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Report on Clinical Care

In this report there are different factors identified that has positive and negative impacts and these includes; communication, interpersonal skills, Care environment, correct treatment, emotional support, comfort and clinical care, etc.

What is Care?

Care is defined by Heidegger (2005) as the fundamental manifestation of man’s existence in the world, consisting of worrying about things and taking care of others. Care sustains relationships between men. If there were no care, the human being would be isolated. Because they needed each other, men organized themselves in groups so that their needs were met.

What is caring behavior?

These are the actions which is related to the patient’s well-being such as comforting, sensitivity, honesty, & listening attentively. Nurse caring behavior refers to “those things that a nurse says or does that communicate caring to the patients. Caring is the service the nurse renders while caring behaviors are those attitude, competencies and skills the nurse exhibits while rendering the services (Ehiemere, 2011).

The role and importance of nursing in the health system

Nurses are essential within the health system, after all they are present throughout the treatment of patients: from the moment of entry until discharge and often also outside the hospital environment. In addition to direct contact with the sick, these professionals also form the “bridge of communication” between other members of the hospital team, such as physiotherapists and doctors. Nurses, are key players in facing great challenges such as the new coronavirus pandemic and in Primary Care for patients. According to one survey, the nursing group is responsible for 60% to 80% of actions in Primary Care and 90% of health processes in general. Care must be individualized, based on current knowledge about the effectiveness / risks of the interventions implemented. In patients with the nursing diagnosis of hyperthermia, regardless of age, an evaluation of the parameters is recommended: temperature; heart and respiratory rate; tremors, flushing and lethargy; evaluation of culture exams; signs of infection; maintenance of the administration of medicines for continuous use. Patient care is the act of avoiding, preventing or improving adverse results or injuries arising from the medical-hospital care process. Safety is an important dimension of quality, defined as the right of people to have the risk of unnecessary harm associated with health care reduced to an acceptable minimum.

The patient’s experience has been debated on a recurring basis in all spheres of care and health care and one of the most relevant aspects has been to understand people as complex human beings, with particular goals and experiences. Within this context, providing humanized care is essential, since it impacts not only patient loyalty, but also the credibility built over time in relation to the health institution. As a consequence, we have a more effective treatment. Thus, hospitals are investing and preparing their professionals to work on the patient’s experience in an inc easingly constant way and not just propagate it as a trivialized term in the health area.

What is some evidence that being caring improves the patient experience and patient outcomes?
In the health area, advances have spread with the computerization and the emergence of modern equipment, which bring benefits and speed to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. This technology at the service of man has contributed to the solution of previously unresolved problems, and can provide better living and health conditions for people

However, technologies do not always result in benefits. With capitalism, technique / technology leave its role of use and become a commodity.  This generates the commodification of health, in which caring for others and healing become profitable objects.

In this context, Nursing, as a health profession, has historically had its disciplined knowledge in human care. It is, therefore, incoherent and unacceptable that this care is performed through actions considered “robotized”. 

Reflection:

Before reading this report, my concept of care is totally different and I am only considering it as a care in terms of proper medication and clinical advice. As per my view nurses need to understand that care and technology are interconnected, as nursing is committed to principles, laws and theories. Therefore, technology is represented by the expression of scientific knowledge and its transformation as a science, while philosophy enables professionals to reflect critically and participate in their actions. Following are the major qualities that needs to be developed in nurse

Strengthening the patient experience often means implementing simple steps that could make a difference for patients. Some examples:

– increase care so that the caregiver / patient is understood and their doubts are formally documented in notes, folders or other type of information that can be consulted later.

– maintain an open conversation with the patient, making him feel comfortable opening up to any of the health professionals.

– interpret the demands of patients and family members according to their personal and cultural values, assumptions and beliefs.

– understand the caregiver as a “partner”, in order to make it easier for them to get involved with the assistance.

What I have learned?

From this study, the most important thing I have learned is developing communication and interpersonal skills. These points are very important while you are working as a nurse. From different literature, I have seen my researches where patient shows their dissatisfaction with the lack of proper communication even nurses do not properly educate the patient about the treatment. Also, it has seen that involvement with family also impact this care process.

Importance of Nurse:

Self-care is the key to health care and is seen as a guideline underlying the nurse’s activity and which distinguishes it from other disciplines. It can be said that through self-care actions, health promotion interventions are implemented that are oriented towards the practice of nursing care over a continuum, from primary health care to inpatient services, long-term inpatient units. duration and rehabilitation services. These interventions aim to inform people about their condition and treatment and train them about self-monitoring, perception and identification of changes in functionality, assessing the severity of these changes and the options for managing these changes, as well as selecting and taking appropriate actions. Promoting and maintaining self-care in people with chronic illness is a central role of nurses’ intervention, as their interaction is constant in any context – hospitals, health centers, outpatient clinics, continuing care and the community. The implementation of self-care actions promotes a partnership between nurse and person / family, so that the latter develop skills and knowledge to adapt and make informed decision-making regarding their chronic illness.

References

Connor SR, S. B. (2015). Global atlas of palliative care at the end of life. Worldwide Palliative Care Alliance and World Health Organization.

Hammoda Abu-Odah, A. M. (2020). Challenges on the provision of palliative care for patients with cancer in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review of reviews. BMC Palliative Care.

Piper D, I. R. (2010). Experience-based Co-Design Program 2 Stage 1 Evaluation Report – Final Report to Health Services Performance Improvement Branch. NSW Health. Sydney: Centre for Health Communication, University of Technology Sydney.

Tanrıverdi Ö, K. Ş. (2016). Structuring in palliative care units.

Virna. (2017). The essence of care in health vulnerability: a Heideggerian construction.

Williams AM, D. S. (2006). Emotional comfort: the patient’s perspective of a therapeutic context. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 405–15.

Sox Jr, H. C. (1979). Quality of patient care by nurse practitioners and physician’s assistants: a ten-year perspective. Annals of Internal Medicine91(3), 459-468.

Kane, R. L., Shamliyan, T., Mueller, C., Duval, S., & Wilt, T. J. (2007). Nurse staffing and quality of patient care. Evidence report/technology assessment, (151), 1-115.

Papastavrou, E., Andreou, P., & Efstathiou, G. (2014). Rationing of nursing care and nurse–patient outcomes: a systematic review of quantitative studies. The International journal of health planning and management29(1), 3-25.

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Research Paper on Supply Chain Transparency

Introduction

This paper critically evaluates the journal article titled as “Trade-offs in supply chain transparency: the case of Nudie Jeans Co” which published in international Journal of Cleaner Production. The author of this article being Niklas Egels-Zandén, Kajsa Hulthén, and  Gabriella Wulf. 

The entire research in this article is comprised of supply chain transparency which incorporates supply chain concepts. This study was published in international Journal of Cleaner Production Volume 107, 16 November in the year 2015. This study was forwarded for publication in December 2013 but it was revised 2 times and finally accepted in April 2014. The author of this article gives limited information about supply chain transparency since the supply chain concepts are inconsistent and he only focuses on few dimensions of supply chain transparency. As a result this creates limited and unrealistic framings towards supply chain transparency, with the Nudie Jean Co being used as the outstanding company to adopt transparency. The above afore mentioned shortcomings are a problematic since it fails to meet the fact that different companies display various ways of transparency as compared to just using one company in the entire research paper.  The author ignores a simple ideology that it’s quite intellectual and resounding to extend a scholarly conversation beyond the use of one question of whether a company adopts transparency in supply chain management but to be precise on the key concepts that can promote transparency within different institutions (Maloni, 2006).  

Nevertheless, some of the latest literatures have been used to construct this article. Interestingly, the authors have used some of their previous 3 case studies (Egels-Zandén, 2010; Egels-Zandén, 2014; Egels-Zandén, 2007) into this article to come up with key concepts. Hence, as a result some of the finite supply chain concepts have not been given therefore creating a conflict of interest in the following areas.  

Author predominantly used the literature that is relative to supply chain management to conceptualize on the three fundamental trade-off shapes of companies transparency results.  Also, it is also important for the questioning of if the supply transparency was a desirable option. However, the author argues that the managers of companies must have a strong stand towards transparency.  

The author clearly emphasized the significance of analyzing how a company, in practice, attempts to work with supply chain transparency and how to explain the transparency outcomes. However, the author tries to demonstrate the key outcomes of the manager’s performance if they choose between a compliance or cooperation approach to supply chain transparency hence being the key goals that transpired the author to conduct this research. 

Upon developing the research on the basis of supply chain transparency the article poses the following research questions: 

Q1: How is the performance of companies when being transparent and is it desirable? 

Author was able to identify the key areas that the companies needed to do so as to improve on performance hence claiming that the corporate perspective and embracing supply chain transparency is the only way to improve the companies’ legitimacy.

The author directly communicated to the readers of this article through the use of a clear title. However, the hypothesis was not developed for this article; instead the author formulated questions and arguments to give a precise aim and objective towards the research. To be descriptive and attract the reader’s attention, the author ought to formulate an hypothesis for the research questions. 

Methodology

Being considerate towards the objective of this research and its nature, it is apparent that this article requires explicit observation and interaction of the company managers and suppliers. Smith et al. (2002) asserts that ‘Interpretivism’ is one of the ideologies where the reality can be obtained through the use of people rather than the external factors. Consequently, interpretivism ideology is one of the philosophies amended in this research. N research philosophy is adapted in this research. Conversely, such justification is not mentioned in this research.

