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This report helps to develop a clear picture of the importance of managing information systems and the impact of IT technology system. In this context, therefore, most of the organizations are in the process of adopting these changes in their IT systems to maximize on quality production, meet customer expectations, to ease the workload of using the filing system and most importantly to have a competitive edge over its competitors. ANZ Bank is one of the leading banking organizations in Australia and New Zealand. It is one of the organizations that has adopted IT and IS support system that ensures smooth bank operations. Components of an Information system, strategically organized concepts of effective management of information systems provide a robust framework for understanding the roles, critiques, risks imposed by information systems and the dangers of using information systems according to Xu & Quaddus (2013).

Despite the many positive outcomes of adopting the IT technology information systems, there is a significant concern in cybersecurity that can quickly tarnish the image and reputation of an organization or even a loss of critical data. Therefore, as organizations are busy making considerations to use these information systems, they should ensure that there are efficient IT experts who can put up a reliable firewall to secure the interests of ANZ bank from individuals with evil intentions hence ensuring that the acceptable code of ethics is adopted and respected (Béranger, 2015).


In recent years, there is a divine purpose of keeping the bank’s information systems updated and at par with the competing companies. Not only do companies need to adopt this information system, but also it must keep it updated at all times because technological changes occur daily. Information system (IS) is defined as an integrated, coordinated network of components put together to convert data into information (Schirrmeister, 2013). Through IS, organizations can improve efficiency in data management, boosting productivity. In this context, ANZ (Australia and New Zealand) bank has made a substantial technological change in securing its information systems by using some of the best banking software. Being one among the largest banks in the continent, this is of considerable significance because control of data will be more natural hence having a competitive advantage in the market. The report focuses on the role of IS and IT systems and ways it assists in mitigating the risk in organizations basing the discussion on ANZ. It further reflects on the way companies benefit from the wide variety of IS and IT systems. 

Components of an Information System

A sound information system is primarily composed of five parts that include the hardware, software, database, network, and people, that come together to perform input, process output, feedback and control of data (Wang, 2014).

The hardware consists of the physical output or input devices, processor, the operating system, and the media devices. The software is a set of programs and procedures installed in the hardware. The database consists of organized data in the required design, and the network refers to the hubs, communication media, and other network devices. The people are the operators and network administrators of the information system.

In every organization, IS can be classified based on how the information is used and can be therefore divided into operations support systems or management support system.

Operations support system

The end user does input of data in an organization. It is processed to produce information like reports that can be utilized by internal or external users. At ANZ bank, this is critical because it is easier to perform audits determining what is working and what is not. The principal purpose of this operations support system is to facilitate and control business transactions, management of internal and external communication hence update the organization’s central database.

Transaction processing systems (TPS) – this is a component of the operations support system used by ANZ and other banks, where transactions involve different departments like accounts, sales, or finance. Its primary purpose is to categorize such transactions into batch transactions processing and real-time transaction processing.

Process control system – some errors may be made by computers without involving any human. Therefore, the relevant information is fed to this system on a real-time basis hence enabling more natural process control (Zeng, Qiu & Cui, 2015).

Enterprise collaboration system – this type of operations support system enables collaboration efforts through improving the sharing of data and communication. For instance, use of Navision software by ANZ bank provides end-to-end encryption of the bank’s operations. Besides, using the Enterprise Knowledge Portal (EKP), the bank workers and other users can share information more reliably.

Management support systems

 This strategy facilitates a more straightforward decision-making scheme for managers. They are classified into a management information system, decision support, expert support system, and accounting information systems.

Strategic information systems (SIS)

SIS systems are information systems that are developed to manage the corporate business initiative to give the organization a competitive advantage. They are used to deliver a product or service, which is at a significantly lower cost, differentiated, or one that targets a specific market segment. They majorly provide sufficient and dependable information that will keep the company’s operations smooth. SIS systems are, therefore, crucial in the profitability of the company hence opening new markets and businesses.

The role of SIS systems

 The purpose of SIS is to give an organization a competitive advantage in the market. 

It can be done by delivering a product or service at a lower cost at a fee that is related to the quality of the service or product that will yield high market returns on investment thus attractive in the market. ANZ bank can systematically store its data hence being influential in adhering to the customer needs and expectations in the best way possible. Moreover, the integrated information and IT system of ANZ is helpful in time management, especially minimizing the time spent to serve customers. It considers the overall cost of all corporate activities involved in the delivery of that particular product or service. The lower price will also result in the product or service penetration in the market (Daim et al., 2014).

Differentiated products – differentiation means the unique features added to a commodity or service that are competitive and at the same time attractive to the market. Addition of these unique features on the product or service may incur some additional expenses to the organization but will be very eye-catching in the market. It gives the customer the perception that they are getting extras/rewards, and they will be willing to pay.

Focusing on a specific market segment – IT products and services has helped ANZ bank to define, expand, and fill a particular section in the market that has not been adequately occupied by other banking institutions. For instance, the bank provides integrated banking options to its customers’ hence more convenient service. An organization may come up with a product or service that is specifically designed for a specific target market 

Innovation – SIS systems are of great significance in the development of a product or service through the use of computers. The bank’s cloud backup system enables its users who are logged on to the same, to have access to any information necessary from any corner of the world. These developments are unique; hence, a compliment of what existed before it, for example, ATMs and credit card handling when shopping. This provides convenience and less time wastage to the customer (Sousa & Oz, 2014).

Another significant role of these systems is actively supporting the senior management of an organization in decision-making. Through the IS system, managers can get a clear view of activities going on in the company, check reviews and ratings on what the customers think of the company’s product or service hence easy to determine sectors that need change.

Security concerns on information systems At ANZ Bank

As the IT sector is rapidly changing, the more security threats on IS are changing, and therefore, the compliance of organizations is becoming more complex. Information security (infosec) is the steps taken to prevent unauthorized access, use, disclosure, and inspection of information. To ensure that the system’s security is secure, the organization should ensure that the IS security should be to end encrypted. ANZ communication through the integrated systems is highly encrypted, thus safety in sharing and receiving information all over its network in Australia. This information security policy should allow revision and updates of the set down security procedures to ensure the system is fully protected at all times, hence a good back up plan. It is also supposed to consider the risk assessment of the organization to analyze possible future risks likely to be faced by the organizations IS like fraudsters and hackers.

