 1, pp. 28-37.

Lundgren, JG, McDonald, T, Rand, TA & Fausti, SW 2015, ‘Spatial and numerical relationships of arthropod communities associated with key pests of maize’, Journal of Applied Entomology, vol 139, no. 6, pp. 446-456.

Michael, SC 2014, ‘Can franchising be an economic development strategy? An empirical investigation’, Small Business Economics, vol 42, no. 3, pp. 611-620.

Nyadzayo, MW, Matanda, MJ & Ewing, MT 2015, ‘The impact of franchisor support, brand commitment, brand citizenship behavior, and franchisee experience on franchisee-perceived brand image’, Journal of Business Research, vol 68, no. 9, pp. 1886–1894.

Rask, M 2014, ‘Internationalization through business model innovation: In search of relevant design dimensions and elements’, Journal of International Entrepreneurship, vol 12, no. 2, pp. 146-161.

Stride, H & Higgs, M 2014, ‘An Investigation Into the Relationship Between Values and Commitment’, Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, vol 43, no. 3, pp. 1-11.

Yunna, W & Yisheng, Y 2014, ‘The competition situation analysis of shale gas industry in China: Applying Porter’s five forces and scenario model’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol 40, no. 1, pp. 798-805.

Yunna, W & Yisheng, Y 2014, ‘The competition situation analysis of shale gas industry in China: Applying Porter’s five forces and scenario model’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol 40, no. 1, pp. 798-805.

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