According to the author the case study methodology used is qualitative so as to examine how a company that is in practice tries to conduct its operations with the supply chain transparency. Just as the Yin (1994) asserts, a case study is significant only when ‘why’ and ‘how’ question are modelled, the researcher has little control of activities when the his or her main focus is on an existing activity in a real life situation (Hertz, 2013). Therefore, emphasizing on such approach other that a case study approach would create a clear justification.   

It is always important to showcase the empirical data collections are carried out through the use of data tables since it reinforces the validity of the research study but in this article the author did not provide any data to showcase that the interviews were conducted, something that renders the study null and void.  

Discussion

Through a cross-examination analysis, the author was able to determine that the Nudie case established that companies can influence this discrepancy to their own advantage. Nevertheless, it was observed that in practice, the transparency in supply chain is not all about “stating the truth” rather declaring the actual standpoint that serves a particular firms interests.

Nevertheless, some differences were observed on the realization that supply chain transparency which has supply network effects making it a good starting point for understanding the transparency outcomes of supply chain transparency attempts. The author ought to give more emphasis on the company structural model that could be used to maintain sustainability and supply chain transparency rather that highlighting on the Nudie Co prowess in implementing transparency on its suppliers. Hence, this could have created more weight to this article.  

The analysis revealed that being able to have a transparent supply chain scope, that is sharing of performance and other related activities with the company’s suppliers is the best opportunity in improving the efficiency and sustainability in supply chains.  

Author identified obstacles that prevented the enclosure of sustainability information from the medium-volume suppliers, fabric suppliers, sub-supplier meaning that they could not be audited. The findings were able to steadily answer the established research question that had a proper flow and it support from the case study.

Conclusion

In this article the author has effectively obtained the research objective through empirical data and literature. However, has be able to explore the transparency attempts of supply chain through analysis of the Nudie company. 

As per the research implications the article focused on the cooperation approach that was able to reduce the dysfunctional conflict in the supply chain market, shifting the focus on normal approach and adopting the authoritative way, making the supply chain transparent within firms. 

Nevertheless, the author admitted that the research was affected due its nature which prohibited the possibility of generalizing of the outcomes outside the case study used.  It is also clear that the outcomes showed that the recommendation could be applicable into other firms. 

Author endorsed future research to survey the effect of supply chain transparency on sustainability conditions on the factory floor.

References

Harvard reference method was used in this research also there was a consistency on the research since the article is properly cited. 

REFERENCES

Hertz, S. and Alfredsson, M., 2003. Strategic development of third party logistics providers. Industrial marketing management, 32 (1), 139-149.

Ittner, C. and Larcker, D., 2001. Assessing empirical research in management accounting: A value-based management approach. Journal of accounting and economics, 1 (32), 349-410.

Kaplan, R. S. and Norton, D. P., 1992. The balanced scorecard- measures that drive performance. Harvard business review, 70 (1), 71-79.

Maloni, H.J. and Carter, C.R., 2006. Opportunities for research in third-party logistics. Transportation journal, Spring, 23-38.

Morgan, C., 2007. Supply network performance measurement: future challenges?. International journal of logistics management, 18 (2), 255-273.

Smith, M. E., Thorpe, R. and Lowe, A., 2002. Management research: an introduction. London: Sage publications

Yin, R. K., 1994. Case study research: design and methods. 2nd ed. New York: Sage publications.

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Assignment on Internal and External Information Needs

Organizations have information generated and shared within organization and externally to other organizations, government departments, people who require services and the general public. Here is some further information on internal and external information. (Brennan, 1974)

1.1 Internal information needs

Internal information includes all information required for effective service and interaction between employees and management. It includes Vision/Mission/Goals, Plans, Processes, Budgets, Resources (people, items), Procedures and policies and standards. It is dependent on environmental scanning (looking at opportunities and threats, changes in government, technology, funding & society) and on information about clients’ needs wants and expectations. Information must be up-to – date, accurate and accessible to all employees (Brennan, 1974). These may be policies and procedures, documentation on case management, or internal e-mails and newsletters. Internal information is needed to increase productivity, for effective and responsive customer service, for easy attainment of goals, for reducing day-to-day conflict between team members, to enable fast responses, to enable fast decision making and help in motivating the employees. (Alessandra, 1993)

1.2 External information needs

External information refers to any information available outside the organization to stakeholders. This information may cover the services and programs delivered by the company, fact sheets and web pages concerning various organizational issues, annual reports or financial reports. External information needs to be clear, error-free, formal, jargon-free, and easy language. It should understand the need of the audience and should use proper choice of words for communication. (Husain, Jan 2013)

External information is needed to present a favorable image of an organization, to provide information about products and services to customers, to advertise and promote the organization. (Husain, Jan 2013)

1.3 Identify competing or conflicting interests 

Competing interests are described as different factors that could undermine an individual or an organization’s objectivity or integrity. The financial aspect of competing interests can often be established. This means that an individual or an organization, which can affect its decisions, has a financial gain. (Brennan, 1974)

Example:

  1. A woman who is a social worker in a government health organization. The agency she works for provides time-limited episodes of therapy/counseling for people recovering from drug and alcohol addictions. It is typical, at the end of an episode of therapy, for counselors to refer clients for ongoing therapy if they assess that there is a need. Her husband has a private practice and is currently looking for new clients. If she refers clients to her husband that is seen as a conflict of interest.

2.0 Communication strategies to meet organization needs and goals

Any communications strategy should closely reflect overall organizational plan. Following are some of the strategies to that can be followed. (Clernons, 2003)

2.1 Face-to-face communications:

It can be done through meetings, Forums town hall and Information and training sessions. Advantages of face to face communication are Employees receive information directly from managers, it enables live Q&A, Leaders and managers can reinforce the importance of the initiatives taken. (Martic, 2019)

2.2 Interactive Communications:

It can be done through E-mail addresses for Q&A or web site pages devoted to Q&A, Online chats or discussion boards and Telephone hotlines. Advantages of interactive communication are Employees can ask questions anonymously and it facilitates two-way communication and feedback. (Mallett-Hamer, 2005)

2.3 Mass Communications through digital media:

It can be done through Online Marketing Channels – Website marketing, SEM (search engine marketing – includes SEO and Pay per click advertising), mobile marketing (i.e. Google Play, Apple Store), email marketing, online banner advertising, video marketing, and Social Media marketing. Advantages of digital media are that it is cost effective and efficient. (Anon., 2019)

3.0 Processes and protocols

Adapting communication protocols involves taking a number of steps to work efficiently within a given context. In order to ensure that the adaptation meets the goals and values, it is necessary to define and implement a proper procedure. Start with the communication strategies review, your organization. Analyze the team’s demographics in cultural, language, experience and communication terms, for example. Take into account that you use the contact technique to reach everyone inside the team. If not, you should decide how to adapt the strategies. This will involve a conversation with team leaders to get their input. Develop a proposal to adapt communication strategies for the organization and discuss it with relevant organization stakeholders. Below you can follow another process to adapt a protocol. (Clernons, 2003)

3.1 Adapting a protocol    

• Consider who should participate in the process and schedule a conference. 

• Be specific about the purpose: why do you need to adapt this protocol? 

• Identify necessary modifications. 

• Modify the document. 

• Implement the organization’s new communication protocol

3.2 Communication strategies regarding staff

It is critical that corporate communication techniques not only store documents in a file but also become part of daily work. You have to make sure that all workers are informed and have the knowledge they need to communicate efficiently in keeping with these techniques. Such communication techniques can also be model to staff to ensure that when there is a new policy or plan, you offer adequate coaching to new staff or all staff. (Anon., 2019)

3.3 Alternative communication strategies 

You can contact users, staff, workers, volunteers or members of the public. The public can communicate with you. Below are alternate communication methods that can help make knowledge accessible to all people.

  • For older people
  • For people who have a visual impairment

3.4 Maintain work-related networks and relationships

Work-related networks are individuals from the same business or sector who collaborate with one another. They exchange information and provide communication systems, assistance, tools and support to help the work. (Clernons, 2003)

Taking part in network activities like lectures allows people not only to access information, to learn new skills, to increase awareness, but also to create their relationships. 

Trained workers will provide people with an excellent source of knowledge about customer service plans as well as their own professional growth. (Martic, 2019)

Types of people network with in work environment:

Eternally

  • Unions
  • Government departments/agents
  • Training/education organizations, 
  • Professional groups
  • Competitors
  • Consultants
  • Contractors
  • Marketing contractors

Internally

  • Management
  • Human resources 
  • Administration
  • Other team members
  • Stakeholder networks
  • Client/patient networks

4.0 Obtain feedback from the other students to assess your communication skills and effectiveness:

Good communication skills

  • Take an active role in team meetings
  • Read internal bulletins, email and newsletters
  • Read the organization’s promotional material
  • Read journal articles 
  • Attend internal training days or planning days
  • Read internal reports

Feedback from others within your organization and from elsewhere can be an effective way to evaluate your communication strategies and protocols. There are various strategies, including formal and informal options that you can use to obtain feedback. Feedback will help you understand what works and works less well, and help to improve future strategies and practices. Here are the feedback methods you may consider using. 