Information security’s policy objectives aim at maintaining confidentiality, integrity, and ensuring the availability of resources to the authorized personnel. It is supposed to elaborate the terms used in the policy, explaining the meaning of licensed personnel in the organization’s context, still focusing on efficient policy implementation. This is mainly achieved through the process of multi-risk management that is responsible for identifying assets, threats, and their sources, vulnerabilities, possible effects, and measures; thus, assessment of the risk management plan. To handle these issues, professionals and academics have collaborated hence seek to set specific guidelines and policy standards on passkeys, antivirus software and firewall, encryption software, the legal user and liability, and the administrator.

Issues like theft, natural disasters, or malfunction of the server or computer are some of the crucial aspects that come up when setting up an information security system (Moore, 2017). Identity theft, on the other hand, refers to the attempt of acting like another person to obtain that person’s private data or information. Nowadays, theft of equipment like cell phones, tablets, and computers has increased at a high rate hence the risk of losing personal data stored in these devices. Institutions like the government, hospitals, and security facilities are some of the institutions with highly sensitive information that requires to be handled in a very confidential manner. From a business point of view, information security is critical and therefore, must be well balanced against the cost. 

Measures that can reduce information security risk at ANZ

Some of the steps necessary to handle the risks posed by information systems include reducing and implementing countermeasures that will eliminate vulnerabilities, thus block potential threats. This should be achieved through ensuring the information security systems updated regularly and setting up of well-coded firewalls that are not easy to breach. For example, in 2017, Facebook suffered a significant hack because an unknown party with malicious intentions breached its system firewall.

The organizations should contract or transfer the cost of information threats to a third party, for instance, outsourcing or buying insurance. An insurance company will assess the risk or threat posed on the information system hence evaluate that risk and compensate the organization accordingly. This helps the organization to avoid unnecessary losses that may be incurred as a result of a security breach on its information security system.

The organizations should evaluate whether the cost of the countermeasures required is higher than the probability cost of loss as a result of a breach in its information security system. It is a necessary measure because the organization can decide whether to do away with the whole system that has a risk of breach and set up a new one or set countermeasures to help in the management of possible threats.

Business continuity planning

Despite the many threats that are imposed by information systems, business operations must go on whatsoever. Therefore, the management of an organization should formulate a business continuity plan that creates a guideline for commencing the healthy business practices despite the foreseen risks. Business continuity planning (BCP) is a plan that identifies an organization’s risk of exposure to potential threats thus brings together fixed and current assets to provide adequate prevention methods and recovery for the organization, still maintaining value system integrity and its competitive advantage according to Lemberger & Morel (2012). Precisely, risk management and disaster management is vital during business continuity planning. 

Business continuity planning phases

In earlier years, a BCP would only protect the data, but that has changed lately because the process includes recovering from the threat, continuation of operations, and preservation of the whole business operations. Therefore, it is supposed to cover the contingency plans that aim at securing every resource of the ANZ bank. In recent years, the bank has taken substantial investment risks to innovate new products and improve on the existing ones. BCP has five continuity faces that include project management and initiation, business impact analysis (BIA), recovery strategies, plan design and development, testing, maintenance, awareness, and training. 

Project management and initiation phase

This phase includes risk analysis where it is easy to determine a possible risk, how it will happen, impacts of the risk, and measures that can be used to avoid the from affecting ANZ bank operations. It also advocates for getting the management support, the establishment of a fully functional BCP team, and creation of a work plan with an initial report to the management hence obtain the management’s approval to commence. This phase describes the identification of risk and the measures that should be followed to ensure the continuity of the bank’s business operations (Felker, Jomo & Rasiah, 2013).

Business impact analysis 

In this phase, the formal agreement with the top management is carried out for each time crucial business report. Business impact analysis is necessary when deciding the maximum town outage. It explains the quantity loss incurred because of the incurred cost of recovery without having an estimate of possible kinds of threats since it only considers the consequences.

In this face, the business experts in the organization should identify information-gathering methods necessary, for instance, interviews, questionnaires, or software tools. Selection of interviewees, customization of inquiries, information analysis, and identification of business functions that are time critical, is done in this phase of business continuity planning.

Recovery phase

In this phase, the development of recovery strategies is based on predefined MTDs and management approval. Therefore, this phased strategy addresses the recovery of business operations. This is the necessary steps that should be followed to resume the regular business operations and the facilities and supplies required for the same. It also puts into consideration the customers as well as the workers who critically oversee the entire process, network, and technical recovery of information, including backups.

Business continuity process development phase

In this phase, the ANZ bank should formulate a detailed business and service plan for data recovery. This helps in the maintenance plan whereby the management has to develop an idea on how to keep the BCP development updated. This can be done by the creation of awareness strategies and training of members of staff on how to effectively implement the plan. The sample of the project is classified into the initial disaster response, resuming dangerous and non-serious business operations after the disaster, restoration of the system to the leading site and interaction with external forces that have a direct or indirect influence to the organization. 

The final phase

The final phase is a dynamic process that involves the testing, maintenance, and training of the business continuity planning strategy. Support, in this case, means fixing the issues discovered during testing. Therefore, it should involve the implementation of change management, auditing and addressing the findings of audit hence a critical annual review of the plan to check how consistent and effective it is. Since training is an ongoing process that never ends, it is, therefore, necessary to make it part of the corporate culture and standards.

The ethical and legal implications of information systems 

Information systems have brought an enormous impact on the daily operations of the ANZ bank through the development of new technology with unique features and designs. Ethics refers to the acceptable principles necessary in governing an individual or a group of people. Introduction of these new technological changes can have a considerable influence on the human character by giving humans the privileges and capabilities that were not initially there. For example, digital technology has given humans the power to compile data from different sources to create a person’s profile that was very hard in the past years (Iannone, 2017).

