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Online Dispute Resolution Assessment Help by Assignment Hero

What benefits does online dispute resolution offer a customer/client/individual? 

Online dispute resolution (“ODR”) can occur either in whole or in part online and includes two forms of disputes: those occurring in cyberspace and those arising offline.  While Internet usage continues to expand, creating effective methods to settle Internet conflicts has become increasingly important because conventional processes, such as lawsuits, can be time-consuming, costly, and raise legal issues (Goodman, 2012)

On the other hand, offline conflicts can be dealt with using conventional dispute resolution methods augmented by online technology.  Although ODR’s available approaches range from negotiation and mediation to modified arbitration to changed jury trials, this iBrief focuses on on online environment negotiation and mediation. In particular, websites that use mediation techniques to help resolve disputes are reviewed and evaluated (Goodman, 2012)

Online mediation, as with traditional mediation, allows the mediator to adapt the process to meet the particular needs of the contestants. In addition to improving some of the benefits of conventional mediation, there are also advantages to resolving disputes over the Internet: “The mechanism would allow for greater flexibility, more creative solutions and faster decision making.” In particular, the benefits of cyber mediation mentioned below include cost savings, accessibility and avoiding complex jurisdictional issues (Kaufmann-Kohler & Schultz, 2004)

In terms of cost savings and convenience, As with traditional mediation, an advantage of Internet mediation is that it can provide substantial savings compared to traditional litigation, which can be extremely expensive. Cyber mediation can potentially be the only feasible option for those who are not able to afford long distances or for those involved in low-dollar e-commerce disputes (Rule, 2003)

With lawyer fees may be the largest expense in traditional law enforcement, or even traditional mediation at times, parties can save a lot in cyber mediation, where hiring a lawyer often is unnecessary. For instance, if the parties are liable and dispute only about the amount of a monetary solution, then all the websites mentioned above may provide appropriate automated cyber mediation for the settlement of their dispute. Furthermore, considerable cost savings can be made because online mediation does not require parties to pay for long distance telephone or teleconferences (Rule, 2003)

The most acknowledged advantage of online mediation is that contestants do not have to travel long distances to negotiate. During a conventional dispute resolution process, at least one of the parties may be forced to travel a lot because online conflicts can occur between persons from far distances, including different countries. As parties may be able to participate from their respective location or residence in cyber mediation, this can lead to lower costs and lower expenses. Neutral mediation facilities are not needed for rent, and relevant documents and materials are readily available and do not require large distances to be transported (Goodman, 2012)

The asynchronous existence of email communications also has several advantages. Messages are not broadcast live but can be recorded and eventually distributed. As it is possible to write, post and respond to mails, servers and web post at any time, it is much more convenient to participate in cyber mediation. In conventional mediation there are few scheduling problems where time and place for meetings are required (Goodman, 2012)

Parties can participate in the negotiations at convenient times when they are ready. Without affecting the flow of the mediation, the mediator can caucus with either or both parties privately.  In contrast to the traditional mediation, the mediator is able to spend time in one party without wasting the time of the other party, who traditionally would sit waiting for the next stage of mediation (Goodman, 2012)

Jim Melamed once said that the advantages of asynchrony are well known to experienced mediators. That’s a big part of why many mediators ‘ caucus’ with participants (meet separately). Mediators want to slow down the process and help participants to make their contribution more capable. It is at the heart of the conference to slow down the process and allow participants to securely formulate their contributions. Certainly, the Internet works like a single party caucus extension and is extremely convenient and affordable. It takes less time to view Internet communications and customers do not hear the fee meter click. The ‘ non-caucus ‘ participant does not have to wait for him or her in the library to read or be reluctant to be ignored in the caucus. When the internet is used to caucus (Goodman, 2012)

More reflective and informed comments can also be argued from the parties ‘ ability to edit messages before submitting them: “Asynchronous Internet communication has the advantage that’ measure ‘ communications are edited in comparison to’ only’ (often impulsive) responses that can take place in face-to-face real-time mediation discussions.” Therefore, disputants should proceed directly to discuss dispute settlement instead of waiting for long periods to go to court (Rule, 2003)

The main advantage of resolving conflicts by using cyber-mediation is that it avoids whether the dispute has jurisdiction in a particular court. Since disputants can be bound by a settlement, legal questions can be avoided entirely (Rule, 2003)

What benefits does online dispute resolution offer a business/organization? 

ODR offers disputants the opportunity to use both synchronous and asynchronous media. For example, the disputants can use online messaging or video lecturing devices in a synchronous environment that bring geographically distant contentious parties into cyberspace, so that the contact can be kept alive and in real time. Disputants use the delayed method of communication in an asynchronous model, for instance protected email systems. ODR’s ability to provide asynchronous contact is the most distinctive attribute of ADR.

Conley Tyler and Bretherton (2003) point out that most agencies like newsletters prefer tools that are asynchronous. Instead of face-to-face sessions, the asynchronous nature of ODR prevents the dispute resolution process from taking place in real time through communication methods such as emails and online discussion mechanisms. Solovay, and Reed (2003) suggest that the outcomes are more efficient and the material more reflectorily, more hostilely, and even more egalitarian, of such asynchronous contact.

Rule (2002) claims that ODR provides numerous advantages that boost ADR. Although the online arbitration system is useful, it is particularly useful when negotiating and mediating. The reframing of Pre-communications is one such example. It is an essential element of a dispute to be resolved to enable parties to structure their communications in a way that enables them to explain their views more effectively to their opponents. As part of the simultaneous caucusing process Rule (2002) states that some mediators refuse to engage in caucus-based sessions with individual parties, but others rely heavily on it.

When pushing parties towards resolution, the ability to discuss conflicts with one side confidentially can be extremely valuable. In addition, Rule (2002) argues that caucusing can be a tool for face-to-face mediation but usually the mediator needs to stop the joint debate then deciding which of the parties should be the caucus first. Rule (2002) The other party is then sent out to wait for the mediator’s first caucus. Online resolution of disputes allows the mediator, even in progress, to caucus through the entire conciliation (Rule 2002).

Cost, speed and convenience issues will most likely affect the choice of ODRs as a dispute resolution process. ODR is also useful for emotional contendients. Asynchronous communication helps them to refresh and remove physical confrontation.

 Disputers can reach a resolution even if they are located on different continents. Online dispute resolution is not geographically linked. ODR can resolve issues before they escalate, allowing contendients to settle the matter quickly and return to business. ODR is not tied to specific legal bodies, so that the legal structure of the other side of the country is not sufficient to maintain costly legal counsel on both sides.

Such incentives are available to all kinds of conflicts. The ODR’s power is in keeping with intellectual property disputes, insurance claims, and eCommerce B2B and B2C. Many conflicts involve more abstract money-free problems, such as privacy or the conflict on the workplace. For starters, when the ICANN decided to build a globalized mechanism to deal with domain name disputes, it faced monumental problems.

A main purpose of the statute is to ensure that the conflict is avoided (Zeleznikow, 2002). Katsh et al (2000) indicate that many corporations and individuals prefer alternative legal settlements to litigation. As a method and procedure, the use of ICT is still in its early stages of development in the sense of dispute resolution, (Clark & Hoyle, 2002), though some mechanisms for commercial dispute settlement have been used over recent years. In 2003 over 200 000 disputes were settled over the majority of successful commercial ODR services in the field of Business to Consumer (B2C) or Consumers to Consumers (C2C) relationships such as the aforementioned ODR service SquareTrade, which manages C2C disputes primarily originating from the eBay online auction platform. ADR support was used to provide expert systems and artificial intelligence. New negotiation support systems with powerful optimization algorithms and enhanced by maturing cyberspace now offer a real alternative. It reduces the time and expense of negotiation through the process of bringing decision makers in charge, easily clarifying trade offs, understanding the satisfaction of stakeholders with all types of problems in negotiations and finding the best possible options (Thiessen & McMahon, 2000). Zeleznikow (2003) argues that most successful business systems of legal support for decisions have used regulatory systems.

Since computer systems can evaluate and compare much more options than the human brain can manage, they can help disputers optimize the outcomes for both sides, not only finding a win – win solution, but an optimal solution. Another major innovation online is blind bidding, a computer-aided process that usually involves submitted secret offers by the parties. Where the offers come within a predefined dollar or percentage value, the median sum shall be agreed and the parties shall be told. The parties have lost nothing if the case does not settle because their proposals are not shown on the other side.