Feedback and individual interviews from 360 degrees

360-degree feedback is provided anonymously using an online survey with a common set of questions, and from all directions – management, staff members, peers, colleagues and others can all be invited to provide information via the survey. Information is collated and used for professional development or performance appraisal purposes. Interview feedback is obtained through individual questions and discussion. Interviews can provide very specific information about processes and systems within a team or organization, although their success varies depending on the interviewer, the questions asked and the rapport established. Interviews can be conducted with individuals or with a group. (Holtz, 2004)

Observation

It can be wise to step back and allow another staff member to chair the meeting while you conduct observations. Observations can be biased by your own attitudes and emotions. For this reason, use observations in combination with other methods for a more complete picture. You may decide to observe the participation of an individual or several people in the team. Areas to note include their contribution to discussions, body language, interaction with other team members, the questions and comments, and their general professionalism, such as their appearance, behavior and attitudes to others. (Mallett-Hamer, 2005)

Formal evaluation forms 

Evaluation forms should use a consistent question style and be trailed before use to ensure any ambiguities or difficulties are corrected. Questions often provide multiple choice or scaling responses as this style is perceived as being quicker and easier to complete than open-ended questions. Questions should be written with either three or five possible options, with the central option being a neutral or middle choice. Always include a section for comments to give the person an opportunity for an extended response. Obtaining feedback from team members may occur via a formal written evaluation form. Limit your questions to no more than. (Mallett-Hamer, 2005)

Example:

A manager organizes weekly team meetings to update staff on any relevant information or issues. The meetings often last at least two hours. The manager asks for feedback from the team to assess the effectiveness of the meetings. The team feedback is that much of the information presented at the meeting could be sent via email because it doesn’t need to be talked about since the manager always keeps track of an email. The team members suggest that fortnightly meetings where topics that require discussion would be a better use of time.

References

Alessandra, T. &. H. P., 1993. Communication at Work.. Fireside, Simon & Schuster, New York, NY. .

Brennan, J., 1974. The Conscious Communicator; making communication work in the workplace. 

channel, C., n.d. Types of Communication and Channels. [Online]
Available at: https://brandedbridgeline.com/resources/types-of-communication-and-channels/

Clernons, J., 2003. . Avoiding a communication breakdown: keeping employees informed benefits business. 

communication, l. o., n.d. Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Communication. [Online]
Available at: http://faculty.buffalostate.edu/smithrd/UAE%20Communication/Unit4.pdf

Holtz, S., 2004. Corporate Conversations:a guide to crafting effective and appropriate internal communications. 

Husain, Z., Jan 2013. Effective communication brings successful organizational change. p. 50.

Mallett-Hamer, B., 2005. COMMUNICATION WITHIN THE WORKPLACE. 

Sanina, A. &. B. A. &. R. M. &. S. D., 2017. The effectiveness of communication channels in government and business communication. 

Westmyer, S. &. D. R. &. R. R. (., n.d. Appropriateness and Effectiveness of Communication Channels in Competent Interpersonal Communication. Journal of Communication.

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Report on Corporate Governance

Research on the importance of generally accepted best practices in corporate governance has failed to find convincing connections between these practices and organizational performance. This research proposal we will discuss outcomes on the relationship between best practices, General manager duality insider composition and organizational performance, and find relationship to be significant. 

Corporate governance is the system by which companies are directed and managed. It influences how the objectives of the company are set and achieved, how risk is monitored & assessed, & how performance is optimized. Corporate governance ensures transparency which ensures strong and balance economic development. This is also ensures that the interest of all shareholders (Majority as well as minority shareholder) are safeguard. Corporate governance affects the operational risk and, hence, sustainability of a corporation. The quality of a corporation’s corporate governance affects the risks and value of the corporation. Effective, strong corporate governance is essential for the efficient functioning of markets. Corporate Governance is intended to increase the accountability of your company and avoid massive disasters before they occur. Failed energy giant Enron, and its bankrupt employees and shareholders, is a prime argument for the importance of solid Corporate Governance. Well- executed Corporate Governance should be similar to a police department’s internal affairs unit, weeding out and eliminating problems with extreme prejudice. In recent years, the ownership structure of companies has changed a lot (Garza, George, 2012). Public financial institutions, mutual funds, etc. are the single largest shareholder in most of the large companies. Today, social responsibility is given a lot of importance. The Board of Directors has to protect the rights of the customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers, local communities, etc. This is possible only if they use corporate governance. Many scams, frauds and corrupt practices have taken place. Misuse and misappropriation of public money are happening every day in India and worldwide. It is happening in the stock market, banks, financial institutions, companies and government offices. In order to avoid these scams and financial irregularities, many companies have started corporate governance (Craig   J, 2004).

Investors consider corporate governance as important as financial performance when evaluating companies for investment. Investors who are provided with high levels of disclosure and transparency are likely to invest openly in those companies. The consulting firm McKinsey surveyed and determined that global institutional investors are prepared to pay a premium of up to 40 percent for shares in companies with superior corporate governance practices. Several structural changes like increased role of financial intermediaries and institutional investors, size of the enterprises, investment choices available to investors, increased competition, and increased risk exposure have made monitoring the use of capital more complex thereby increasing the need of Good Corporate Governance. Evidences indicate that well-governed companies receive higher market valuations. As we have iterated, this part of the report explains our view of best corporate governance practice and the holistic approach by which we believe an organisation can ensure that a state of good corporate governance exists, or is brought into being if its existence is uncertain. It takes the view that there is an over-riding moral dimension for running a business and that the standard of governance will depend on the moral complexion of the operation (Schultz, 2012).
The business morality or ethic must permeate the entire operation from top to bottom and embrace all stakeholders best corporate governance practice is an integral part of good management practice also permeating the entire operation, and not an esoteric specialism addressed by lawyers, auditors and sociologists.
The principles of this approach are therefore framed in relation to the conventional way of looking at how a business should be properly run. For obvious reasons, although the methodology we will propose involves taking major stakeholders into greater account when formulating strategy, it is designed to generate all round support because of the fact that every stakeholder, no matter how small, is given the opportunity to express a view, through the continuous monitoring of stakeholder perceptions.

The regulatory approach to the subject would regard governance as something on its own, to do with ensuring a balance between the various interested parties in a company’s affairs, or more particularly a way of making sure that the chairman or chief executive is under control, producing transparency in reporting or curbing over-generous remuneration packages.

References

Garza, George. (2012)  “The history  of  Starbucks.”  Catalogs.com.  Catalogs.com,  n.d.  Web.2012 

Thompson, Craig   J.,   and   Zeynep   Arsel.(2010)   “The   Starbucks   brandscape   and consumers'(anticorporate) experiences of glocalization.” Journal of Consumer Research 31.3 (2004): 631-642.  

Schultz, Howard. (2012) Pour your heart into it: How Starbucks built a company one cup at a time. Hachette UK.

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Assignment on Medication Error

Introduction

A medication error is an unintended mistake made in the use of a drug that can cause harm to the patient and that can occur for many reasons when prescribing, dispensing, storing, preparing or administering a medicine. Poor adherence to physician prescriptions is the main cause of ineffectiveness of drug therapies and is associated with an increase in health care interventions, morbidity and mortality, representing damage to both patients and the health system and society. (Kenji Fujita, 2018)

Main Issues Identified:

On analysis, one of the major issues, identified is that at the time of discharge there is no instruction related to the medicine is given to patient. One of the main issues associated with the medicine is the logistic problems as per in this case reconciliation of medicine at the point of transition if important. (Basger BJ, 2015) And there was no involvement of pharmacist in her care before they discharged her from the hospital. The pharmacist role is to ensure that they’re going through the discharge medication prescription to check for correct dosage, to provide medication information, evaluate medication, to improve medication adherence, medication management, assess health status.

Secondly, it is found that there is a lack of information listed on the discharge summary. Further there is no significant findings from the physician and the cardiologist and no treatment provided in the hospital. Also, the type of dressing was put on and for an ongoing dressing change

Thirdly there was communication barriers as the nurse won’t be able to understand what patient has said. Ineffective communication can also lead to medicine errors. 

Also, there is incorrect medication dosage prescribed on gliclazide. And the incorrect information provided to the patient post procedure regarding ongoing wound care management and treatment

The other issues involved negligence of the nurse by not involving a pharmacist in her discharge process. And there are too many medications which has confused the patient and difficult solution provide blister pack with a clear instruction

Intervention:

Intervention for the Pharmacist 

Pharmacists play a vital role in providing medication safety all across the continuum of care. But, it is noted that the complication of medicine prescribing as well as delivery methods could make it even more difficult/complex to prove the useful pharmacists impact on destructive effects at once, however, the involvement of pharmacist has been revealed to lessen errors, enhance prescribing practices, as well as, increase affected person monitoring across settings and in this situation, the affected person has no preliminary understanding of proper usage of the medicine which in-return provide complete negligence/carelessness from the side of the pharmacist.

  1. Recommendation

While discharging the patients, the pharmacist should keep in mind the following main points:

  1. The pharmacist should well-informed the patient about their current condition and provide them “a through discharge medication list which shows the comprehensive medication information (general medication name, dose, dosage form, directions, PRN and regular medication, etc.), duration and indication of the new medication, an illustration of changes which might have been made to the usual medications, and proper details regarding medication management plan as well as medication management needs.
  2. Before discharging, the pharmacists should educate the careers and patients properly regarding appreciate usage and storage of the medications and potential risks and side effects of the medicine, and what to do in case of not taking the recommended dose properly on-time. Furthermore, it should be ensured that the patient has understood all the instructions and able to follow the medication instructions.
  3. The pharmacist can also arrange the medication trial which is considered as the best way to examine whether the patient can take independently all medications before discharging and can also use the pharmacy outreach service. Through this service, the nurse can visit the home of patients after their discharge to check their management of medication, provide education as well as facilitate continuity of care (Hanlin Li, 2016). 