Every member of the Association for Computing (ACM) is expected to portray ethical professional behavior. This code identifies 24 formulated imperatives such as commitment, and most of the issues likely to be faced by professionals. 

According to ACM’s code of organizational ethics, every member of staff is required to use their computer software and system. This means that every employee must have an appropriate login credential before making use of system resources like file space, communication ports, among others.

Implementation of systems that intentionally demean and distress individuals or groups is unethical and unacceptable. Organizations should adopt a familiar and easy to use IS that does not adherently demean other people.

The top management of an organization in charge of computer systems should take responsibility for ensuring that the system does not degrade, but enhance the work of an employee or user of the system for that matter. Personal and professional development, physical safety, and dignity of employees should be put into consideration during the implementation of a computer system. Therefore, appropriate and acceptable human-computer relations should be highly considered during system designing as well as in the work area. 

Advantages of the ethical and legal implications of information systems 

A major significance of creating a code of ethics that is acceptable is the clarification it brings out about the acceptable behavior and standards for a particular group of professionals. The variety of experiences and diversified backgrounds of the members of a group brings about diversified ideologies in regards to ethical standards. At the workplace, the acceptable code of ethics should be written down and shared/ communicated to the employees in a clear and precise manner (Dicks, 2017).

 These systems provide a fair and just system that functions efficiently to help motivate the worker instead of degrading them. This is a compliment of the effort, time and resources employees and the management invest in the organization.

However, a few disadvantages related to the adherence of professionals to the code of ethics. Concerning ACM, a code of ethics is a voluntary thing because and some members of staff may choose not to observe that code. If this happens at the workplace, the specific worker/ workers may face termination of their responsibilities in the organization.

Another setback is the fact that the code of ethics is not legally binding. This means that no legal authority says people who do not adhere to the law of ethics will be prosecuted since it is not a criminal offense. Therefore, violation of this code may cause harm to some people who violate the code in the case where they interact with ‘unforgiving’ persons.

Another demerit of a code of ethics is always a room that allows important matters to arise, and these matters may not necessarily be addressed in the acceptable code of ethics. For instance, technology develops very fast; hence, changes occur rapidly. Therefore, a system of ethics may not make changes as frequent as technology does; thus, it is hard to keep up with speed. 


In conclusion, managing information systems in the banking sector today is not an optional thing. IS and IT systems are an essential fragment of the daily business transactions of an ANZ bank to ensure product development, customer satisfaction hence a positive perception by every stakeholder (Blyler, 2013). The top management is obliged to ensure adequate safety on information and IT systems to safeguard the interests of the organization. Moreover, ANZ bank’s management should ensure effective communication of the code of ethics that should be observed in the workplace and in managing information systems. Therefore, every stakeholder has to ensure that acceptable business practices are adhered to for efficiency at the workplace.


Blyler, J., (2013). Software-Hardware Integration in Automotive Product Development. doi:10.4271/pt-161

Béranger, J., (2015). Ethical Modeling: From the Design to the Use of an Information System. Medical Information Systems Ethics, 45-117. doi:10.1002/9781119178224.ch2

Daim, T. U., Neshati, R., Watt, R., & Eastham, J. (2014). Technology Development: Multidimensional Review for Engineering and Technology Managers. Basingstoke, England: Springer. 

Dicks, H., (2017). Environmental Ethics and Biomimetic Ethics: Nature as Object of Ethics and Nature as Source of Ethics. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 30(2), 255-274. doi:10.1007/s10806-017-9667-6

Felker, G., Jomo, K. S., & Rasiah, R. (2013). Industrial Technology Development in Malaysia: Industry and Firm Studies. London, England: Routledge. 

Iannone, A. P. (2017). Ethics, the Environment, Environmental Ethics. Practical Environmental Ethics, 1-40. doi:10.4324/9781315127200-1

Lemberger, P., & Morel, M., (2012). Managing Complexity of Information Systems. doi:10.1002/9781118562017

Moore, G., (2017). Virtue Ethics and Organizational Ethics. Oxford Scholarship Online. doi:10.1093/oso/9780198793441.003.0003

Schirrmeister, F., (2013). Embedded Systems Hardware/Software Co-Development. Software Engineering for Embedded Systems, 33-57. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-415917-4.00002-5

Sousa, K. J., & Oz, E. (2014). Management Information Systems. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. 

Wang, H., (2014). Programming Languages for MIS. doi:10.1201/b16391

Xu, J., & Quaddus, M., (2013). Managing Infrastructure for Information Systems. Managing Information Systems, 85-107. doi:10.2991/978-94-91216-89-3_6

Zeng, H., Qiu, C., & Cui, Q. (2015). Drug-Path: a database for drug-induced pathways. Database, 2015, bav061. doi:10.1093/database/bav061

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Young Development Essay Assignment Help

Young kids encounter their world as a relationship setting, and these interactions influence nearly every element of their development — intellectual, social, mental, physical, cognitive, and moral. The quality and stabilization of a child’s personal interactions in the initial years form the basis for a broad spectrum of subsequent behavioral results that really matter – self-confidence and good mental wellbeing, incentive to study, accomplishment in college and subsequent lives, capacity to regulate violent impulses and fix disputes in non-violent respects, understanding the distinction between correct and wrong (Berscheid & Reis ,1998) In the words of renowned social psychologist Urie Bronfenbrenner, a kid needs gradually more complicated joint exercise with one or more individuals who have an unreasonable mental connection with the baby in order to grow usually. Someone has to be that child insanse about the child. It’s number one. First, last, and forever (National Scientific Council on Developing Child, 2004). 

Developmental milestones are called skills such as naming colors, displaying love, and jumping on one foot. Developmental milestones are stuff that can be done by a certain era by most kids. Children achieve milestones in playing, learning, talking, behaving, and moving (like running, running, or leaping). As kids develop into early adolescence, they start to open up their universe. They will become more autonomous and become more focused outside the household on adolescents and kids. They’re going to want to investigate and learn even more about the stuff around them. Their relationships with the community and their surroundings will assist form their character and way of thinking and transferring themselves. Kids should be prepared to run a tricycle during this phase, use security scissors, notice a distinction between women and boys, assist dress and undress, play with other kids, recall portion of a tale, and sing a song (“Child Development: Preschooler (3-5 years old) | CDC,” 2019).