Zeleznikow (2002) addresses the prospect of enhancing access to justice through the provision of web-based legal decision support. Issues such as communication safety, confidentiality, impartiality, conflict of interest, ODR policy, educational and education requirements, linguistic and cultural abilities, and proper representation on ODR service providers need to be fully addressed and applied before ODR use is widely used.

What obstacles may be encountered when utilising online dispute resolution? How might various parties overcome these? 

The opportunity of face-to-face meetings to encourage critical mediation process principles is no substitute for electronic communication. Despite the above-mentioned benefits, cyber-mediation has also several disadvantages over traditional mediation. As Joel Eiser points out, mediation activity in the online environment can not be easily replicated because cyberspace is not a’ mirror image’ of the physical world (Eisen, 1998)

In terms of limited range of disputes the chosen method of cyber mediation has some drawbacks. Of example, fully automated cyber mediation can be used only to address some forms of disputes and may even be used in disputes only where the only unresolved issue is the amount of settlement. In fact, in order to ensure that full automated cyber mediation works correctly, the parties appear to have to enter into initial discussions, agree on the fundamental facts of the dispute and determine that one of the parties is responsible for damages (Solovay & Reed, 2003)

It would then seem that the parties had decided to restrict all debates to the single question of an appropriate amount of monetary compensation. Limitation of the final negotiation stage in order to decide the dollar payout figure appears to leave the possibility of creative, out – of-the-box negotiations which are a hallmark of many successful negotiations (Goodman, 2012)

In terms of impersonality the mediation is almost universally accepted when the parties to the conflict are physical before the mediator. As Joel Eisen maintains, the main paradox of online mediation is that it imposes an electronic distance on the parties, while mediation usually involve participants in direct interpersonal contacts in an oral form of conflict resolution. Mediation usually involves an open, face-to-face exchange of participants ‘ questions (Goodman, 2012)

Many mediators find it important if not necessary to create an atmosphere in which the parties trust the mediator to assist them in resolving their dispute. For example, it is considered important to assist parties in listening and understanding, empathizing, accessing and addressing emotions. Mediating is the’ remembrance’ of feelings and emotions for many people, which they can not convey in a more formal setting, like a court room. To mediator participants, it can be cathartic to inform the opposing party specifically and to convey corresponding emotions. Cyber-mediation, however, does not take place with face-to-face communication at a distance and in front of computer screens, but loses the dynamics of traditional mediation. For instance, replacing email with dialog makes it difficult for mediation to give any weight to emotion (Solovay & Reed, 2003)

In Internet disputes, there is a considerable distance between the parties psychologically and major obstacles to the development of an open dialogue: typically there is no previous connection or personal contact between the parties, they usually do not have an ongoing relation or hope of any future relationship (most frequently, cyber-contentious arguments invoke) (Goodman, 2012)

Hence, a lack of established relationships or personal connections directly challenges the efficiency of Internet mediation. Moreover, online communications do not express the participants ‘ variable tone, size and volume and do not convey personalities or physical evidence. Oral expressions of feelings have a rich and meaningful environment in a face-to-face environment than written e-mail exchange expressions. In this way, the flexibility or strength of the feelings of the party or the trust of a particular issue can be more difficult to evaluate (Goodman, 2012)

Some authors argue that the failure to maintain personal control of negotiating parties in cyber mediation may make it harder for the mediator. The online environment, at least the e-mail environment, makes it difficult for the mediator, without sounding control and judgment, to manage or temper the tone of interaction. At least at the beginning, the mediator is an incarnate voice and can not use his own physical’ personality’ to facilitate the parties and create an environment for a sustainable problem resolution. In addition, the mediation officer is struggling to use implicit signs of body-language, facial expression and verbal tonality which are part of the face-to-face mediation phase without the physical presence of the disputants (Goodman, 2012)

Eisen concludes that the mediators, given the profession’s current orientation towards listening and the processing of oral information, find it largely impossible to translate their skills into the online set up. Beal explained that it restricts the mediator’s ability to express “serious behaviour, professional presentation, occasional humour, and simple charisma.”

In terms of inaccessibility, Some individuals, in particular people involved in disputes arising from off-line transactions, may have difficulty accessing online computers. The length of Internet access it takes to resolve a dispute can, for those who have limited access or who find this uncomfortable and uncomfortable, be problematic as well (which may vary from hours to days or weeks). It could also be disadvantageous for the less well-known or incapable of detailed written communications with computers and their use. However, even if cyber mediation may be one of the cheapest approaches to dispute resolution, many people engaging in e-commerce conflicts may still be beyond reach with a relatively small charge. Because online disputes usually involve small sums of money, the cost of cybermediation is important (Solovay & Reed, 2003)

For example, SettlementOnline involves the payment of $300 ($150 for each reimbursement settled, an additional $150 is owed from the reimbursement amount). Based on the amount of the settlement, the CyberSettle offers flat fees, which vary by $100 for settlement under $5000 (Clark & Hoyle, 2002)

Fees are usually taken out of the settlement sum for CyberSettle services, although insurance carriers are required to pay $150 additional in the filing and committing fees. Therefore, a party may not be prepared to pay a third of a possible mediation service for conflicts of a few hundred dollars to resolve the dispute. Consequently, if there is little or no charge, the effectiveness of such mechanisms for resolving online disputes must be questioned. Because of the current fees paid by those websites, cyber agreements are probably out of reach for many Internet disputes.

In terms of confidentiality concern, information security in the ODR was discussed by Katsch. In the absence of a tangible record, conventional mediation produces an electronic record. It could allow a party to easily print and distribute e-mail communications without the other party’s knowledge.  This can hinder open and honest cyber mediation exchanges (Clark & Hoyle, 2002)

References

Clark, E., & Hoyle, A. (2002). Online Dispute Resolution: Present Realities, Pressing Problems and Future Prospects. International Review of Law, Computers & Technology17(1), 7-25. doi:10.1080/1360086032000063084

Eisen, J. B. (1998). Are We Ready for Mediation in Cyberspace?

Goodman, J. W. (2012). THE PROS AND CONS OF ONLINE DISPUTE RESOLUTION: AN ASSESSMENT OF CYBER-MEDIATION WEBSITES. Retrieved from https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1073&context=dltr

Kaufmann-Kohler, G., & Schultz, T. (2004). Online Dispute Resolution: Challenges for Contemporary Justice. Kluwer Law International B.V.

Rule, C. (2002). Online Dispute Resolution for Business. San Francisco, CA.

Rule, C. (2003). Online Dispute Resolution For Business: B2B, ECommerce, Consumer, Employment, Insurance, and other Commercial Conflicts. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Solovay, N., & Reed, C. K. (2003). The Internet and Dispute Resolution: Untangling the Web. NJ: Law Journal Press.

Thiessen, E. M., & Mcmohan, J. P. (2000). ‘Beyond Win-Win in Cyberspace. OH: One Accord Publication.

Tyler, C., & Bredthoren, M. (2003, March 21). Into Online Alternative Dispute Resolution- Exploration Report Prepared for the Department of JusticeVictoria, 21 March 2003. Retrieved from http://www.psych.unimelb.edu.au/icrc/exploration.pdf

Zeleznikow, J. (2002). Using Web-based Legal Decision Support Systems to Improve Access to Justice. Information & Communications Technology Law11(1), 15-33. doi:10.1080/13600830220133530

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CLOUD COMPUTING Assignment Help by AssignmentHero

Question 1

Commercial and business issues related to cloud computing are:

  • Security or privacy issues
  • Cost management issues
  • Compliance issues
  • Password security issues
  • Data privacy issues
  • Lack of expertise or resources issues
  • Control or governance issues
  • Performance issues
  • Reliability issues

Question 2

Specific areas of responsibility in terms of security in an enterprise includes the following

  • CISO (Chief Information Security Officer)
  • Technical manager
  • Managers of security programs
  • Senior analyst of security

Therefore, in order to protect the security within the organization certain application such as Firewall application, anti-virus, VAPT and much other application regarding security can be installed in each area of operation (Aldossary & Allen, 2016).

Question 3

Most relevant control of the security of an enterprise can be firewall application. It can be implemented within the organization as it helps in scanning all the outgoing as well as incoming information of the company. This way the company and its privacy can be well maintained and protected. 

In order to implement the application, the company’s IT managers need to install within the servers of the company (Aljawarneh & Yassein, 2016). 