Intervention for improving the communication

In this case as the patient is not able to clearly communicate with the nurse which make the nurse difficult in understanding her condition. So, there should be some interpreter involved that helped her in explaining the present condition of patient. (Moore, 2004)

A poor or delayed communication between a patient and the pharmacists can cause a lot of problems due to a lack of continuity among the medicines at the time of discharge.  It is also found from the study that almost 19% to 23% of discharge patients have an adverse experience after discharge and not proper communication regarding medication can make the treatment jeopardize as well as also enhanced the risk of re-admission to the hospital. Therefore, through this study, a few recommendations are provided to avoid miss-communication between patients and the nurse.

  1. Patients require understanding and knowledge as well as support for motivation & for undergoing medicine therapy. For avoiding miscommunication physicians must adhered to teamwork & also promote effective communication among patients. They must be aware with situation (Manojlovich, 2017). In this case, on discharging many concerned health workers were involved such as nurse who discharged her, physician who prescribed the medicine and final workers. It is seen total lack of communication among the team. The patient must be informed correctly about its current condition, suggest some self-care strategies and proper schedule of the medication. Moreover, patient must be encouraged to follow-up care plan by describing the significance and fruitful results of the plans in terms of achieving the optimum level of health as well as decreasing the chance of readmission to a hospital. (Shitu, 2018)
  2. If a patient is not in the condition to listen to all self-care strategies, then, there should be professional health care interpreters in order to ensure proper communication between the nurse and the patient. The interpreters will communicate the after discharge treatment plan to the patient accurately (smith, 2019). 

References

Basger BJ, M. R. (2015). Development of an Aggregated System for Classifying Causes of Drug-Related Problems. . Ann Pharmacother .

Hanlin Li, P. W. (2016). Incorporating a Pharmacist Into the Discharge Process: A Unit-Based Transitions of Care Pilot. Hosp Pharm. 

Kenji Fujita, R. J. (2018). Quality indicators for responsible use of medicines: a systematic review. BMJ Open.

Ludwik K. Branski, a. R. (2008). A porcine model of full-thickness burn, excision and skin autografting. Burns.

Manojlovich, M. D. (2017). Healthy work environments, nurse-physician communication, and patients’ outcomes.

Moore, P. M. (2004). Communication skills training for health care professionals working with cancer patients, their families and carers. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews,.

Ridiandries A, T. J. (2018). The Role of Chemokines in Wound Healing. Int J Mol Sci.

Shitu, Z. (2018). AVOIDING MEDICATION ERRORS THROUGH EFFECTIVE. Movement, Health & Exercise.

smith, s. (2019). Discharge planning: the need for effective communication. LIAISON NURSING.

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Finnegan Constructions sustainability report

Finnegan Constructions sustainability report discloses its economic sustainability issues and how they manage and solve those issues. It includes financial assumptions and additional risks and opportunities that are brought about by climate change. 

Corruption issues in Finnegan has also been disclosed and the action that were implemented. The reports also include Legal actions that the company took in place it was reportedly involved in anti-competitive behavior, anti-trust, and monopoly practices. 

In environmental sustainability section, explains how Finnegan Constructions is consuming energy and how they have increased the usage on renewable energy. Also show how the company did not comply with environmental laws and regulations. 

This report discloses the number of Finnegan employee turnover and discrimination cases which cost the company some money. It also explains how the company engages with the community, Stanwell Council to make sure that the sustainability program is successfully implemented.

Introduction     

Finnegan Constructions is a company that develops residential by building apartment complexes in Stanwell Council district. The company has 58 male staffs who live within Stanwell district who are professional and have different construction related trades. 

In Stanwell district, there is a high competition for people who are professional in construction field since there are many companies that run in the same industry as Finnegan Constructions. 

Writing a sustainability report is essential since it allows the company to communicate with the key stockholders on what plan they have on sustainability (Wallage 2000). 

Our commitment

Finnegan construction stakeholders are putting much effort on achieving sustainability by being economically, environmentally socially viable. The company understands the benefits of including non-financial details such like sustainability disclosures in their annual report. This helps to explain how the company contributes on sustainability (Aras and Crowther, 2009; Cho et al., 2012; Higgins et al., 2015; Patten and Zhao, 2014).

Finnegan constructions have a role of maximizing their shareholders’ wealth and create value for society. This role would result in a win-win proposition for both the companies and society, and by which the company to develop a long-term innovative strategy with various business opportunities.

Finnegan Constructions bind and take sustainability and the environment very seriously. They are proactive and take measures in ensuring that the sustainability is deep-rooted in the heart of their business practices. 

Economic sustainability 

Economic sustainability disclosure for Finnegan has financial implications and various opportunities and risks that are results of climate change. 

Climate change results to warming effect increasing the bushfires risks. This can have a negative impact to our customers who can lose everything through the fire or even loss life. Finnegan constructions are working firmly with Stanwell Council so that they can comply with the proposal amendment on Local Environmental Plan (LEP) to redone a particular area in the Stanwell District as liable to bushfires. The LEP amendment will take place within take within less than two months. 

Area that considered to be prone to bushfires during amendment of LEP were given the highest safety priorities such as leaving a large interval that will separate the buildings and land boundaries and carry out the usage of fire-retardant building materials. These proactive measures will help to lower the risk of bushfires in the area. 

Finnegan Constructions has also established a slot in the Stanwell district that has been conducted as an area which is refined as bushfire prone by the LEP amendment.  Finnegan will spend more than $4 million in order to adhere to LEP requirements. The company has engaged in participating in external town planning firm so that it can manage to develop an application and work together with Stanwell Council with the purpose of minimizing these potential costs. Finnegan Constructions will spend $50,000 to acquire town planning firm services. 

Finnegan Constructions had a corruption scandal. The company took some action plan to rectify this incident. 

One of our former staff David Dawson reported a complaint to the state corruption commission stating that the company took in place when it was reported of being involved in with public corruption. Five employees from Finnegan constructions and two business partners are corrupt. They did this to push the approval process of the development application of the company by the council. The employees involved and the two external consultants gave bribes to council project officers.

The state corruption commission took the action and charged each of the five employees and one of the external consultants with corruption. 

Finnegan Constructions suspended the five employees without pay as they wait for the prosecutions outcome. This will help to teach others a lesson and remind them that Finnegan Constructions does not entertain corrupt people. The company also went ahead and terminated the partnership contracts with the two external consultants.

There was anti-competitive incident in Finnegan Constructions. David was a watchful employee since he was able to see and find areas that Finnegan Constructions was not complying with the law. He summoned a series of grievance to various government authorities about Finnegan’s operations. 

He reported to the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) who initiated proceedings in the Federal Court against Finnegan Constructions for asserted anti-competitive conduct that it misused the market power and exclusive dealings.

The ACCC stated that Finnegan Constructions was aware that a group of local builders had a plan of establishing a competing development company. Finnegan responded to the competitive threat allegations that the company executives told the suppliers and contractors that if in any case they are part of the new development company, their business with Finnegan substantially would be reduced or withdrawn.

The ACCC alleged that the company was engaging in this behavior to deter or make it hard for new entrant in the development market in the Stanwell district, or extensively decrease competition in construction industry market.This case is set to be heard by the Federal Court in the next four months. 

Environmental sustainability

Finnegan Constructions has identified ways for producing renewable energy. Below is how the company consumes the energy.

Finnegan Constructions is a company that uses energy efficiently. The company always includes their energy consumption in a summarized table in their report. This is usually based on the calculation tools imposed by the Australian Department of Industry and Science

Fuel consumption from non renewable sources 1.0 Gigajoule 
Fuel consumption from renewable sources 0. 5 Gigajoule 
Electricity consumption 2.0 Gigajoules 

NB: 1 Gigajoule is equal to 109 Joules 

The company has also implemented a program that will help it to increase its fuel consumption from renewable sources by 50 per cent in the next three years. 

The renewable sources of energy will have a positive impact on the environmental and economy. It will help to generate energy that will not produce greenhouse gas emissions that is found in fossil fuels and helps to cut air pollution. 

There will be diversifying of energy supply and will reduce dependence on imported fuels. Therefore, the company will spend less in energy. 

Renewable energy will help to create economic development and create job opportunities in manufacturing, installation and management of renewable energy source system. 

David Dawson made a separate complaint to the Department of the Environment and Energy. An investigation has been made and found that Finnegan illegally cleared 0.45 hectares of critically endangered ecological community coastal grasslands. The area known to be important by State Planning Scheme since e it has valuable flora and fauna attributes. 

It cost the company $200,000 to pay for the fine and the company was also ordered to do an external review of its vegetation management plan and carry out a rehabilitation plan which cost more than $440,000.

Finnegan activities have an impact on biodiversity. The company has changed positively to the environment through their Environmental Impact Assessment which they performed on the company’s Otford Park development site. The company discovered that 60 per cent of the site consists of uncommon wallum sedge frog. 

The Environmental Impact Assessment helped the company to estimate the proposed medium density residential development for the site would permanently convert the habitat and give inconsistent frogs’ survival on the site.

The company is collaborating with a Stanwell Council and environmental groups to design a strategy that will help to manage the proposed development of the site and conserve the wallum sedge frog. 

Social sustainability

Social sustainability deals with the social issues that are found in the ecosystem of an organization and is essential for the company long-term sustainability. It also helps to guarantee that the resources usage does not affect life quality by damaging the economic opportunities for people or by affecting societal conditions and the environment (Hummel & Schlick 2016) 

Finnegan Constructions has a total number of 58 employees who are male staff. The staffs are from within Stanwell district. Every staff has different construction related trades and professions. 