Developmental surveillance is the method of tracking the growth of children over moment in order to foster good growth and detect potential issues. Standardized screeners for development have more awareness than adopting landmark-based history. Clinicians may not understand when to recognize a postponed milestone when using clinical feeling as a monitoring structure because there are behavioral achievements within an age spectrum and there is a lack of quoted percentiles on accessible published lists, which are especially difficult for the less familiar doctors ‘ behavioral and social-emotional industries. It presents a novel, five-sector milestone structure, with upper boundaries, referring to the highest amount of proof accessible. This context can also be used in learning and can assist doctors better acknowledge missing milestones to enable early detection of kids at danger for behavioral illnesses (Dosman, Andrews, & Goulden, 2012)

Given the scope of fresh evaluation interventions that have become accessible over the previous 10 years, there are drastic increases in understanding in the sector of young person mental health. In order to guide our knowledge of the course of psychopathological circumstances within a normative evolutionary structure, it is critical to perform large-scale, longitudinal, observational studies Multi-method, multi-informant evaluation methods are more crucial in early adolescence owing to the failure of young children to provide self-reporting and the integrated nature of the growth of children in their context of care. The evaluation approach presently occurs for regularly screening very young kids for social-emotional and behavioral issues as well as delays in acquiring skills in pediatric environments as well as early education programs. Nevertheless, despite the probable long-term advantages and cost-saving possibilities of early detection and intervention facilities, short-term cost and obstacles to understanding presently restrict extensive application(Carter, Briggs-Gowan, & Davis, 2004) Discussions with pediatricians indicate that the restricted accessibility of mental health consultation sources is one of the biggest obstacles to testing. Indeed, very few kids are considered by relatives to have high social-emotional and cognitive issues receive any mental health facilities (Horwitz et al., in the media). Non-referred kids in the society as well as kids receiving early intervention facilities for behavioral issues are experiencing unmet mental health requirements. The absence of mental health experts and cross-cultural validated testing tools in low-resource environments complicates the provision of mental health care. This is the situation for very young kids in particular. Nackers et al (2019) developed a cross-cultural validated, easy and quick instrument, PSYCa 6-36, which non-professionals can administer to check for psychological problems among kids aged 6 to 36 months. The PSYCa 6-36 made it possible for the researched groups to quickly screen psychological problems among kids aged 6 to 36 months. Using the instrument also improved consciousness of the psychological issues of children and the significance of early acceptance to avoid long-term effects. Further use and validation research in communities with greater incidence of psychological problems would profit the PSYCa 6-36 (Nackers et al, 2019).  Contrary to popular hypotheses, science proof demonstrates that connections continue to affect growth throughout the lifetime. At a specific point of a child’s lives, these interactions are not more essential than another, but the extent of these effects varies by age and social status (Reis et al, 2000). Young kids are mentally extremely susceptible to the negative effects of issues with maternal mental health and family abuse. One of the most widely recorded of these vulnerabilities is the adverse effect of a mother’s clinical anxiety on the mental growth, cultural awareness, and self-concept of her youthful children, impacts shown in both behavioral research and body functioning studies. Young kids growing up in severely disturbed households, particularly those who are temperamentally susceptible, are susceptible to developing mental illnesses and conducting issues (National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2008). 


Carter, A. S., Briggs-Gowan, M. J., & Davis, N. O. (2004). Assessment of young children’s social-emotional development and psychopathology: recent advances and recommendations for practice. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry45(1), 109-134. doi:10.1046/j.0021-9630.2003.00316.x

Dosman, C. F., Andrews, D., & Goulden, K. J. (2012). Evidence-based milestone ages as a framework for developmental surveillance. Paediatrics & Child Health17(10), 561-568. doi:10.1093/pch/17.10.561

Child Development: Preschooler (3-5 years old) | CDC. (2019, February 20). Retrieved from

Nackers, F., Roederer, T., Marquer, C., Ashaba, S., Maling, S., Mwanga-Amumpaire, J., … Grais, R. F. (2019). A screening tool for psychological difficulties in children aged 6 to 36 months: cross-cultural validation in Kenya, Cambodia and Uganda. BMC Pediatrics19(1). doi:10.1186/s12887-019-1461-3

Reis, H. T., Collins, W. A., & Berscheid, E. (2000). The relationship context of human behavior and development. Psychological Bulletin126(6), 844-872. doi:10.1037//0033-2909.126.6.844

Berscheid, E., & Reis, H.T. (1998). Attraction and closerelationships. In D.T. Gilbert, S.T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology, Vol. 1 (2nd Ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. (2004). Young children develop in an environment of relationships. Working Paper No. 1. Retrieved from

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. (2008). Mental health problems in early childhood can impair learning and behavior for life. Working Paper No. 6. Retrieved from

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Compensation Management Assignment Help by Assignment Hero

Prepare My Compensation Management Assignment

Compensation management is a broadly discussed part of Human Resource Management. It is tough to manage human resource of an organization. Compensation management is a very sensitive part as it deals with the payment scale and other benefits of employees who are working for an organization (Krukoff, 2006). Compensation management requires both theoretical and practical knowledge of an HR professional in order to establish justice and satisfaction among their workforce.

Students studying Human Resource Management in Australia often need to submit different human resource related essays or assignments. Most of the assignments are on pay model and compensation management. These types of assignments are too complex and difficult to complete within a short notice. Hence, students seek help from AssignmentHero to prepare their compensation management assignment help with expert’s assistance. We have team of experts who have years of professional experience in working in the field of HR Assignment Writers and settling different compensation cases from various industries.

What is Compensation Management?

Everyone expects a satisfactory compensation in return for their hard work. If you are employed with a complicated task that your employer wants you to finish within a short notice, in return he will compensate you more, you will try your best to complete the task as early as possible to meet the goals of the organization (SHARMA, 2019). Compensation refers to any kind of financial benefits or rewards that is tangible as part of your work.