Question 4

According to the compliance regulation of the company in the of data storage, the privacy of the customers of the company as well as the employee of the company should be maintained. Information related to the various stakeholders if the company should not be shared to others without any prior notice or consent of the respected stakeholders. Moreover, data related to the matter can only be accessed by the hierarchy or the managers of the company (Chou, 2015). 

Question 5

In order to maintain the business, continuity planning of business lifecycle can be followed by the company. It includes analysis of the issues that are being faced by the company, designing of the appropriate solution, implementing the solution, testing of the solution in order to ensure effective working and maintaining the solution and business further for attaining success (Díaz, Martín & Rubio, 2016). On the other hand, steps for the recovery plan of data in case of any types of eruption include the following.

  • Creating a possible list of all the threats that are likely to happen
  • Outlining of the continuity plan of the business as well as the data that are being stored by the company
  • Building an inventory of the IT assets of the business. 
  • Defining the policies of contingency plan of business
  • Developing as well as testing the plan of contingency

Question 6

Audit and logs such as licensing and other proofs of identification are available within the company. The proofs of identification of the various stakeholders of the company are important until the date they are functioning within the company (Hashem et al. 2015). However, in order to secure the documents, the company must be separating each stakeholder’s documents separately and soft copies of the documents will be easy to handle. Moreover, firewall application will be helpful in keeping the information safe over the cloud. 

Question 7

As per the observance of Sen (2015), the company is not taking enough care regarding the various documents of the stakeholders of the company and his is leading the company in the privacy issues. Moreover, this also leads to unsatisfied stakeholders and that is dangerous for any kinds of business. According to the Company Act 2006, the company should provide all the facilities needed by the employee as well as also take the proper care of the employee of the company. According to this act of the legislation of the country, the employee should be provided with all the health and safety related benefits within the company and should also be taking initiative in satisfying the employees of the company (Singh & Chana, 2016). Moreover, this also deals with the rights of the employee towards employment and also deals with the safety of the information provided to the company. In addition to this, this le also deals with the interest of the customers so that the company is successful in producing products as per the needs of the customers. 

Question 8

The company should be more careful about all the stakeholders within the company (Somani et al. 2017). The documents should be kept under proper observation and the company should also take the certain initiative that leads to the satisfied stakeholders in terms of meeting the needs and demands. Therefore, needs and demands must be analysed properly and production must be done accordingly. 

Question 9

In order to measure the performance, the current performance of the company must be analyzed. After the analysis of the issues, steps must be taken in order to improve the performance by implanting the necessary requirements within the company (Aldossary & Allen, 2016). This also leads to the enhancement of the security within the company as well as effective performance. 

Question 10

A relevant document that is needed is the proper identification of the stakeholders of the company along with their proper registration and a contract. Moreover, strategic planning can also be used in order to manage all the relevant documents within the company. In addition to this, customer segmentation and core competence can also be implemented by the company in order to maintain the operations within the company (Aljawarneh & Yassein, 2016). 

Question 11

The specification that has been mainly identified in this study is the management of the privacy and security sector of the company. The main objectives of the task are the implementation of firewall application that will help the company in dealing with the issues that are being faced by the company in the business environment. 

Question 12

Tools and techniques of management that are being used in this task is the strategic planning, core competence and customer segmentation (Chou, 2015). 

Question 13

The political and organizational context within the organisational includes the safety of the employee and other stakeholders that are related to the company as well as various demands and needs of the stakeholders. Moreover, the competition of the company can also impact over the security issues of the company in the business environment. 

Question 14

Based on the analysis of the above study, it can be observed that the issues of privacy and security are mainly observed in a company operating in cloud computing (Díaz, Martín & Rubio, 2016). SDLC within the company can be effective in the COOP of the company as it helps in the analysis of the different issues that are being faced by the company or that is likely to face by the company in the coming future. Moreover, this is followed by the solution to the issues that are effective and beneficial for the company. Furthermore, it is being implemented and is being used to ensure the proper functioning of the solution. However, it involves further maintenance of the solution to avoid the issues in the coming future. 

Question 15

Techniques that have been used in this task are the collection of data and information from various journals and analysing it by comparing.

Report

Executive Summary

The present study deals with the various issues that are being faced by a company in the implementation of cloud computing within the business organization. Moreover, it is also being mentioned in this study that are services like the application of firewall and others can be effective to mitigating the issue. However, a detail discussion has been presented below. 

Introduction

The present study deals with various issues that are related to the services of cloud computing within an industry. Moreover, management of the company in respect to the various tools as well as techniques of management has also been mentioned in this section of the study. However, a brief discussion of the factors has been mentioned below. 

Findings and analysis 

SDLC inside the corporate can be effective within the COOP of the company because it helps in the analysis of the various problems that are being visage by the company or that’s possible to face by the company in the returning future (Hashem et al. 2017). Moreover, this is often followed by the answer to the problems that are effective and useful for the corporate. The thing that is more, it’s being enforced and is being employed to confirm the right functioning of the answer. However, it involves any maintenance of the answer to avoid the problems within the returning future. Moreover, tools of management strategic planning and core competence have also been discussed in order to manage the company effectively. 

Recommendation

In order to solve the issues of privacy as well as security within the company, the company must implement the firewall application or other application that are related to the antivirus detention or detention of theft and other illegal; services within the company. Moreover, the company must also be strict regarding the operations of the company and also be taking care of the demands and needs of the stakeholders of the company. 

Conclusion

From the study, it can be concluded that SDLC is an effective technique that helps in the management of the company. It mainly deals with the analysis of the issues and creating a suitable solution out of this. Moreover, the solutions are being tested in order to ensure the proper functioning as it is followed by maintained so that the issues do not occur in the future. However, the tools that agreeing used are also effective in solving the issues. 

References

Aldossary, S., & Allen, W. (2016). Data security, privacy, availability and integrity in cloud computing: issues and current solutions. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications7(4), 485-498.

Aljawarneh, S. A., & Yassein, M. O. B. (2016). A conceptual security framework for cloud computing issues. International Journal of Intelligent Information Technologies (IJIIT)12(2), 12-24.

Chou, D. C. (2015). Cloud computing risk and audit issues. Computer Standards & Interfaces42, 137-142.

Díaz, M., Martín, C., & Rubio, B. (2016). State-of-the-art, challenges, and open issues in the integration of Internet of things and cloud computing. Journal of Network and Computer applications67, 99-117.

Hashem, I. A. T., Yaqoob, I., Anuar, N. B., Mokhtar, S., Gani, A., & Khan, S. U. (2015). The rise of “big data” on cloud computing: Review and open research issues. Information systems47, 98-115.

Sen, J. (2015). Security and privacy issues in cloud computing. In Cloud Technology: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications pp. 1585-1630. 

Singh, S., & Chana, I. (2016). A survey on resource scheduling in cloud computing: Issues and challenges. Journal of grid computing14(2), 217-264.

Somani, G., Gaur, M. S., Sanghi, D., Conti, M., & Buyya, R. (2017). DDoS attacks in cloud computing: Issues, taxonomy, and future directions. Computer Communications107, 30-48.

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Baudrillard, Real Events and Implosion Assignment Help

Baudrillard terms hyper reality as a special social reality which not code for a prior social reality. A reality generated through ideas or through a special kind of social reality through model simulations is referred to as the hyper reality. The term signifies overflow or too much of the reality which can be unhealthy. It is considered more real as it brings down the reality between real and imagination. It’s a reality to which one finds it hard to connect. 

The line between imaginary and reality disappears, which is the core of hyperrealist. It becomes a cybernetic game as though at a certain point in time, one has been left behind and never took a note of that change. It’s hard for one to tell the difference between the former reality and hyperreality and there is no way to tell if reality ever has returned. Though, one can deduce when the loss of reality happens, it’s not known by Baudrillard himself. His work suggests that the loss of reality begin after the 1960’s. starting from the time of neoliberalism, which is between 1973 to 1979, one can set the timeline. 

Hyperreality also mean the disappearance of intense energy – something that has been stripped of its power of symbolism and fantasy. Example, the important commitment to labor is replaced with cool execution tasks. Baudrillard doesn’t use the term cool as though it’s describing something as enjoyable. He uses the term to refer to the loss of heat, where heat is a metaphor for intensity. To be cool means to be disillusioned or uncommitted (Best, Steven and Douglas, 1991)

In terms of hyperreality, the simulator seeks to make reality work with the model of stimulation which results in the real being no longer real. For example, production is virtual and is the unreal circulation of values, whereas cinema is getting close to the absolute reality which is the obviousness. The greatest correspondence is created by functional arrangements. The changes of expressions by attitude, are defined by Baudrillard as paranoid, puritan and terrorist. Immense social effects are created with the destructions of the gap between signs and their referents. Rather than a linear sequence, time is considered to be an eternal present without end (The Postmodern Turn, 1997).