There is a high competition for these professionals in the local market. Finnegan constructions recently employed 12 new apprentices who replaced 17 employees who left the company to its rivals. 

The rate of turnover is high since the skills and professional in construction are very demanding The Company has designed a strategy that will help to cut the number of turnovers and attract more skilled people. The pay rate of the workers was raised and an implementation on a monthly rostered day off is likely to help in retaining the existing customers to try to keep its existing staff.

Every employee needs to be protected from discrimination whether it is because of age or race. Finnegan had an incidence where an employee was been discriminated because of his age. 

One of Finnegan employee resigned and filed a workplace harassment claim in the Fair Work Commission. His allegation was that has been discriminated by his colleagues due to his age. He further claimed that he was the only employee who was above 50 years of age and the rest were between 30 and 50 years. This made him vulnerable and a target of humiliation through age related jokes from the co-workers. 

Fair Work Commission upheld David’s claim and the company was ordered to pay him $4,400 for compensation. Finnegan constructions were also ordered by the Commission to check and update its anti-discrimination policy and offer anti-discrimination training to all employees. The company has obeyed the Commission’s orders.

The companies also distribute the anti-discrimination policy to all employees through email and in hard copy and train the new employees during their first week in the company. 

The company usually engages with the local community in development programs that benefits the company and the community at large.

Finnegan Constructions operates their business with community in mind. They engage local communities, do impact assessments, and formulate social development programs for all the proposed residential developments. Their initiatives include Environmental Impact Assessments, local resident meetings, and local community development programs established on the local community’s need for 12 affordable social housing.

Conclusion

Finnegan constructions have responsibility in ensuring that the economic, environmental and social sustainability is addressed. The company was liable in all the incidences that one of their former employees brought up. They took immediate actions to rectify the issues raised.

The company publicly reported how they have been in community development and how it is working hard to make sure that all sustainability are put into consideration. Going publicly helped the company to avoid being implicated in publicized environmental, economical, social and governance failure.

References 

Aras, G. and Crowther, D. (2009), “Corporate sustainability reporting: a study in disingenuity?”Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 87 No. 1, pp. 279-288.

Hummel, K & Schlick, C. (2016).The relationship between sustainability performance and sustainability disclosure-Reconciling voluntary disclosure theory and legitimacy theory. Journal of Accounting Public Policy

Cho, C.H., Guidry, R.P., Hageman, A.M. and Patten, D.M. (2012), “Do actions speak louder than words? An empirical investigation of corporate environmental reputation”, Accounting,

Organizations and Society, Vol. 37 No. 1, pp. 14-25.

Higgins, C., Milne, M.J. and Gramberg, B. (2015), “The uptake of sustainability reporting in

Australia”, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 129 No. 2, pp. 445-468.

Patten, D.M. and Zhao, N. (2014), “Standalone CSR reporting by US retail companies”, AccountingForum, Vol. 38 No. 2, pp. 132-144.

Tricia, O., Terri, T. & Handrian, G. 2016 Hard and soft sustainability disclosures: Australia’s resources industry retrieved from www.emeraldinsight.com/1030-9616.htm

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Critique to Lesson Plan

The lesson plan is important because it explains what the objectives of the class are, how they will be achieved and in how long. It acts as a guide for the teachers about their goals and opens up a range of creative options in order to achieve them. Following a well-organized lesson plan, the teacher will be free to approach the classroom themes in creative and efficient ways, all within the stipulated time (Hairunisya, 2018). The objectives of education are always long-term – what the student learns at school should always serve either to learn more or to apply in new situations, in the near or remote future. Each class is a step towards achieving long-term goals and what happens in each class must be consistent with that (Mustikawati, 2019). This critique is based on the lesson plan develop for level – Early childhood or transition. The children involved in this activity are of the age 5. This plan is a 45 minutes’ lesson plan which is based on outdoor activities needs to be performed by the kids only in condition if the weather is suitable. This activity is considered very interesting as this will help the kids with developing sound understanding with the dinosaurs. This critique is based on identifying the advantages of the plan as well as issues with the plan. 

A key element of effective teaching lies in the planning of teaching and learning activities carried out at school, particularly in the classroom (Feurer, 2013). This planning must be done for each day or on weekly basis as per the school curriculum requirements and is part of the professional responsibilities of the teacher. Without it, learning objectives are meaningless. As seen in this lesson plan, a weekly plan is provided which clearly mention timing for conducting different activities based on the same topic dinosaurs. But this plan is not showing on which day of the week this activity is needed to be performed. So, here, it is seen that the lesson plan is based on week but it is not showing which day of the week. It will be more clear if a day is specified. From the plan it is understood that the lesson is designed for one day only. 

The first step in the development of the lesson plan is to make a good study of the calendar and keep notes, in an easily identifiable way, which are the total periods of classes you have to teach your students (considering holidays, recesses and other events). It is within this temporal dimension that all subsequent steps will be taken (Nivales, 2008). Then comes the stage of problematizing the themes. The teacher must add a system of weights and measures for each topic that will have to be taught throughout the year. From his own experience or the suggestion of colleagues, he will know which subjects are more difficult to teach, which ones require less class time, which ones are more interesting and which ones tend to leave the classes bored and crazy with the desire to go out the door. Based on this information, you will be able to allocate the time needed for each class within the previously defined timetable (Tummons, 2010). In this plan, the best thing is a proper allocation of timing. The lesson 4 is divided in three parts. 10 minutes are given to the first parts, 20 minutes to second part and the last part is 15 minutes long in which an activity is assigned such as in lesson 4, which is an outdoor activity and from experience teacher can easily identify that this will be the longest part of the lesson so more minutes are allotted here. 

Knowing when and what to teach, it is time for the teacher to think about how. Here, the lesson plan helps a lot. If the teacher has a complete plan, he will know in which classes he can dedicate more time to innovative activities, capable of positively transforming education.

One of the most important parts of the lesson plan is to dedicate space for different activities, thought from the students’ point of view. Activities in which the pupils actively learn, ‘getting their hands dirty’, creating, testing, training, making mistakes and fixing. These activities always make classes more dynamic and interesting, and are excellent ways to get to know the class better and make learning more enjoyable. So, here we can see an activity where students will be taken outside after watching a video. As a protective measurement, students were given hats and water bottles. Here, hammers were provided to each group and provided an ice cube of dinosaur to hammer away. This is very interesting and unique activity that would be very enjoyable. 

Activities should not be seen as a mechanical task, but rather as an opportunity to achieve the objectives set for the class. Here, in this lesson plan, there is a clearly identified objective of the lesson and accordingly based on the objective, some activities are organized. For each activity, the lesson plan must identify the format, the content, the questions to be answered by the student, the ways of working, the material and the time needed. In this lesson plan, all these parameters are fulfilled. As we can see in lesson plan 4, a video will be played for the students. It is clearly mentioned the source of video will be the YouTube. Secondly, based on the video questions will be asked. In this lesson plan, teacher has clearly mentioned what questions will be asked such as What is a fossil? Can you see dinosaurs these days? This show how sound a lesson plan is developed.  After watching the video, outdoor activity will be organized and so for this outdoor activity, the teacher has also mentioned the materials to be needed for the work such as hammer, ice cubes, water bottles, and hats. 

Overall this plan is very well organized and formatted as it contained all the essential requirements of a good lesson plan. The plan is started with a brief introduction of the fossils which is given by playing a video on YouTube which is a very good start and some questions were asked based on it. Then the plan moves forward with the second part where more details are discussed and then close the lesson with the final outdoor activity which is very well elaborated that how this will be done. Overall the plane is based on some good activities which are interesting and easy to understand by children of the age. 

Another missing element in this lesson plan was the final assessment. There are different types of assessments formative and summative. Formative assessment is used to measure student learning during class (Serdyukov and Ryan, 2008). It is informal, worth little note, is used throughout a lecture and is designed to give students the opportunity to show that they have understood the subject (as in the example above, with the outdoor activity to understand the concept of dinosaurs). Under the formative assessment, there are two methods formal and informal. Formal assessment is best for the higher classes but for the primary classes as in this case the children are of 5 years old so it is suggested to add an informal assessment like by observing them such as how fast they hammered the ice. Summative assessment is used as a form of control at the end of the course to assess how much content students have learned in general (Serdyukov and Ryan, 2008). This type of assessment is similar to benchmarking, but it covers everything that students have learned throughout the year. They are applied to all students in the classroom, so that everyone has an equal opportunity to demonstrate what they know. Students demonstrate their ability to perform at a level prescribed as a standard for proficiency testing. So, it is suggested an assessment must be mentioned at the end of the plan. 

The lesson plan is a worthwhile investment of time and energy. Its organizational function is powerful, helping to manage the time of classes, to define the best teaching strategies and to evaluate how to raise interest in each class. It is a guide created by the teacher himself that will help him to have more confidence in his work and to dedicate his energies to what really matters.

References:

Hairunisya, N., 2018. Analysis of Lesson Plan, Learning Process, Teacher Competence Based on The Indonesian Economics. Dinamika Pendidikan, 13(1), pp.54-71. 

Feurer, R., 2013. LAWCHA and the Lesson Plan. Labor Studies in Working-Class History of the Americas, 10(3), pp.7-9.

Goldston, M.J., Day, J.B., Sundberg, C. and Dantzler, J., 2010. Psychometric analysis of a 5E learning cycle lesson plan assessment instrument. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education8(4), pp.633-648.