Types of Compensation Management

Compensation can be of two kinds. Compensation received by people in an organization includes monetary and non-monetary compensation. Only remuneration doesn’t considered as compensation. Remuneration is a part of compensation that is given to employees for their contribution in the organization (Myers, 1989). Better compensation plan attracts and satisfies employees and stop them from switching their job. To plan a proper compensation model remuneration should be proportionate and the salary scale should be fixed accordingly.

According to our team of experts of AssignmentHero, compensation management primarily deals with two types of compensation. These are as follows:

  • Direct Compensation:

Direct compensation refers to the basic payment and health benefits. The main responsibility of an HR manager is to fix salaries and pay scales for different positions. Direct compensation ensures employee a fair compensation. This compensation plan provides an exact pay scale for every employee of an organization (Berger and Berger, 2000). AssignmentHero offers you any kind of compensation management assignments that seems critical to you.

  • Indirect compensation:

It is a proven fact that employees are not always motivated with direct remuneration, they expect appreciation too. Employees love to get recognition for their hard work. It can be job promotion, staff development, public recognition, transfer etc. If you need any of the indirect compensation management assignment help, feel free to place your assignment order at this link

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  • Bonuses
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  • Company-paid car
  • Company-paid housing
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It is not easy to understand the mind of an employee and plan a specific compensation model for that particular employee. If you want to become a Professional HR expert, you need to understand the HR theories and its practical implication in the job field. You need to understand the compensation model properly to design a modified compensation plan for the employees. Your attempts can be an effective one if you get the guidance of an expert for your compensation management assignment. You can receive a proper guidance from the team of AssignmentHero, as we provide the best online compensation management assignment help in Australia.

Significance of Compensation Management

Here we present a list to provide you a clear understanding of the significance of compensation management. The HR professionals who have knowledge on the basics of HR practices can offer you compensation management assignment help service with the perfect instructions on the subject matter. For your clear understanding about the requirements of a compensation management assignment, we have prepared a relevant list of a good compensation management assignment.

  • Our expert team of compensation management assignment help mark that the company that manages efficient compensation management gives fair return to the workers for their contributions to the organization
  • Compensation management is an important part that offers an active control on productivity of the employee and motivate them to perform better and achieve the organizational goals
  • Compensation management assignment help is concerned with correct utilization of human resource management. Compensation management can be responsible for the satisfaction of the workforce that maximizes the labor stability in the organization and confirms a stable workplace
  • Compensation management provides the opportunity to increase the job evaluation process that is responsible for setting up more realistic and achievable goals for the organization
  • Compensation management assignment help considers various labor acts included in HR services online so that there is no disputes between the employee union and the management (Armstrong and Mitchell, 2008). Hence, a peaceful relationship between employees and employer can be established
  • It helps to create equality in the workplace and establish morality among the workers for better satisfaction and cooperation
  • It enhances the advancement opportunity for every employee who deserves the chance

You can go through our assignment samples to find more online compensation management assignment help resources here

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Armstrong, S. and Mitchell, B. (2008). The essential HR handbook. Franklin Lakes, N.J.: Career Press.

Berger, L. and Berger, D. (2000). The compensation handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Krukoff, D. (2006). Compensation. Saskatoon, Sask.: Thistledown Press.

Myers, D. (1989). Compensation management. Chicago, Ill. (4025 West Peterson Avenue, Chicago 60646): Commerce Clearing House.


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Organisational Behavior and People Management Assignment Help


Wesfarmers is one of the most successful conglomerate associations, that has headquarters in Perth and the revenue generated by the company is based on the sales of chemicals, safety products and fertilisers. Wesfarmers reflect on the necessity of stakeholder engagement and look forward to alleviate the cohesiveness of the entire unit. Through this assessment, the leadership style and practices of exercising power in an organisation, that is best suited for the optimal operation of the organisation is realised and assessment  performed by addressing the important factors that are necessary to understand the effects of the leadership style to incorporate the changes.

1) “One of the leadership styles discussed in this module’s learning resources over another style when managing the highlighted project team.”

The Democratic leadership style could turn out to be quite effective in alleviating the roles prescribed by  the different individuals involved in the project team .Keeping in accordance to the organisational setup reflected by the company, Wesfarmers could really enhance on their views of engaging stakeholders and encourage its employees to be an integral part of the decision making team . This style of leadership helps in developing the interactive ambience in the workplace and help to promote creativity among the members of the project team. The different types of leadership styles such as autocratic and bureaucratic leadership style is based on the rationale of power retention and setting up  rules based on the orthodox provisions of a prescribed rule book, These forms of leadership are quite hesitant to change and does not incline to inflect on the flexibility that the leadership roles demands. Hence, the policies that are associated with these leadership styles could undermine the rationale that are described by the foundation policies of Wesfarmers .The activities performed by the project team are quite challenging and they require constant motivation. Hence, implementation of Democratic Leadership style will identify the advents of motivation the team needs and address to them accordingly.

2)” Tools and techniques discussed in the resources you might use as a PM to influence this project team.”

There are different tools that are devised to manage the project team effectively and understand the factors that help in promoting the mindset and work ethics of the project team. The combined utilisation of critical path analysis and Project Evaluation and Review Techniques can identify the fields in which work needs to be done and influence the team in the right prospects. Critical path analysis incorporates transparent communication aspect and leads to effective management of the project team.  It will further improve the transparency reflected by the communication made by the stakeholders through the means of employee surveys, recording data provided by the whistleblower and evaluation of mails. As Wesfarmers maintains a reputation in their line of business and comes good on delivering products to the customers, time management is one of the key aspects that need to be highlighted to maintain their current reputation in the market. These tools help in addressing this particular issue and implement this in the project management policy to motivate the project team. As Wesfarmers identifies as one of the companies that produce in bulk numbers, CPA tools help in identifying the correlations between the operations occurring within the project team and improve the rate at which final products takes shape.