Baudrillard does not conclude with a smooth function in totality in his accounts of functionally obsessed codes. The system depends on the results of constant regimen of control. A regiment of this type is vulnerable and open to collapsing anytime. Power is unpinned from its obviousness when it becomes obvious and continuous. It interferes with functioning and appears arbitrary. When the empty place is occupied by power it becomes obscene, impure and ridiculous and eventually collapses (Debord, 1970). This instability has been referred to by Baudrillard as implosion. This means that he saw the system collapsing from within and it’s no longer expanding, therefore, the interference instead of war called the involution which is turning unto itself. For Baudrillard, the system has reached its end by reaching its limit, which we know today as implosion. Implosion is said to be cause by the rowing density of simulations which swallows all the energy of the real. The idea is a close to the of internal contradictions in Marxism which refers to the tendency to collapse from the systems own dynamics. 

Implosion is said to come the destruction of the meaning and from the reality effect as the precession of simulacra. The function in gaps is there as the problem for the system is that the signs need a separate reality to refer to something. Social realities are generated from signs and models in the current regime. The real, the medium and the message are all produced at once. Reality which is created separately from the norm is either destroyed or incorporated which results in the sings topping to refer to anything. Though in the same moment, a system of meaning is created which is meaningless. All references come together and form a vicious circle. Without clarity and focus of intensity, the reality breaks down.

This system is based on unction and yet in hypermarkets and modern universities, it is indeterminate, thus cities disintegrate as they lose their unique purpose or value. They become like polyfunctional black boxes without any input or output. Usefulness relies on the simulation of shortage or creation of artificial scarcity which is a moral convention and not a fact of nature. Today, even supermarkets, like insurance companies, banks, pharmacists and govern information dispensaries incorporate research subcontractors, vocational trainers fall under hyper-functionalism which renders them functionless or without a core function. A means without end or an operation without basic function. All these functions become simultaneous without a past, future or distinction. All the mental, temporal, spatial and signaled coordinates become interchangeable in the simulated world. Therefore, institutions do not relate to specific functions and do not seem believable as guarantors having meaning.

As institutes stop relating to specific functions and stop believing as sponsors, thus causing social effects like power ceasing to exist as a belief in universities, degrees losing their original values. Just like work, degrees last as long as you have references as a simulation. These institutes exist to exist as preventions. The hyperreality to nullify the surrounding territory. It’s difficult for people to notice that education has disappeared because of the presence of world class universities which exist next door. If they do exist, people feel like they can’t compete with such a monument. 

There is a constant sense of crisis which is haunting the system as per Baudrillard. And this crisis is not the last stop but it’s on-going and ever present which is presented like a spectacle. It places in proximity the ideal situation towards a crisis such as news disaster movies, crime dramas etc. instead of exploding, it is constantly drip-fed to us and the world loses any independence as there are no signs. Once meaning is lost, we are easily manipulated and panic. Explosions are thought of and remembered. Though the death of the cybernetic combinatory is thought of as constantly being at threat.

Certain social situations collapse quicker than other and law is considered a crisis of the second order. It is considered to be undermined by parody and is submissive and of transgressive nature. Simulations are taken for reality and it is preferred by the social order to opt for the real. Power loses its value because of the slip in significance and lack of preference. It’s just a simulation of power which is empty and is at a risk of being dissolved in a game of signs.  Baudrillard at a point states that power cannot produce anything but signs of resemblance which is an appearance of power or show of power.

The crisis for law is its transition to a particular place which is replaced by the norm. instead of explosions which break free from the law, the current time deals with an anomaly which forms the average. People are unidentifiable and so are there situations. Populations can be wiped out as they are not important figuratively. Power tries to keep itself from collapsing by re-growing itself into its preferred state. People are always in the state of being convinced that the social world is real and it prefers to talk about crises, then admit it’s demise. In the past, it fought the treat created by the reality by jumping back and now it fights of the same by playing at crisis. Theories of ideology are embraced and radical critiques as well, so that an appearance of truth can be maintained. 

There is a similar situation of crises even for the person who is responsible. The system is seen to rest on responsibility but when based on bureaucratic, people who simply obey orders are required. The system puts everyone in a constant of being used as mere conductors of social powers by putting them in a state of unconsciousness. Without some fixed agenda, everything seems like it’s being transferred. People think that since there is some change in the idea, there must be a new meaning to the event. People don’t care about causes anymore but the effects matter, for example when a disaster in a local area causes a global outrage.

When a responsible person is no longer part of that circle, people are always looking in desperation for the next leader. There is an excessive platform of people who can be taken as scapegoats or thought of as guilty parties, waiting to be invested in an event. For example, the Katrina or Christchurch disasters were said to be done by ‘looters’, the Chilean forest fires were done by so called ‘terrorists’, and any social insecurity is put on Muslims, immigrants, and minorities. 

When there is discrepancy, moderation and innocence are set aside to look for someone to place the blame on. On the other hand, people seem to be repeatedly subjected to lashing tongues telling them to take responsibility for issues which experts know quite well to not be caused by the person himself. People are subjected to blackmail and condemned for being labelled as code and not for what the people really are.

Baudrillard thought that this is a result of disappearance in causes and effect of power. It shows something deeper where the world is being held in a state of accepting its mistakes. If this system is changed, the world will know it’s demise. Or this could be a form of manipulation where we are psychologically trained to hurt ourselves, in case something happened to the system. This could be thought of as an event where the ‘code’ is blackmailing the reality. Even though the code is redundant and doesn’t depend solely on reality. It thinks that reality is responsible for itself and therefore can be collapsed or crashed. 

The flow of responsibility can be looked back as a loss of symbolic exchange. Generally, limitless form of responsibility happens when there is no exchange anymore or when the terms are exchanged among themselves. There is a production of excitement and loss of balance. Generalized responsibility becomes the same as generalized irresponsibility and there is a fall in social relations. Moral value become a simulation which are followed by the state which becomes fatal in the scene of politics. 

Similarly, there is a theory about unearthing, filming and rediscovering the real from the reality TV events up to the preservation of historical artefacts which is considered by Baudrillard to simply reinforce the process by destroying and then simulating it. The thing that is preserved is due to the intervention measures taken against it. We constantly see a continuous simulation of the past and the present which are then relived by us in this way. The idea of real has become a dream or utopia for us that we consider it as a lost object in which an entire culture labors itself as counterweighted. 

This further worsens the problem as inertia gets worse and simulations of past events, stuck in time, keep growing and overgrowing. Remaking and reproducing, and then forming meanings are replaced by the idea of simulations. The ‘code’ exists to reproduce the masses and devour its contents by upgrading the real to the hyperreal. 

In the contemporary world, Baudrillard created a term called the theory fiction or what he would also call the simulation theory. These theories intended to simulate, hold unto and make once anticipate historical events which he believed were continually leaving behind contemporary theory. He stated that the current situation is much better than wishful science fiction. Therefore, theory can only hold unto the present and try to figure out the future. Though Baudrillard had a particularly as a social and political analyst. He mentioned in an essay, called the Anorexic ruins, published in 1989, that the Berlin wall was actually frozen and in a state of staginess between communism and capitalism. Interestingly, shortly after this statement, the wall went through Signiant change historically and opened up a new door to history. 

He also stated that the Cold was set up to be part of the frozen history where is no significant change now or even in the future. In his mid – 1970’s reflections, he even stated that the Vietnam war was simply a proof which will place countries like China, Russia and Vietnam in a rational and modernized manner (Baudrillard 1983) and in his book he also spoke about the Gulf Wars and that repeated the same sentiments he had for the aforementioned events and therefore failed to the see the politics at stake and its reason for the Vietnam war (Baudrillard Live, 1993). 

Baudrillard also stated that the twin towers of the World Trade Center were also part of the frozen history and was static between capitalism and communism. However, Baudrillard saw history as an unfolding of growing technological idea which was turning into its opposite form, which is a highly abstract analysis hinders specific historical ideas that can be analyzed of technological rationality and see for how and why it backfires. There is also a form of disorder which is created by things related to crises and restructuring of global capitalism with rise of fundamentalism, ethnic issues and global terrorism which is unleased by a response to a globally rational market system and also to the bipolar world order. 