Mustikawati, Y., 2019. Exploring Beginning EFL Teacher In Making Lesson Plan For First Year Students Of Public Senior High School In Makassar. ELT Worldwide: Journal of English Language Teaching, 6(1), p.10.

Nivales, M., 2008. An Annotated Lesson Plan Applying the Principles of Levels of Thinking in the Language Class. Far Eastern University English Language Journal, 2(0)

Spooner, F., Baker, J.N., Harris, A.A., Ahlgrim-Delzell, L. and Browder, D.M., 2007. Effects of training in universal design for learning on lesson plan development. Remedial and special education28(2), pp.108-116.

Serdyukov, P. and Ryan, M., 2008. Writing effective lesson plans: The 5-star approach. Pearson Allyn and Bacon.

Tummons, J., 2010. The assessment of lesson plans in teacher education: a case study in assessment validity and reliability. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 35(7), pp.847-857.

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Assignment on Safety Measures During Covid-19

  1. Did you find anything during the inspection that was non- compliant?

Answer: During the inspection, I have found that there are no proper measures taken for reducing the risk of being affected due to covid-19. There are no proper SOPs that are being followed. Further to this, many patients are coughing openly in the inspection area and there were huge number of patients who are sitting very close in the reception area. Considering the high health risks associated with the covid-19, I have found that no proper measures were taken to ensure the safety of the workers in the inspection are as well as the public. 

  1. What did you do about things? 

Answer: 

The list offers a simple and collaborative approach that allows to evaluate the relative risks to COVID-19 and to take measures to ensure the health and safety of workers. Following are the major areas that are neglected and how I managed ensuring the safety of each person

► Physical distancing. Assess the risk of interactions between workers, contractors, customers and visitors and implement measures to mitigate these risks; organize the work in a way to ensure adequate physical distancing between people. 

In case of non-emergency period, whenever possible, it is recommended using telephone conversations, e-mails or virtual meetings rather than meetings person, and introduce shifts to avoid large concentrations of workers in structures.

► Hygiene. Provide hand sanitizers, such as disinfectants and prepare places easily accessible for washing hands with soap and water. Also, promote the habit of washing hand and good respiratory hygiene in reception area such covering your mouth and nose with your elbow bent or with handkerchiefs when coughing or sneezing 

► Cleaning. Promote the cleaning, in a continuous way, with disinfectant of the surfaces of desks and workstations, door handles, telephones, keyboards and objects work at the reception area 

► Training and communication. Give training to managers, workers and employees their representatives on the measures taken to prevent the risk of exposure to the virus on how to act in case of COVID-19 infection; prepare adequate training on the correct use, maintenance and disposal of protective devices individual (PPE)

Also regularly communicate with workers to update them on situation in the workplace, in the region or in the country; inform workers about theirs right to withdraw from a work situation that represents an imminent danger e serious for life or health, according to established procedures, informing immediately the direct supervisor on the dangerous situation.

► Personal protective equipment. Provision of suitable PPE together with closed containers for the hygienic disposal of these devices.

  1. How often this area needs to be inspected?   

Answer: As the area is highly vulnerable, therefore, it is required to be inspected on regular basis. Daily inspection must be arranged during the time of high rush. 

Risk Assessment Control Form:

Hazard Identification and Initial Risk Rating
HazardPotential harmLikelihood of harm occurring Consequence levelRisk level
WorkplacesFire risk Fire at the workplace destroying the property and asset Careless disposal of cigarettes, smoking in toilets, Inappropriate storage and transporting the gases used within the health centerLife and property lossSevere 
The risk relating to the equipment,  It is not limited to the possibility of a fire, but can be extended to the presence of diagnostic instruments emitting ionizing radiation (apparatus for radiography and radiotherapy), to instruments emitting strong electromagnetic fields (Magnetic Resonances) and dangerous tools and equipment because they are sharp (scalpels and syringes).Misuse or improper handling of the medical equipment Small injuries Moderate

Biological risk
Inevitable not to think about the biological risk, both for operators and for patients; hospitals are by definition the place where bacterial forms are introduced spontaneously (to treat them) and the ability to transmit through the human vector, together with the possible condition of reduction of the immune system for pathological or therapeutic causesGetting infectious disease High level of getting infectedMost Significant







   
Chemical hazardsThese involve exposure to certain hazardous chemical substances, mostly in the laboratories, which can cause harm. This can lead to both health as well as physical impacts which include irritation of the skin, irritation of the respiratory system, corrosion, blindness and explosions.Exposure to chemical mixtures and substances in the laboratories.Loss and damage to life and propertySevere
Environmental hazardsThese come under the possible hazards or risks during work in a hospital ward. The environmental hazards include discharge of controlled substance in water, improper management of waste materials, noise, physical structure of hospital building, smoking leading to fire hazard, poor level of housekeeping and management, faulty cables or some kind of natural phenomena like intense amount of heat in a specific area or flooding.Improper management and maintenanceDamage to life and propertyMost significant
Control measures and action
Control measures Further ActionResponsible Date 
It is important to carefully evaluate all possible sources of ignition, for example flammable chemical reagents, the presence of materials that can easily catch fire, and electrical instruments and equipment (for example hyperbaric chambers with high and dangerous oxygen concentrations).While implementing risk measures and controls, it is also required to consider current covid-19 issueFire risk assessor 
Use of proper personal protective equipment while handling such machinery such as use of gloves and rubber shoes and goggles in some casesProper checking of the machinery fine working Health workers
Use of proper gloves while checking patients and disposing of all the syringes Implementing use of hand sanitizers and promoting personal hygiene All the persons at individual level
It is vital that work surfaces are properly cleaned, sterilized and disinfected through implementation of phenolics, compounds of quaternary ammonium as well as bleach along with using medical supplies like ethylene oxide and glutaraldehyde.Changing implemented procedures to ensure minimum contact with chemicals. Usage of wet methods to bring about minimization in the generation of dust and relevant particles.The entire worker staff
To ensure proper management of waste factors such as collection in generation site, requisites of transport, temperature settings of storage areas, conditions of central storage and disposal process should be considered. Noise level and its exposure to patients can be reduced through regular check and maintenance. Minimization in accidents and collisions can be brought about by establishment of flow pattern for traffic, ensuring clean surfaces and supervising patients and making sure that their travel within the building is minimum.Existence of programs for radiation safety, conducting training exercises to practice and implement environmental safety and development of quality management program.All persons at individual level
Summary of control requirementsControl/ further actionAction byDue date:
EliminationExample: removal of dangerous compounds and chemicals from the reach of patients and any other worker, proper access to hazardous items, separate storage areas for placement of hazardous substances, isolation of all chemicals through fume cupboard, placement of noisy equipment in an enclosure that is non accessible.Hospital management, work staff, maintenance staff, cleaning staff
Substitution/ isolationProper means and systems for isolation and treatment of patients that suffer from borderline illnesses, usage of gowns that are water-proof, hazardous-material hazmat suits face shields, incorporation of masks for droplet as well as airborne contaminatesDoctors, nurses, worker staff
EngineeringImplementation of engineering controls for bringing about reduction in microbial contamination of surrounding air, incorporation of local exhaust ventilation, general ventilation system and air cleaning. Incorporation of adequate ventilation system equipped with high efficiency level of particulate air filtration along with ultraviolet germicidal irradiation UVGI.Worker staff, maintenance and engineering staff
AdministrationEffective coordination and functioning of all departments of hospital, direction and control of health services, planning budgets, development of quality assurance procedures, optimum services for patients, treatments and activities of departments.Administration department, worker staff, management 
Personal protective equipmentUsage of medical gloves, medical gowns, masks and N95 respirators for tackling against any virus outbreak or pandemic at all times especially during patient treatment and checkupDoctors, nurses, worker staff

Reflect on your practice as Diploma of Mental Health Student

During my practice as mental health student I was an active part of a number of activities and responsibilities that enhanced my knowledge and overall learning on dealing with patients. Prior to practicing my acquired knowledge and carrying out the assigned tasks I took part in different training sessions and workshops. These workshops provided optimum familiarization with the professional services that were needed to be carried out as well as the responsibilities and standards that were needed to be complied with. I learnt that the main factor in reduction of stigma and development of an optimum relationship with the patient was understanding. Through the implementation of the various practices and exercises regarding mental health I learnt empathy and acquired a level of respect for the mental health patients. Through the building and development of relationships with the patients I managed to gain their trust. I was actively involved in engaging with the patients and gaining knowledge about their mental health symptoms, assessing their improvement and recovery on a daily basis and trying to acquire general awareness of the overall false nature of their overall attitudes. My clinical experience provided me with a better understanding of the patient’s mental health, triggers and symptoms. During my learning and practicing experience I remained actively engaged in therapeutic relationships. I also managed to attain self-awareness of my own beliefs through regarding various challenges of mental health through provision of my active participation in mental health care along with listening to life stories of the patients and acquiring relevant experience in situations that demanded complex level of care. My placement was carried out in a recovery camp which comprised of the active participation of both the clients and the staff in different engaging activities and collaborations. Through this recovery camp the feelings of stigma among the staff and patients was observed to be reduced to a great extent followed by inculcation of the feelings of empathy and goodwill. These workshops and practice sessions with the mental health patients provided me with the clinical preparedness for adequately working an treating such patients. Along with acquiring theoretical knowledge of both mental health treatments and care services I also attained a high level of confidence in the provision of adequate level of care to individuals that suffer from challenges associated with mental health. I acquired the adequate level of clinical preparedness for the provision of holistic care, development of positive patient-doctor relationships and optimum nursing assessment skills. I also took part in various meetings and discussions with the doctors and paramedic staff which provided me with an insight in the various treatment strategies and counselling sessions. 