3) “As a project manager, what tools and techniques discussed in the resources are appropriate for managing communication outside of the project group? “

The aspect of managing communication necessarily does not incline to the members within the project team. In the event of launching a product, communication planning involves people belonging to different communities, individuals within an impact group and influential leaders outside the enterprise enclave. When the enterprise delves in the operation while launching a product that revolves around the submission of approval from the local people, communication plays a major role in making the local people realise the scopes that this product would cater to the local people. After the project is finished, communication outside the project group still continues and relays the information to the local leaders about the benefits that would be associated with the establishment of such organisation. The techniques of using formal communication plan will help the progression of Wesfarmers as they look forward to expand their enterprise. The plan incorporates the measures of targeting the right audience and identifying the appropriate leaders that relays the message appropriately to the local people and negates the chances of any uprising and undesirable circumstances. The plan also accommodates the strategy to bolster the realisation of the benefits showcased by the project and rendering it understandable to every individual representing the stakeholders.

4)” 5 types of power (as described in Shenoy Web Article) you would employ to motivate     the team members to work collaboratively, and impact the project’s success”.

5) “Developing self-managed teams for agile projects”.

Agile projects are type of a project, which meant to deal with software development and does not involve task related work; it includes mathematical iterations and coding (Kupiainen et al, 2015).

To develop a self-managed team for agile projects the team members should form a group of experts who are good in programming and coding, especially in developing softwares. Therefore, forming a self-managed team will include working individually on the projects but meet occasionally to discuss the projects status. Everyone should communicate well so that all can learn from each other.

Characteristics of the project plan to the way of development are mainly to depend and stay focused on a fix plan and work on it together, everyday updating the status of the project, trust among each other, and acknowledgement before delivering the work.

6) “ Reasons for selecting these approaches, referencing any insight you have gained from the module resources and research on your interaction with colleagues in the Module Discussions.”

In the agile projects, the way of team management is both single and integrated; as the employees will work on the project individually then together they will discuss and add more to the project. This type of projects needs experts on software development and even though they are distributed or scattered in different places they have to work together. This is the main motive of self-managed team (Cunningham, 2017).The other way where a manager adapts different ways to deviate challenges in a project is that there are different challenges faced before a project completes like miscommunication, lack of training, under provision of services and technology provided to the employees, which can create unnecessary shortcomings in the future. The ways the team should adapt are resolving issues and miscommunication, get desired training before doing the project (Heagney, 2013).

7)” As project manager, to alleviate challenges faced by your project team before those challenges grow so large that they damage the work environment or the final product. Explain why”

A company like Wesfarmers , which is located in Australia deals with coal and many industrial products ; which leads to a lot of organisational work . Without a skilled Project manager, they will not be able to handle projects and activities, which can hamper the production and management. Therefore, to reduce those, manager should 

a) Make refined and organised goals 

b) Take everyone’s opinion and then combine together to make a valid strategic plan.

c) Make charts of the customer needs make proper planning of the product launch.

d) Hire skilled employees and train them properly.

e) Providing proper information and technology to the employees so that they can work properly and solving disputes between them to reduce miscommunication.

Running a project successfully can be a tedious job because it includes many activities to process consecutively like running the whole projects and then following with the deadlines and targets, manage employees, fulfilling the requirements of the projects and many more. The challenges of the project that can cause future shortcomings are undefined targets, not understanding the details of the projects, miscommunication, lack of training to the employees, misleading of projects, unskilled employees, and dispute among employees, not keeping a risk management procedure for backups and not using appropriate technology to work on the project (Martinelli and Milosevic, 2016)


The assessment is being performed on the different aspects of the leadership style and management of power among the project team to better facilitate them as a cohesive unit to help alleviate the operations involved in a project. The effect of power management within the team helps in stabilising the communication between the different individuals of a project team and with the project managers. Coercive use of power would be neglected as this could bring down the motivational aspect within the group. The use of Democratic Leadership Style could really benefit the Wes Farmers project team.

Reference list

Cunningham, I., 2017. The wisdom of strategic learning: The self managed learning solution. Routledge.

Giltinane, C.L., 2013. Leadership styles and theories. Nursing Standard27(41).

Heagney, J., 2016. Fundamentals of project management. Amacom.

Kerzner, H. and Kerzner, H.R., 2017. Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.

Kupiainen, E., Mäntylä, M.V. and Itkonen, J., 2015. Using metrics in Agile and Lean Software Development–A systematic literature review of industrial studies. Information and Software Technology62, pp.143-163.

Martinelli, R.J. and Milosevic, D.Z., 2016. Project management toolbox: tools and techniques for the practicing project manager. John Wiley & Sons.

Nanjundeswaraswamy, T.S. and Swamy, D.R., 2014. Leadership styles. Advances in management7(2), p.57.

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Team Process Design Case Study


The team is composed more than two or three members and work in a common purpose to achieve combined in the same contribution or effort. In this paper of study, the case of Crater Lakes Caravan and Camping Park provides a nice teamwork and this is basically constituted to run the business within a process which uses some model to run it properly. The case solution will be the prime motto of this paper which ensures the uses of various process and model. The performances are also measured as per the given criteria of the team maker or it may be in the process of organizational context. It may linkup between the elements to get the things done in one specific model. The team is such an element which might work in both the favor and in favour of the organization (Belloc, 2015).

A Report


Team Process Design

Executive summary: Business process management always works with the continuous improvement of a set of established strategies or process for a specific purpose in which all of the elements and models are applied. In this paper, the aim is to present the categorization model which facilitates the business process at a greater extent.


The specific guidelines are always provided to make the proper use of a model whether it focuses on the organization or in person or not in any kind of indirect business process. The business process management is set in the organization and found the best approaches to get rid of the system to be more allocative in the all elements in the organization.

a) Provide a description and application of a process categorization model (e.g. Porter or Earl).

Process categorization: In a business process, the identification of the main or key focuses are available in to a process categorization the process. The system of business process is basically viewed from the different process perspectives. This process categorization also helps to get the idea for developing a business model or process. 