Baudrillard spoke similarly about the Gulf War, considering it as an attempt by the New World Order to further expand its position in the world. He further argued that that Gulf War really served the Islamic Purpose by bringing the New World Order (1995: 19). Baudrillard’s first work was titled “The Gulf War will not take place” and it was published a few days before the actual events took place. Though, the Gulf War did take place, Baudrillard still published his work and claimed that the gulf war did not take place for real and argued that the media was simply making a spectacle. He was unable to explain the role of the media in contemporary politics and reduced complex events like war to simulations or hyperreality which illuminated the virtual and high tech dimensions. Interestingly, Baudrillard’s philosophy does help grasp one idea; in today’s world people like to immerse themselves in events vlogs and videos happening on the internet and the TV which are simulated events (Genokso and Mike, 1991)).

In his work titled, The End of the Illusion (1994), Baudrillard takes a jab at the current illusions set in history, politics and metaphysics and tries to explain his own idea of political propaganda which has made history frozen, static and stalemated between the East and the West, stating that nothing important or dramatic happened like the Gulf War and unleashed his oratorical tricks and analysis in an attempt to maintain his hypothesis and calls the events as weak events which are on strike and states that history has indeed gone (Jarry and Alfred, 1963)). He further goes on to state that modernity will not turn to history as that era is over due to the political upheavals and conflicts, the countless revolutions and innovations, the myth of projects and inertial implosions have become it’s defining feature.

Sometime after the 9/11 attacks, Baudrillard wrote papers ‘L’esprit du terrorism’ which he published in November 2, 2001, in Le Monde. He further stated that the attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon consisted of strong events and those attacks were the ultimate events which were the cause of the consecutive events. He called the 9/11 attacks the pure and real events and the attacks that followed suit as false events. He decaled that history was over after this and then continued to put his focus on dynamics and happenings of the contemporary history. 

References:

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  • 1983b, In the Shadow of the Silent Majorities, New York: Semiotext(e).
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  • 1987, “When Bataille Attacked the Metaphysical Principle of Economy,” D.J. Miller (trans.), Canadian Journal of Political and Social Theory, 11: 57–62.
  • 1988, America, London: Verso.
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  • 1990b, Fatal Strategies, New York: Semiotext(e).
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  • 1993b, The Transparency of Evil, London: Verso.
  • 1994a, Simulacra and Simulation, Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
  • 1994b, The Illusion of the End, Oxford: Polity Press.
  • 1995, The Gulf War Did Not Take Place, P. Patton (trans.), Sydney: Power Publications, and Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • 1996a, Cool Memories II, Oxford: Polity Press.
  • 1996b, The Perfect Crime, London and New York: Verso Books.
  • 1997, Fragments: Cool Memories III, 1990-1995, London and New York: Verso Books.
  • 2000, The Vital Illusion, New York: Columbia University Press.
  • 2001, Impossible Exchange, London: Verso.
  • 2002a, The Spirit of Terrorism: And Requiem for the Twin Towers, London: Verso.
  • 2002b, Screened Out, London: Verso.
  • est, Steven, and Kellner, Douglas, 1991, Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, London and New York: MacMillan and Guilford Press.
  • –––, 1997, The Postmodern Turn, New York: Guilford Press.
  • –––, 2001, The Postmodern Adventure, New York: Guilford Press.
  • Butler, Rex, 1999, Jean Baudrillard: The Defense of the Real, London and Thousand Oaks: Sage.
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Software development is more focused on functional programming, artificial intelligence, mobile development and designing etc.

Data Science

Data science is more focused on distributed computing, statistical machine learning, computational science etc. You can learn a lot of computing theories and applications from this part.

It depends on the willingness of students if they want to take both for their majors or a single subject at once. This course is very demandable in Australia as it is granted by Australian Computer Society.

 

Master of Computer Science

Master of Computer Science is a higher level degree that provides comprehensive learning. It helps to prepare students for the postgraduate degree and practice the ICT knowledge in research works. AssignmentHero offers you proficient best CSE assignments for your Master’s degree. 

Master degree is designed in such a way so that students can relate the computer based works in their real life practice. In this level students learn interactive execution, analysis, uses of programs along with algorithm designing and programming techniques (Tchounikine, 2011).  They are asked to evidence based decision making, build intelligent support systems, evaluate data processes, bring new data structure etc.

We can assist you with assignments at any level. We are here to assist you with your homework to final report submission. We are offering you the best online assignment service at an affordable price so that we can provide our services to the doorstep of every CSE student. Our motive is not only to compose your assignments but also to make a good connection with you and provide you with the exact solution you need.

Place your orders at https://www.assignmenthero.com/express

References

National Science Foundation, Office of Planning and Resources Management, Division of Planning and Policy Analysis, Program Review Section. (1981). Computer science. [Washington, D.C.?].

Computer Science: Theory and Application. (2019). Retrieved 15 August 2019, from https://www.reddit.com/r/compsci/

FB Informatik, T. (2019). Dept. of Computer Sci.: Computer Science in Applications (B.Sc./M.Sc., until SS18). Retrieved 15 August 2019, from https://www.cs.uni-kl.de/en/studium/studiengaenge/bm-ai/

Strazdins, P. (2007). Research-based education in computer science at the ANU. Canberra: Dept. of Computer Science, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, Australian National University.

Tchounikine, P. (2011). Computer science and educational software design. Berlin: Springer.

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High-performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC)

  1. Objective

To measure the concentrations of citric acid, sucrose and glucose sugars in the orange naval fruit by using titratable acidity and high-performance liquid chromatography methods respectively.

To measure the moisture contents of citric acid, sucrose and glucose sugars of using Oven drying and Dean and starke methods

To measure the pH of citric acid, sucrose and glucose sugars using pH meter.

  1. Materials and Methods:

All the materials and methods Refer to CHEM1226 food chemistry practical’s manual,2018.

  1. Titratable acidity method:

The total amount of acid in the sample was measured by titrating 5 g of sample with dilute NaOH using both pH meter and phenolphthalein indicator to determine the end point result.

  1. High-performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC):

It was used to measure the concentration of Sucrose and Glucose. About 10.02 g of sample was dissolved in distilled water. Sample dilution was prepared by utilizing highly purified water, and then each solution was done in triplicate and the chromatograms were obtained for analysis.

  1. Oven drying, and Dean and starke methods:

This method was used to measure the moisture in the sample. Three sample of weight 9.2 g each were placed in an oven followed by the addition of water-saturated toluene and a few boiling chips as indicators. The final weight ware 3.05 g, 3.09, and 3.09 respectively were obtained in oven drying method.

  1. Results and discussions:

Table 1: Examines the laboratory results and comparative data:

Component/parameterunitsresultsRelative precision (%)Label dataNUTTAB dataOther research result
Titratable acidityg per 100ml0.95± 0.00.00%nd0.61.49
Sugars:sucroseGlucoseg per 100mlSucrose:6.29Glucose:3.00
ndndSucrose:4.3Glucose:1.8Sucrose:3.5Glucose: 2.4



Moisture%Oven drying method: 89.17±0.06%16.458nd86.785.97
Dean and starke mehod: 88.88%nd
pHpH unit9.5 ± 0.54.79%ndndnd

Appendix:

3.1. Analysis of titratable acidity:

Table 2: Examines the volumes of NaOH titrated and the measure of pH value for three replicates of standard:

ReplicateInitial reading (mL)Final reading (mL)Titre (mL)pH value
10191910.7
21937.518.511
3018.818.810.75

Table 3: Examines the volumes of NaOH titrated and the measure of pH value for replicates of an orange:

ReplicateInitial reading (mL)Final reading (mL)Titre (mL)pH value
107.97.911.3
27.9157.19.8
31522.17.19.9
422.129.179

Table 4: Examines the amount of citric acid in the sample:

SamplePredominant acid in productNumber of replicatesPredominant acid content(g/100mL of the product)
Orange, navel, rawCitric acid30.944 g 0.00019254

  • Calculation for standards:

Potassium hydrogen phthalate   + NaOH →   potassium phthalate   + H2O   + Na+

1 n of KHP   = 1 n of NaOH

n =c×v      or n = m/Mr       

Where;

n= number of moles

c= the concentration

v= volume

m= mass

Mr= molecular weight

To find the moles of KHP following the equation

     n = m/Mr          which m of KHP =5g    and Mr =204.22g mole-1

∴ n= 5/204.22= 0.024483 moles

To find the concentration of KHP following the equation

      n=c×v  →   c= n/v       which the volume of KHP = 250 ml

∴ c= 0.024483/0.250

    c= 0.097932 moles/L

To calculate the number of moles of potassium hydrogen phthalate in the 20.0mL aliquots used in titrating the NaOH solution following the equation

n=c×v

0.097932× 0.02=0.00195864mole/L

From the duplicate titration values, the mean titrate volume for the standardization of NaOH per ml was calculated by following the equation:

[(v1+v2+v3)÷3]

∴   19+18.8+18.53  = 18.7666 ml

                To find the concentration of NaOH following the equation

             (c×v) of KHP = (c×v) of NaOH    

0.097932 × 20= 18.7666 C

∴  0.097932 × 0.250= c × 0.0187666

   = 0.02448 =0.0187666c

∴ c= 1.3046

∴c= 0.10493mol/L  →   0.00010493 moles/ml

  • Calculation for the samples:

The main acid in this product was citric acid with molecular weight: 192.124 g/moles

  • the mean titre for the orange samples is calculated by following equation:

[(v1+v2+v3)÷3]

∴   7.1+7.1+73  = 7.0666ml

  • To Calculate the number of moles NaOH titrated per litre following the equation

n= c×v

n= 0.10493 × 0.007066

n= 0.0007414983 moles

  • To calculate the number of moles of H+ titrated

1 H3 Cit + 3 NaOH → 3 H2O + ————-

∴One mole (or ion) of H+ in the H3 Cit reacts with three moles (or ion) of hydroxide (OH) from the NaOH

∴ (n H3 Cit/1) = (n NaOH/3)

  • in 5 ml juice:

   n H+=0.000741498moles

  • in 1 ml of juice:

 n H+ = 0.000741498/5

 n=0.0001482996 moles/ml

  • in 100 ml juice

0.0001482996 × 100 = 0.01482996 moles/100ml

  • To calculate the number of moles of the citric acid molecule in the sample:

moles of H3cit = [(moles of H+  in 100 ml of juice )/ 3]

∴n= 0.01482996/3 = 0.00494332 moles

  • To calculate the mass of that acid in an orange:

     n = m/Mr       

     m= n×Mr

     m= 0.00494332 ×192.124= 0.9503477 g/100ml

  • To find absolute precision of the results following the equation:

Absolute precision= higher volume-lower volume2

  • For Standards:  19-18.52 = ± 0.25
  • For samples: 7.1-72= ± 0.05
  • To find relative precision of the results following the equation

% Relative precision= absolute precisionmean valume

  • For standards: 0.25/ 18.7666= 0.0133215 %
  • For sample: 0.05/ 7.0666= 0.007075538 %

  • Total relative precision%:

0.0133215 + 0.007075538= 0.0203970%

in this practical session, the result of citric acid is 0.9503477 g/100ml

∴ the absolute precision of the result:

0.95034770.0203970100 = ± 0.00019384 g/100ml

  • The final result can present in the form of mean value ± absolute precision

∴ (0.9503477 ± 0.00019384) g/100ml

3.2. Analysis of sugars:

Table 5: Examines the result of standards sugar

SugarElution time (min)2Peak area
Sucrose4.4631163994
  • This equation to calculate the concentration of the particular sugar for the sample:

Concentration of the sugar (food solution)=Peak area (food solution)

Concentration of the sugar (standard)Peak area (standard)
Concentration of Sucrose in food solution=1469353
0.5g1163994

Concentration of Sucrose in food solution = x

Concentration of Sucrose standard = 0.5g

Peak area of Sucrose in food solution = 1469353

Peak area of Sucrose in the standard= 1163994

So, the concentration Sucrose of food solution =0.63117g

=0.63117 g sucrose in 10.02 g of food sample.

How much sucrose would there have been in 100g of the sample?

=0.6311g×100g10.02g=6.299g in 100g product( undiluted juice )

Table 6: Examines the results for standard sugars:

SugarElution time (min)2Peak area
Glucose4.1771025862
  • This equation to calculate the concentration of the particular sugar for the sample:

Concentration of the sugar (food solution)=Peak area (food solution)

Concentration of the sugar (standard)Peak area (standard)
Concentration of Sucrose in food solution=617230
0.5g1025862

Concentration of Glucose in food solution = x

Concentration of Glucose standard = 0.5g

Peak area of Glucose in food solution = 617230

Peak area of Glucose in the standard= 1025862

So, the concentration Glucose of food solution =0.300 g

=0.300 g Glucose in 10.02 g of food sample.

How much Glucose would there have been in 100g of the sample?

=0.300g×100g10.02g=3.00g in 100g product( undiulted juice )

However. There was only one value of Sucrose and Glucose sugars. Therefore, it was impossible to calculate the absolute precision and relative precision as well

3.3. Analysis of moisture content:

Table 7: Examines the moisture content results of an Orange products using Oven drying and Dean and Starke methods:

MethodSampleNumber of replicateMoisture content (%)Relative precision (%)
Oven Drying
Orange
389.170.06%16.458
The Dean and Starke
188.88%

Table 8: Examines the Oven Drying Method:

NumberMass of Pans (g)mOMass of samples (g)mSTotal mass before putting in oven drying (g)M= mO + mSTotal mass after oven drying (g)M’Mass of H2O in Samples (g)M – M’
119.653.0522.719.902.8
246.593.0949.6846.932.75
342.023.0945.1142.432.68

  • Oven drying method:
  • Mass of samples average = mS1+mS2+mS33=

  = 3.05+3.09+3.093=3.076 g

  • Mass of H2O average = m1+m2+m33=

= 2.8+2.75+2.683=2.743 g

  • The percentage of H2O = 2.7433.076 x 100=89.17%
  • Absolute precision = highest reading-lowest reading2=

=2.8-2.682=±0.06

  • Relative precision = absolute precisionx100mean value= 0.06×1002.743=16.45 %
  • The Dean and Starke method:

VH2O = 8mL

100 ml of orange sample                        86.7 % of moisture

9 ml of orange sample                            x% of moisture

100x= 780.03

x= 7.803 % in 9 ml of orange sample

  • The percentage of H2O = 89 x 100=88.88%
  • There is only one value of sample. Therefore, it is impossible to calculate the absolute precision and relative precision as well.

Based on the experimental results, the concentration of citric acid was measured in an orange naval fruit using titratable acidity method. The concentration of citric acid, recorded in the lab, was approximately 0.944 ± 0.00019g /100 ml of orange sample. However, the amount of citric acid in the nutrition information table of the product was 0.6g/100 ml of orange. In addition, (Weikle, 2012) found that the concentration of citric acid in navel orange was approximately 1.4993 g/100ml. Therefore, there is a significantly difference between the results because of the following reasons; the growing condition of sample was different hence difference in the result of citric acid and the difference species was used.

In this practical session, the titration color appeared dark yellow rather than pink. This could be because of different components of the sample which may have affected the titration color. Moreover, there was a relative precision for the analysis of sample which was calculated (1.24%). As well, the final absolute precision of the results was calculated as (0.944± 0.00019254).

The pH of the sample and the standard solutions were measured using pH meter. As shown in table 2 and 3, the recorded pH results were around 7 to 11 in both replicates of both sample and standard which was indicated to change the acidity of sample into alkaline. The growing conditions and processing methods might had an effect on the pH of oranges. Therefore, it was difficult to make normal range for the navel orange.

The high-performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC) was used to measure the concentration of both sucrose and glucose.  The result in the practical of both sucrose and glucose were 6.299g/100ml and 3.00g/100ml respectively. However, the concentration for both sucrose and glucose presented in the nutrition information table (NUTTAB), were 4.3mg/100ml and 1.8mg/100ml respectively. It was clear that there was a slightly difference between NUTTAB result and practical results. These different might have been due to the following reasons; the navel orange fruit, which tested in the practical, was sweeter than the orange that utilized in NUTTAB online database. Thus, the orange growing conditions might have been different.

The moisture content in an orange, the navel fruit, was measured by utilizing two methods. The first method was done by oven drying referred to as gravimetric method. In this test, there were three sample of orange preparation, and the result of H2O concentration was (89.17± 0.006) % which was based on the average mass of H2O dividing by the mass of average sample. The second method was Dean and starke method. From the data analysis, the moisture content was 88.88%, whereas it was 86.7% in the NUTTAB online database. In addition, the National nutrient database, which derived from United States department of agriculture, showed 85.97% of moisture in orange navel, it was clear that there was a slight difference between these four findings, around 2%. The two methods were thus reliable since there was no a significant affect in food value, and they had almost the same result with NUTTAB result.