Jeff’s Counselling Plan

Objectives

1. Bring about reduction in overall frequency of aggressive behavior exhibited by Jeff and try to enhance his independence as measured through inventory of Behavior Assessment of Children

2. Reducing the depression and anxiety levels as acquired from inventory measurement of Beck Depression as well as Beck Anxiety Inventory

3. Enabling the concerned patient to grieve and openly discuss and express their loss

Assessments

Scale to measure the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, baseline measurement of Jeff’s behavior, medical evaluation and general satisfaction

Clinician

Help and assistance should be provided by clinician to deal with loss and grief

Sandra’s Counselling Plan

Identified priorities: Stability and independence

Observation of requirements:

1. Reduction in depression and anxiety

2. Stopping against self harm activities

3. Not engaging in self harm activities

3. Acquire stability and self independence

Safety issues

The cuts on the patient’s arm suggest visible self harm. The patient is prone to engage in self harm activities which endanger her own safety and those of others around her.

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Adoption of account information system (AIS)

Accounting information system (AIS) is a process of collection, storage and processing of the data related to finance and accounting. The data yielded by the accounting information system is utilized and analyzed by the decision makers. Basically, it makes use of the accounting data and the data related to information technology. In any business, this data obtained by accounting information system is analyzed and utilized by the managers, consultants, different analysts, regulatory authorities and different auditors. Therefore, this system is used to collect, store, and process the data and convert this data into information and transferring it to the ultimate users. The data obtained from the accounting information system is helpful in the decision-making process by the management. (Roh, 2009) The users and handlers of this data are CEOs, managers, investors, and creditors. 

In this planning reports, I utilized and implemented the accounting information system in my reselling business startup. I established the online reselling business startup. The reselling business focuses on the resourcing of the products from the manufacturers to the ultimate users. I dealt in the ready-made products from the manufacturers and sell them to the ultimate consumers. Moreover, to increase the diversity of my products, I also resourced the products from other online selling websites like Amazon and Alibaba. In that online selling business, I didn’t hold on some products or any specialized products. However, I focused on the products which have more demand in the market and customers want them in bulk and these are ordered frequently. I used the reseller apps for the obtaining the merchandise from this business. Moreover, I also launched my own online selling website for this purpose. Through these apps and websites, I would be able to resource a wide range of the products to the ultimate customers easily. Moreover, I also used the social media channers like Facebook, Instagram, and twitter for the outsourcing and advertisement of my products (Doronina, 2018). 

In the next step, I adopted the accounting information system (AIS) in my online reselling business. The important components that I included in the accounting information system are people with relevant expertise, procedure of implementation and instructions, data, important software, the infrastructure of the information technology used in the business, better internet controls, and output. The people who used the accounting information system are the most important asset in the business (Satyanarayana, Kumar Behera and Kumar, 2018). This system helps to do a common task with a group of people having different skills. The management set the particular sales goals and the staff delegated them to the inventory. The information about the new payable is delivered to the accounted department from the inventory. The sales people are related to the orders of customers, the process of invoicing the customers is done by the accounting department, the assembling of the orders is done by the warehouse and sending these products to the customers is done by the shipping department. 

There are some risks in the accounting information system. The data about the business is always present on the computers. This information and data can be lost if the system crashes. On the other hand, the increased use of the computers can lead to the health dangers and high cost of the medical expenditures (Suomi, 1994). 

In the same way, there are some opportunities in this system also. It provides the speed and safety to the business. Moreover, it also provides the automation to the reselling process. It is also an efficient system of reselling and extracting the accurate data about business. 

Reference

Doronina, Y., 2018. Method of Structural-Functional Synthesis Information System Taking into Account the Fuzzy Binding Functions. INFORMACIONNYE TEHNOLOGII, 24(9), pp.618-624.

Roh, T., 2009. Development of the Financial Account Pre-screening System for Corporate Credit Evaluation. The Journal of Information Systems, 18(4), pp.41-57.

Satyanarayana, V., Kumar Behera, R. and Kumar, G., 2018. Online Price Comparator and Reselling Website. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 7(2.7), p.512.

Suomi, R., 1994. What to take into account when building an inter-organizational information system. Information Processing & Management, 30(1), pp.151-159.

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Assignment on Business Operations

Introduction

Today, businesses operate in highly competitive environments. To be able to face the competition and to overcome it they must leverage various resources including physical, organizational, knowledge and human. The competitive advantage of companies is precisely the ability to use optimally those resources. Among the resources cited, the most important asset is certainly that of human resource the fundamental objective of human resource management is to identify and allocate these resources so that they ensure the competitive advantage of companies. The management of human resources therefore becomes an integral and fundamental part of the business strategy. 

High Performance Work Systems comprise of an amalgamation of an interconnected system of practices related to the management of human resources. These practices include the extensive recruitment along with selection procedures and working towards the enhancement of performance outputs of both the employee and the firm through overall enhancement of competence of the entire workforce, the motivation towards work along with their attitudes. The overall goal of these systems is to attract, select and manage training, retaining and motivating human resources, and raising the required positions behaviors in order to achieve organizational goals. (Amabile, 1996)

In the coming years the research work regarding the analysis and assessment of management of human resources followed by steps taken by an organization to optimize their performance and accuracy at an organizational level has achieved considerable significance. During these times therefore, the high-performance work systems have come out as an interesting approach regarding the research work being carried out on effective management of human resources. The high-performance work systems comprise of a set of processes that involve proper recruitment practices, management of overall performance, detailed initiatives regarding training followed by increased involvement by the employees. (Kalmi, 2008)

The modern world of work poses many challenges for employees. While some careers allow for a relaxed interaction among work and personal life. 

Competitive level of advantage

In recent years another perspective has been highlighted regarding the incorporation of the high-performance work systems. This perspective encompasses the fact that the aim of these high-performance work systems along with providing requisite benefits in the outcomes of the organization has also been the creation of competitive level of advantage for the specific organization. This advantage tends towards the development of an environment in which an individual employee of the organization gets neglected. This overall ignorance of the concerned employees of the organization lead to an enhanced level of work burden and pressure on the individuals, work overload followed by burnout. It has been assessed that the outcomes and requirements of the employees are either fully neglected or considered as a secondary requirement in attainment of an optimized and enhanced level of organizational performance. So, this is why it has been emphasized by various scholars and researchers that an effective research be carried out regarding the overall effects of the management of human resources as well as the high-performance work systems onto the employees and workers of the organization and their relationship with the senior management. 

Each employee is motivated differently in the performance of their job. Having a clear understanding of what drives each team member to achieve good results can be fundamental for the success of the company. Many managers think it is every employee’s duty to do the job they were hired for and do it best. It is certainly a legitimate belief; however, recognition is a very important part of the relationship between employees and managers. In this way, in fact, an emotional connection is established: the fundamental element capable of stimulating the commitment of employees and satisfying the fundamental needs of each individual of esteem and belonging within a group. Awards and prizes are tools that allow you to significantly improve your performance. In the Work Human Research Institute 2016 report, 79% of respondents said recognition programs and rewards programs push them to work harder. Finally, recognizing a job well done is essentially a free action: it can be in the form of a formalized program, or it can be as simple as sending a weighted email (or better yet a handwritten note) to the team members which reports their great job.

Critical Analysis

With the incorporation of the infrastructure of the high-performance work systems in an organization, they slowly become a part of the regular processes that are implemented. This in turn has a significant effect on both employers as well as employees. The views regarding the effects brought on by practices of high-performance work systems on the employees of an organization are mixed. On basis of a critical perspective on the high-performance work system focuses its adverse effects on social and human outputs instead of financial outcomes. Moreover, it has been inferred that the performance of the specific organization can be offset on the basis of longer work hours by the employee as well as higher intensification towards the work. This in turn brings an additional amount of pressure on the concerned stakeholders. (Boxall, 2012)

It is very important that the responses and feedback of the employees regarding practices and management of human resources be considered. This in turn can lead to the creation of a viable as well as stable work environment that works towards the overall improvement of motivation level of the employees to attain optimum levels of organizational efficiency. 

 If resources enable the organization to implement or create that improve their effectiveness and efficiency then such resources are considered as valuable and they must be real. Valuable common resources provide only competitive parity, ensuring that a firm is not at competitive disadvantage due to the lack of this resources. If the valuable resources are not rare then these resources are possessed by a large number of other firms, enabling them the possibility of exploiting it in the same way, creating and implementing the same strategies, giving no firm the possibility of generating a sustained competitive advantage through the use of this resources (Barney, 1991; Barney & Wright, 1998). Valuable and rare resources, can only be sources of sustained competitive advantage if they cannot be obtained by other firms, meaning that they are imperfectly imitable. This can happen because of unique historical conditions, causal ambiguity and social complexity. Regarding unique historical conditions, Barney states that the ability of firms to acquire and exploit some resources depend upon their place in time and space and when this particular time in history passes. He gives the example of a “unique and valuable organizational culture that emerged in the early stages of a firm´s history may have an imperfectly imitable advantage over firms founded in another historical period”. Causal Ambiguity exists when the connection between the resources of a firm and a firm´s competitive advantage is poorly understood. This causes difficulties when a firm wants to imitate other firm´s strategies through the imitation of its resources, because they don´t know which ones they should imitate. The level of causal ambiguity must be the same for the firms that want to imitate and the ones that are the subject of imitation, otherwise, the gap of knowledge, linking the resources and the competitive advantage, among firms might be eliminated, for example, by hiring personnel from the company with the competitive advantage. Social Complexity can constrain significantly the imitation of a firm´s resources. Interpersonal relationships between managers in a firm, a firm´s culture, a firm´s reputation among suppliers and customers, are examples given by Barney to illustrate social complex resources that although have a very clear connection to the competitive advantage, they are so complex that a systematic management or influence of these resources is impossible, making them imperfectly imitable (Barney, 1991; Patrick M. Wright, McMahan, & McWilliams, 1994).