In our case study of Crater Lakes Caravan and Camping Park there is also the following of the process categorization in which the business is divided and guided the operations as well.

Michael Porter’s Value Chain model: This is basically the most important tool for the use of the business process. This model helps a business to identify the core and support activities in which the each task is described in a specific manner. The value addition factors are also included here in the case of Porter’s model and it also tells the business in which way it should perform its actions to gain the better results. 

Application of the model: Porter’s value chain analysis for a business can be considered as a process which can be categorically used in a model. This can be described as follows:

Identification of sub-activities for each primary activity: Every primary activity in a model can be categorized or classed into various subclasses namely the direct, indirect activities of the organisation or a business particularly. Crater Lakes Caravan and Camping Park finds the path or way by dividing activities into various categorises which helps the business to make performance better in each activity.


Figure 01: Porter’s value chain model

Identification of sub-activities for each support activity: The sub activities like the admission of students in a university or in our case the Crater Lakes Caravan and Camping Park makes the activities more concrete by implementing the all levels of employees into the support system. The support activity is also seen in the case of Crater Lakes Caravan and Camping Park because the categorical employees are engaged to perform assigned jobs within time bound.

Identification of links: The identification of links basically indicate the finding of special items which add the additional value to the organization and for this reason the implantation of actions are needed to set up the links properly to collect or to get assistance from them is a must (Bluck, 2016). Crater Lakes Caravan and Camping Park and its employees also finds links of making contract of each step and perform their actions accordingly. For example, Crater Lakes Caravan and Camping Park’s staffs use direction map to show the campers a better way with amenable facilities which create link of business function.

Looking for opportunities: The process categorization mainly gives emphasis to provide the more focus on the opportunities the company ahead face. Crater Lakes Caravan and Camping Park creates the services by the innovative way in which it concludes that they are searching for the opportunities to expand the business.

b) Provide a description and application of the Capability Maturity Model (CMM). 

Capability Maturity Model: CMM or especially known the Capability Maturity Model which was developed by the Software Engineering Institute for the purpose of use to the Department of Defense in the USA. By the name, it can be clear that CMM is nothing but a use of developing and refining the organization’s software process. CMM is also a structured framework in which there is clear instruction to improve and to develop a business product and the software and hardware. This model is described a matured model as there are five important elements which are deemed to be more proactive for the development of a business process. The five elements or steps are specifically initial, repeatable, defined, managed, optimizing.

Application of the CMM:  The application of this model is as follows:

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Figure 02: The five level of software Process Maturity

Initial: Crater Lakes Caravan and Camping Park a famous and successful accommodation facilities provide in which it can be seen that there the process was disorganized at first at its initial level which can be modified or redefined later. Because the success mainly depends on the everyone’s effort not on the individual.

Repeatable: In this case, Crater Lakes Caravan and Camping Park use the project management techniques and the success they gain mainly be repeated later in which the application of process due to the requisition of the previously defined process.

Defined: Development of the software process by making the proper documentation, integration is completed in the case of Crater Lakes Caravan and Camping Park in which there all the activities are facilitated by the software they design and keep the proper documentation for further use.

Managed: In this level, everything is stable as it has already been fixed the process required a system. Crater Lakes Caravan and Camping Park itself control, monitor for the data collection process from the documents they use and storage of data also (Margerison, 2016).

Optimizing: Processes are continuously monitored and observed and is measured the optimum level the company can reach with successful starting through the ongoing process but it also needs continuous improvement. Innovation is required much in this case of Crater Lakes Caravan and Camping Park.

c) Apply Dijkman et al’s (2011) technique discussed in lectures to prepare a case function matrix and identify all associated processes. 

A case function matrix is basically designed to present the business functions in a proper and authentic way which reveals the process for a specific function on in a matrix. The other associated process is also interrelated with the case function matrix. 

The five specific functions are identified in the case of preparing the matrix in which the case function matrix is one type which may be designed and applied in our case as such the followings are:

Identification of case types: 

The case types refer that the organization actually uses the types to solve a specific case in that organization. In this case of Crater Lakes Caravan and Camping Park, it follows mainly the types which are mentioned namely the product type, service type, channel and customer type. 

Case types: 

  1. Service type: Accommodations options, innovated holiday cabins.
  2. Customer type: Campers with short term and long term tenure, visitors, tourists.

Business functions:

  • Signing the register
  • Checking the driver’s licence
  • Providing the map
  • Explaining the map by staffs
  • Providing the list of various facilites the campers may take.
  • Providing a swipe key 
  • Cleaning the toilet shower
  • Laundry facilities
  • Checking by the park security gurads
  • Recreation and lisure facilities
  • Collection of fees

Preparing the function matrix: This is as follows:

    AccommodationsAnd cabins Leisure and recreation 
Business Functions   Farm Domestic Farm Domestic 
Signing the register Details of the drivers     
  Current driver’s license    
Providing the map 
 camping sites
 Cabins and laundry 
  Shower blocks     
Recreation and leisure 
 BBQ facilities
 swimming pool, mini-golf, tennis courts, 
Fees payment Account payment 
  Discounts approval 
  Concessions approval     

Figure 03: Case function matrix

d) Using appropriate software, model any two (2) of the processes identified in part (c). 

The identified process is basically interrelated with the example given for the 

 Crater Lakes Caravan and Camping Park in this report. There may be identified the two models for the approaches which are as follows:

Crater Lakes Caravan and Camping Park

Accommodation [Process 1]

Crater Lakes Caravan and Camping Park

Recreation process [Process 2]

e) Provide an explanation of how each of the models created in part (d), adhere to Mendling et al’s (2010) 7PMG guidelines discussed in the weekly lecture. 

Explanation of each model that how the models are created is given below:

7PGM discussion for: [Accommodation Process] at Crater Lakes Caravan and Camping Park.

  • The model includes the smaller part of the elements because then the organization must have to avoid the difficulty which can be faced with a larger volume of elements.
  • To make the model easier and easily understandable, the &PMG guideline’s have to be followed with the Accommodation Process model namely only the campers and their tenures are selected.
  • The event has been taken as per the start and end point specifically the tenure criteria and cost of the cabins as per the size and number of people.
  • The model is structured as guided by the &PMG and the Accommodation model process competes in a systematic and structured way which ensure the selection procedure and meeting all criteria easier.