3.4. Conclusion

From the experiment, there is a significant difference in the concentration of citric acid in an orange sample and that in the nutrition information table and hence the environmental conditions/ growing conditions affect the concentration of citric acid in an orange. The growing conditions and processing methods might had an effect on the pH of oranges. There was a slightly difference between the concentration of sucrose and glucose present in an orange obtained from NUTTAB result and practical results due to different growth conditions. However, growth condition does not affect the moisture content of an orange .An orange ontain highest concentration of sucrose followed by glucose and least concentration of citric acid.

  1. References:
http://dept.cord.edu/chemistry/CCJAC/2012_Vol_3/2012_3_57.pdf

nuttab

https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/301185?manu=&fgcd=&ds=&q=Oranges,%20raw,%20navels%20(Includes%20foods%20for%20USDA’s%20Food%20Distribution%20Program)
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Computer Science Engineering Project Solution

Project Scope

In provided task of primary school there is requirement to create network that is able to serve10 guest and 50 local users. Here FTP server is used to provide file sharing feature for the client. But in case of guest only FTP is allowed all other service are block like HTTP, SMTP etc. other user are able to access the all type of service.

Project requirements

To possible the connectivity of 60 users 48 port switch and 24 port switch is recommended. To subnet the network VLAN is need to be created in the switch. Router will used to provide the service like DHCP and also it will used to allow only FTP traffic to guest subnet. FTP server is required to provide file sharing service. Access control list to allow FTP traffic will be created on router. To full fill the requirement of given task total 3 subnet are required. [1]

Network design

C:\Users\Nutan\Downloads\primary school netowrk.jpg

In the above topology there is 2 switch, 1 router and 1 FTP server with some guest and local user are present. The local user and guest may have the same switch but the port for the VLAN for both will different. To provide only FTP access to client router is present and it will pass the traffic from FTP server to the LAN. Here if required wireless access point can be put to allow access of wireless network.

To separate the user from guest network 2 networks are required and 1 network will used by the FTP server to connect with LAN. [2]

IP addresses table

To provide the communication between the computer system IP address are required. As per the given task total 3 subnet are required. For each subnet there is requirement to have a network address and broadcast address. From the given requirement IP address table can be as below:

SUBNETNUMBER OF HOST
USER50
GUEST10
FTP SERVER and ROUTER2

Assuming that the network address of given task is 192.168.0.0/24. But this network address provide the 254 host to communicate. So according to the different requirement of host in each network, VLSM is required to implement.

In implementation of VLSM fist all the requirement are required to have in descending order. After that in each requirement two reserve address (network and broadcast) address are added. That the final value is need to have in form of two rest to. [3]

Form the above discussion the final range of subnet from 192.168.0.0/24 can be given by following table:

SUBNETNUMBER OF HOSTNetwork addressAddress rangeSubnet mask
USER50192.168.0.0192.168.0.1 – 192.168.0.62255.255.255.192
GUEST10192.168.0.64192.168.0.65 – 192.168.0.78255.255.255.240
FTP SERVER2192.168.0.80192.168.0.81 – 192.168.0.82255.255.255.252

From the above range, first range will be used for the VLAN 101 of user, and 2nd rang will be used for guest users VLAN 102 and for the FTP server 3rd range will be used.

The provided range is exclude from network address and broadcast address. So it can be used to assign directly to host from first to last. Every network has different subnet mask as each network range is different. This will used to provide IP address to the host.

Network Topology Diagram


For the above topology the server can be based on Microsoft or can be Linux in both the case Software packet and role must be installed in the server to provide the service of FTP.

In switch 1 and switch 2 VLAN and required to create. One is for Guest user and another is for the local user. 10 port form the switch 1 and switch 2 are required to be added in appropriate VLAN.

Wireless access point is palace to provide the wireless connectivity. Wi-Fi’s SSID and password can be set as per the requirement.

All computer system has automatic IP enable. This will allow our Router to provide IP address according to the subnet. For subnet 1 it will provide IP address from 192.168.0.1 – 192.168.0.62 and for guest subnet rang e will be from 192.168.0.65 – 192.168.0.78. For that proper pool is needed. In DHCP the gateway will become the IP address of the router. [4]

Router’s fa0/0 is connected with switch 1 so the logical port of fa0/0 must be created to connect with different VLAN.

Extended ACL is created to allow only FTP traffic for the 192.168.0.64 subnet and other traffic will automatically will get blocked.

FTP server can have IP 192.168.0.81 and the router with fa 0/0 can have 192.168.0.82 IP address.

Following is hardware configuration of the devices:

Switch configuration [5]

Device NameSwitch
ManufactureCisco
Series2900
Model2950T
Port48 and 24

Router configuration [6]

Device NameRouter
ManufactureCisco
Series2800
Model2811
Port2 Fast Ethernet port, 4 serial interface

Server configuration [7]

Processor1.4 GHz or higher
RAM2 GB
HDD Minimum 32 GB
Operating SystemMicrosoft base server or Linux based server

To provide the security in above topology port security can be implemented that will used to restrict the use of another device in same switch port.

Conclusion

Designing of primary school required to set-up server, access point, router, and switch after the configuration of networking device. The communication of guest will be restricted to FTP service only. In the setup here is requirement to configure VLAN in switch, DHCP in router, sub interface configuration in router. Also for the sub netting task VLAM is used to fulfill differ host requirement in every segment. Class C IP address is used to fulfill the need to primary school network.

Reference

[1] J. Sedayao, Cisco IOS access lists. Beijing: OReilly, 2001.

[2] “Serv-U FTP Server | SolarWinds,” Leading Monitoring Tool | SolarWinds. [Online]. Available: https://www.solarwinds.com/ftp-server-software. [Accessed: 18-May-2018].

[3] “Variable Length Subnet Masking, VLSM, IP V4 Subnetting, subnetting tutorials, IP study guides, IP documentation, IP tutorials,” Different types of Computer Viruses – Computer Virus Classification. [Online]. Available: http://www.omnisecu.com/tcpip/variable-length-subnet-masking-vlsm.php. [Accessed: 18-May-2018].

[4] “How can i use 1 dhcp server to assign IP to different Vlan,” The Cisco Learning Network, 18-Apr-2013. [Online]. Available: https://learningnetwork.cisco.com/thread/30414. [Accessed: 18-May-2018].

[5] Catalyst 2950 desktop switch hardware installtion guide. Argentina: Cisco Systems, 2002.

[6] “Cisco 2811 Integrated Services Router,” Cisco, 19-May-2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/routers/2811-integrated-services-router-isr/index.html. [Accessed: 18-May-2018].

[7] “Cerberus FTP Server Minimum System Requirements,” Cerberus FTP Server. [Online]. Available: https://www.cerberusftp.com/support/help/minimum-system-req/. [Accessed: 18-May-2018].

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Literature review of Small business that uses accounting software package in Australia

Introduction

In this full competitive industry, it become harder to compete with other without having proper access advanced technology. Keeping account is the foremost work of any business organization. The larger the business the longest the accounting process                                                                                                                                                              which takes a lot of time to complete the process and continuing it without any mistakes. That is the reason business organization started using for accounting. This software helps the organization to keep all the account recorded and secure which also confirmed the possibility of mistakes in a least number. There are many accounting software packages like Reckon, Xero, MYOB, and QuickBooks online. All these accounting software are providing some common services like bookkeeping, payroll, tax calculation etc. Though all these software providing some common services they are different from each other by providing some special service.

Part 1

The organizational structure

In this literature review, types of organisation to use accounting software are SME business organizations. Start up business or ongoing business organizations need to save money as well as their time by using advanced technology and Services and these accounting software are tremendously helping  those organizations to minimized there cost of accounting and save a lot of time to focus on any other sectors of the business. Usually the number of employee in SME business are comparatively low than the established and large business. According to the structure small or medium businesses are included in the term of SME. So it can be said that in the term of structure the chosen organization sector is small in size considering the area of business, number of employees, capital of business etc.