The “Dark-Side” of the system is based on an economic exchange relationship and although rhetorically concerned with employee outcomes. But actually, this tool is used for boosting the performance of the organization overlapping the outcomes of employee by increasing job demands, leading to negative attitudes & behaviors for example emotional exhaustion, stress, & work disengagement. It further increases the job strain that is resulted from intensification & stress experienced by the employees because of enhanced discretion & responsibilities. Initially it has positive outcomes for some of the workers but the with more intense system it leads to stress, low job satisfaction, etc. (Messersmith, 2011)

Recently, the three prevailing views have been integrated. Lepak and Shaw (2008) integrate the contingency and configurational perspectives into a “contingent configurational perspective”, which indicates that the effectiveness of human resource management systems can also be dependent on external emergency factors, therefore human resource management systems must be internally consistent and also obtain external alignment with emergency situations. (Meuer, 2017)

Further investigation is therefore required in assessing the manner and the various strategies by which sustainability is employed for implementation of practices regarding human resources management. To further elaborate the various effects brought on by the incorporation of high-performance work system in an organization, the emotions as well as relevant work experiences of the concerned employees need to be brought into focus. It has been observed that the affection states of relevant employees of the organization are greatly influenced by the different events that take place within the workplace premises leading to development of reactions in attitude from the employee side. This essay focuses on both the positive as well as negative impacts regarding the incorporation of high-performance work systems in an organizational framework. This has mainly been focused on the overall environment of the workplace which includes the generation of positive as well as negative affective states. (Pfeffer, 1995)

 These affective states further lead to the attitudes of the employees getting influenced with respect to their job and work respectively. While considering the positive impacts on an organizational level it has also been inferred that there is a proper disconnection developed between these high-performance organizational work systems and the relevant experience acquired by the employees. Here the organizational level of high-performance work systems comprises of the systems of human resources that conduct their practices for effective management of organizational employees and the optimum redesigning of their work practices and systems. This provides an understanding of the goals and objectives of a particular organization to develop relevant decisions pertaining to the manner in which they intend to manage and maintain their employee workforce. Any kind of inconsistency shown or developed in the high-performance work systems on organizational level can lead to inaccurate understanding by the requisite employees and showcasing behavioral patterns that are not in compliance with the strategic objectives of the organization. (Bowen, 2004)

There have been several arguments and researches on the fact that the implication of high-performance work systems on the organizational level leading to adverse effects on employees further leading to leading to a growing possibility of generation of strains. These strains are considered to be a result of the workplace environment intensity as well as the unduly stress.

During the recent years that have followed, anxiety and depression have unfortunately become common and growing illnesses. Another illness includes anxiety disorder which have adverse effects on not only the suffering person but on this surrounding environment as well. On the basis of several case studies conducted at an organization level it has been inferred the existent relation between the constraints of the organization is kept intact through the different emotions at the workplace which act as the mediator. Job stress being a result of justice level existent within the organization has also been highlighted. This includes the overall production of responses pertaining consequent levels of stain as well behaviors inciting negative emotions. This in turn links the stress with a behavior pattern that is counterproductive. The improper controlling of a workplace environment that is stressed can lead to workplace anxiety being a constant product of the organizational level of justice. (Godard, 2004)

Job burnout comprises of certain characteristics which include a certain amount of fatigue at an emotional level, overall minimization of any kinds of individual achievements followed by complete detachment with the work. Researches have shown that the exhaustion range of requisite work of any organization includes elevated fatigue levels and an irregular as well as improper commitment towards work. It has been inferred that the specific worker or employee is most likely to undergo exhaustion during work in a workplace environment that is both stressful and traumatic. Moreover, in an organizational environment where the high-performance work systems have been implemented, certain restrictions at the executive level and unfairness at all levels lead to generation of high levels of exhaustion. 

Another aspect regarding the effect that the incorporation of high-performance work systems has on the employees of the specific organization is considered in the form of work overload. This come out as stress which is a resultant of the increasing expectations regarding the perspective of both work and the institution as a whole which is put on the employee. It has been inferred from the perception of the work overload that certain expectations regarding role are developed among the setters of these roles due to the institutional features. These role setters then transfer all the pressures to the next person and so on it slowly establishes itself in the infrastructure of the entire organization. There is also the case of costs linked with these roles when the expected roles are not carried out efficiently by the concerned employees. The work load is related with conditions in which the employees are of the view that against the available time the implementation of too many activities and duties have been asked of them. This can then be considered by the employees as feelings of additional pressure and stress. It has also been reported that problems have been faced in this regard by the workers related to the completion of the work that they are allotted with due to the increased burden of work to meet the requirements of their organization. Researchers have also come to an agreement that the increased amount of work along with inconsistencies in their role lead to associations of a strong nature in compliance with different responses shown by the workers. These responses include abnormal behavior at the office, emotional collapse followed by severe anxiety. These kinds of different stresses that are a result of overburdening in a specific job have been linked to the counter productive work behavior by various researchers. Other stresses include discrepancies of the interpersonal configuration, uncertainty in the work role, restraints of the organizational level followed by overwork and divergence in the role.

It is true that the implementation of high-performance work system leads to a positive impact on the entire organization but there has been a debate on whether the positive interpretation of high-performance work systems like efficient performance, attendance, motivation and timeliness are even realized or not. The entire structure of the high-performance work system has been designed in order to acquire the highest level of work effort from the workers. This high work effort at highest efficiency levels leads to development of a high level of work strain. Negative effects regarding the alternate kind of work practices on workers have also been reported. During the recent years there has been an increase in the adoption and implementation of practices related to the high-performance work systems mostly in the private sector organizations. In this period there has been noted to be several observational reports of the added amount of pressures on the relationship among the employees in the private sector organizations. This proves to be a great disadvantage for the employees leading to overall intensification of their work, imbalances developed in their work and lives followed by development of inequalities in their earnings. 

It has been concluded on the basis of extensive research that the reason for the inculcation of negative effects is the increased level of job demands and incorporation of additional working hours or the intensification of work by the structure of high-performance work systems. This is based on the critical perception that the improved level of effectiveness regarding organization stems from the need to make greater efforts and develop high levels of involvement in the work through providing additional amounts of work. It has also been inferred that the negative effect which is a resultant of intensification of work can in turn lead to the development of negative behaviors and attitudes towards work related matters. So, in a way the inculcation and motivation of the workforce of the organization towards bringing about high levels of involvement as well as participation, has led to development of additional work responsibilities and work load for the acquisition of the specified financial goals which are almost always at the expense of the sanity of the concerned employee. The original idea or driving force behind the inculcation of high-performance work systems has been the development of optimum management leading to efficient organizational performance.

But it has been observed that in the means of this implementation, high performance work systems have indeed brought on additional work load, intensification of the work as well as increased levels of stress that have resulted in the lowering of satisfaction levels related to the job and exploitation of labor. Moreover, there has also been an added tension among the relationship between senior management and the employee workforce due to decreased quality of both work and life of the employees. This can be considered grave and a serious hindrance regarding the development of a harmonious and optimum workplace environment of an organization leading to the betterment of a society.

Conclusion

This essay focuses on both the positive as well as negative impacts regarding the incorporation of high-performance work systems in an organizational framework. This has mainly been focused on the overall environment of the workplace which includes the generation of positive as well as negative affective states. These affective states further lead to the attitudes of the employees getting influenced with respect to their job and work respectively. While considering the positive impacts on an organizational level it has also been inferred that there is a proper disconnection developed between these high-performance organizational work systems and the relevant experience acquired by the employees. The reason for the inculcation of negative effects is the increased level of job demands and incorporation of additional working hours or the intensification of work by the structure of high-performance work systems. This is based on the critical perception that the improved level of effectiveness regarding organization stems from the need to make greater efforts and develop high levels of involvement in the work through providing additional amounts of work.

References

Amabile, T. M. C. R. C. H., 1996. Assessing the work environment for creativity. Academy of Management Journal.

Bowen, D. E. O. C., 2004. Understanding HRM-firm performance linkages: The role of the “strength” of the HRM system. Academy of Management Review.

Boxall, P., 2012. High-performance work systems: What, why, how and for whom?. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources.

Godard, J., 2004. A critical assessment of the high-performance paradigm. British Journal of Industrial Relations.

Kalmi, P. &. K. A., 2008. Workplace innovations and employee outcomes: Evidence from Finland. Industrial Relations.

Messersmith, J. G. P. P. C. L. D. P., 2011. Unlocking the black box: Exploring the link between high-performance work systems and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, pp. 1104 – 1119.

Meuer, J., 2017. Exploring the Complementarities Within High-Performance Work Systems: A Set-Theoretic Analysis of UK Firms.. Human Resource Management , pp. 651-672.

Pfeffer, J., 1995. Producing sustainable competitive advantage through the effective management of people. Academy of Management Executive.