Operational problems

As being small business in structure, this type of company faces many problems. Though the structure is being small business, the capital is also limited comparatively, many other things depend on the amount of the capital which will start the company and would work as working capital. So this amount is very essential for any business. This capital defines how many employees are needed for the business considering other sectors where people are needed. This type of company has low budget for hiring people in various structure of the business. Hiring more people will cause more money to provide them which will not be considerable. It often causes the company to shut down because they cannot higher the number of people needed for the business or after having them they cannot provide the salary to them. Beside that employee problem, small businesses face other problem like having experience people. As Startup Company, experience people often do not show interest in joining in this type of company for having other big opportunity. This cause unskilled people get hired which lead the company to have error in their working process. The numbers of people work in this type of business need to be more skilled to develop the new condition of the business. Experienced and skilled people can provide the service a startup company needs to make progress in their business. Inexperienced and unskilled employees will create more error then the experienced employees.  it could be positive in some sense, like an experienced people can work her together experience and to solve their errors by learning more.

System acquisition method

There are many types of system to adopt for the business some could be commercial software, some could be custom software and so on. To understand which type of business needs what type of software for completing the accounting process, it requires understanding the configuration of the software first. Commercial software is for average use any kind of business organization can use commercial software. All the common features are included in this type of software which can be beneficial for any business organization. Some packages are available which includes extra benefit to some commercial software for organizations to complete their additional works. As example MYOB has a feature that creates BAS Report along with its other features like bookkeeping, purchase orders, creating note of credits, payrolls etc. Another important system is custom software; custom software provides special order service from the organization. Sometimes some company needs their own service system to make the service unique from others. They might have their special requirement about some feature of the software; the software made according to the requirement of client is called custom software. Custom software is for bigger companies that has their own unique system of operating. Though small business organizations have limited number of employees and the size of the business is not much bigger, they need to minimize the cost, on the other hand custom software are costly. That indicates custom software are not for small business and small business needs commercial software. Accounting software companies offers different packages for their clients. Small business organizations can choose packages according to their needs and requirements.

System flowchart of sales procedure

The selling processes of a small business organization are easier than any bigger organization. Usually small organizations follow few steps to complete sales procedure. There are some steps to follow accordingly for completing a proper sales process. This steps confines the procedure easily understand by the people who are related to the organization. These steps would be discussed below:

Step 1: (Getting a response to campaign and requests for information.)

This is the first step of the procedure of sales, in this step the organization will need to campaign about their product or service. Campaign of the company would get some response related to their campaign, product or service. After getting the response, management needs to understand what the response was and how to reply the response from clients. Information should be gathered about the client and their response to understand and reply properly.

Step 2: (Reply the response from clients and describe the product or service to them)

This is the second step of the procedure of sales, in this step the management need to reply to the responses they gathered from people. The organization can contact people in many different ways like calling directly, knocking on social media, sending SMS and many other way of communication. This step is the first direct connection with the client for the business.  If this step is finished successfully done the client will be interested to buy or take product or service.

Step 3: (Meeting in person and showing the demo of products)

In this step the business will show the client their product of service.  The client will get to know more about the product and service and any related information about the product.  It will also avail a chance for the client to use the product or services as a trial. If the product or service can gain the interest of the client then it will be permanent deal with the company for sure.

Step 4: (Submitting the proposal to prospect)

This is the step where the selling team will submit a proposal of the expectation from the selling to this client. In this step the target, expectation, achievement etc. would be shown as a prospect to the company from the sale group or team after getting the confirmation from the client. In this step client will be able to know the price expected from the company and if they are agree or not.

Step 5: (Agree on the prospect, and process first payment)

This is the step after the client agrees with the prospect of the company offered.  If the client is agree to the deal of the company then the company and the client will make a deal which will lead the client to make their first payment regarding this product or service. This step because payment and basically finish the procedure of sales so far.

                                                  Figure: Sales Process

Control problem of the system

At the time of using any software, there could be some technical problems in controlling the system. The structure of the company who are using this software is small business and the people employed in this type of business are not so well experienced. Sometimes this could be a barrier to you software properly and controlling it as far demand.  In controlling the system there would be some reason behind it which could be lack of knowledge about software, not knowing the proper use of the software, unaware about the feature of the software, and so on. Sometimes the chosen software could be difficult to understand. Not all the software is made for any kind of business organization. So picking the best software for the business is a challenge if that’s not happen then there would be some controlling problem of the system. There could be some problem related to fraud action.  Regarding buying the software, the company needs to analyze site they are buying the software from and the authenticity of the site and the company as well. If the company is any random company then there is a possibility to fraud action. So while considering to buy a software the business organization needs to know if it is important for the business or not as well as the site they are buying the software from should be authentic to avoid fraud actions.

Part 2

Development and adoption the package of accounting software

For small businesses among all the accounting software in the market MYOB is the most suitable one. Maximum small businesses in Australia required using MYOB as their accounting software. More than 1 million small business organizations are using this software to complete the accounting actions. In comparison with other software this software provides the maximum service in a reasonable price which is a way ahead for small businesses to save their money. This software has the most updated features of using the software using computer to access data from any close and it follows working remotely and the capability is 28%.  This feature made this software adaptable to maximum small business organization to manage their business from a distance or any location which is beneficial for businesses which are not located in the most city site. These facilities provide an advantage which is very competitive.

Current market size

The current market size for MYOB accounting software is highly considerate as large according to the usability and the client satisfaction of using this software. According to the journal report more than 1 million people are using this software for their accounting work and most of those organizations as small business organizations. SME is one of the largest part business organizations all over the Australia. About 80 percent businesses in Australia are SMS business. So taking into consideration the fact, the market of accounting software is large in size.

Market leaders and their competitive advantage

There are many accounting software companies leading in the market.  All of this company is well known and leading business equally in the market with their service quality and commitment. Among them the chosen software MYOB is also running their business successfully in the Australian market. This company has more advantage in competition considering the fact that the government of Australia also uses this software in some of their sectors. This brings the company competitive advantage and reliability and trust of people just by knowing the fact the government also using these features. It brings trust towards the company. This company is providing a service which is called cloud controlling. Cloud controlling is a feature that allow its uses to use the software from anywhere through the internet. These features make them unique from others and help them to leave the market with this competitive advantage.

Current challenges encountered by users

Besides having many benefits and advantages, this software are highly configurable and the usability of this software depends on the expertise of the person who is using it.  That means the person who use this software needs to know about the features of accounting and the functions of this software very well. Without knowing the functions of the software is quite difficult for any random person to operate the software. SME businesses and not are not prepare to hire more people for accounting work or sometimes it seems that the owner do the accounting work by own self and it is not necessary that the owner should have accounting knowledge for opening  a business. That is the reason they buy accounting software to do the work by their own. Sometimes the future confuses them to do the work if this features are constructed any random person would be able to run this software is a little knowledge about accounting. Show the user of this software are having problem with understanding the feature recently and they are complaining about that to make it easy and these information was gathered from various survey taken by the company to understand the opinion of their  client and to solve the problems.

Recommendation to overcome the challenges

To overcome this problem the users of this software are using, main essential steps should be taken. Though the main problem is proper knowledge of using the software, the company can provide user instruction to make its users understand the process of using the software even if they don’t have any previous knowledge about accounting software. Another step can be taken as the software company can hire some people who can teach the random people understand how to use the features of this software easily while delivering the software. User instructions can be provided by making a video which is very easy to understand for all kind of people you don’t know about accounting software. By seeing the video they can understand instructions about the features which will also reduce the cost of the software company. This could be the better solution solve this problem.

References

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Garand, B. (2009). Open Source Software: The Customer Perception from SME and SMI?. SSRN Electronic Journal.

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James, D., interviews), W., MYOB AccountRight Basics, X., James, D. and interviews), W. (2018). 7 accounting packages for Australian small businesses compared: including MYOB, QuickBooks Online, Reckon, Xero. [online] Business IT. Available at: https://www.bit.com.au/review/7-accounting-packages-for-australian-small-businesses-compared-including-myob-quickbooks-online-reckon-xero-344651 [Accessed 26 Apr. 2018].

Quintiliani, A. (2017). SME Growth: The Role of Government Grant. Asian Journal of Finance & Accounting, 9(2), p.307.

Technologies, R. (2018). MYOB: Benefits and Challenges for your Organisation. [online] Blog.rgtechnologies.com.au. Available at: http://blog.rgtechnologies.com.au/myob [Accessed 26 Apr. 2018].

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Themartec.com. (2018). MYOB on Why SME will Play a Big Role in The Future of Australian Tech. [online] Available at: https://www.themartec.com/insidelook/myob-sme-future-australian-tech [Accessed 26 Apr. 2018].

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