7PGM discussion for: [Recreation Process] at Crater Lakes Caravan and Camping Park

  • Recreation process is completed with the guideline of 7PMG as it is observed that the guideline number 1 is completed with the taking only a smaller portion of elements in the model structure. This has been possible by the calculation of meeting criteria with all elements are interrelated (Swift, 2014).
  • The ambiguities are removed in this Recreation model because it is too much clear that the criteria for admitting into the Crater Lakes Caravan and Camping Park are transparent which never make any ambiguity among the parties in the organization. So it has automatically erased the OR and XOR process in their process model. 

f) Consider each model produced in part (d), calculate the process cycle time for each of the two (2) processes modeled. Any assumptions made should be documented in the report. 

Cycle time for: [Accommodation Process]

The Accommodation process model basically is placed for the model establishment as per the guidance provided by the 7PMG and it indicates that the model is gone through a specific time cycle which is calculable in a systematic way and it indicates also the proper structured of this model.

The first phase of checking the registration from the campers will be taken within 20 minutes. This evaluation will go for the next 30 minutes and will be scrutinized as well. In this case, the extra 25 minutes will be needed to measure the criteria they want to stay based on the tenure and size of the rooms and at last, this will be bargained. So the time cycle takes less time in this way comparatively and it indicates the model efficiency in a better manner.

The management of the program will follow the process cycle time to measure each result of each step of the process which is out of count to the whole process as it is outside of the control of the process and needs to be measured with much time.

Cycle time for: [Recreation Process]

The campers who are less time consuming and wants to stay at short time have the best package in which the costs are also less and the campers get in well. The making of category takes the 20 minutes to end of the process and at last they are taken to the special care as the payments are moderate in this case. 

Specifically, the team manager takes 30 minutes to make their list about the incapable or out of the listed campers. Then the manager takes 50 minutes time to make contact with the campers of the park and they are admitted into there (Desel, 2014).

g) Use redesign techniques by Reijers and Mansar (2005) discussed in lectures, to identify any two (2) design flaws in the as-is models created in part (d). Use heuristics and any appropriate product-based design approaches and display the impact of any heuristic measures on the Devil’s Quadrangle. Any assumptions made should be documented in the report. 

Redesign for: [Accommodation Process]

Framework elements: The elements are to be redesigned as the flaw is seen here that is the elements are few in numbers comparatively. The elements are number of campers and the tenure they want to stay are to be introduced with the other criteria like the previous results may have or having any special courses in their curriculum list which will be exempted.

Rule name: Criteria addition to the elements perfectness. 

Impact on BP: The organization will be able to make the flawless decisions regarding taking the best profits from the campers of different types in their park which will ensure their quality and profits accordingly.

Limits: Specified

Techniques to use Guideline provided by the team manager.

Tool availability: Not available 

Redesign for: [Recreation Process]

Framework elements: The elements will not be changed rather it will be taken as much care to give priority the next levels after fulfilling the first level.

Rule name: Materiality 

Impact on BP:  The organization will be positively benefitted as the elements are modified by its characteristics and the qualities they have to lead a successful completion of a successful project. The organization will use the model after redesigning in a concrete way which provides the gist of the report materiality in the associated business process.

 Limits: Specified

Techniques to use: Guided by various team leaders.

Tool availability: Available.


h) Select one of the models created in part (d) for automation. Apply the five (5) step method to transform the model into an executable form. 

Automation basically provides the facility of any model in which the users basically himself or herself get the services in a customized way in which all functions are integrated into a single unit that let the user use in an accessible way.

Five step method to transform the model Accommodation process: This is as follows:

Completing a current state assessment: The model needs to be modified just after adding some adjustments like the description of the current condition of each of the components included in the model which will make the path of transformation easier.

Establishing an organizational strategy: The next step of the method is all about the making a plan and strategy to be implemented later in the action. The strategy includes the elements need to be addressed which are brought under consideration for making the transformation (Montgomery, 2012).

Developing the change management plan: The change management plan has contained various models which are to be used by the transformation process.

Design the future state and making a plan: The implementation finally will be conducted at this phase by keeping in mind the analysis of the future state of the organization.

Implement transformation: The last stage will be the implementation of transformation of the components into the newly developed plan or model which will ensure the continuous improvement of the plan or strategy.

Conclusion: The process of any kind may be in the unsystematic but it will not bring the fruitful results to the business organization. That is why all of the components are ordered in the systematic measurement or it can be applied into different models to be introduced with the components which are needed to make the model its proper use within the structure.


The organization and the business process management are interrelated issues which contain the information of using the model to make the proper use so that the organization can achieve the best result from using any specific model which will be used in future in the case of making team and team performance as well (Slack, 2018). The report reveals the use of the model and its proper use into the business organization and the redesign approaches are also revealed which ensure the concrete situation of the model into the organization.


Belloc, H. (2015). On. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press.

Bluck, R. (2016). Team management. London: Library Association Publishing.

Chambers, D. (2013). Coaching. Richmond Hill, Ont.: Firefly Books.

Margerison, C. and McCann, D. (2016). Team management. Chalford: Management Books 2000.

Richman, L. (2012). Project management step-by-step. New York: Amacom.

Swift, A. (2014). Bridge team management. London: Nautical Institute.

Tracy, B. (2014). Management. New York, NY: AMACOM.

Das, M., Deb, M. and Wilkins, M. (2012). Oracle Business Process Management Suite 11g handbook. New York: Oracle Press/McGraw-Hill.

Desel, J., Pernici, B. and Weske, M. (2014). Business process management. Berlin: Springer.

Harrington, H. (2016). Process management excellence. Chico, Calif.: Paton Press LLC.

Hyötyläinen, T. (2015). Steps to Improved Firm Performance with Business Process Management. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.

Montgomery, T. (2012). Process Management. New Delhi: World Technologies.

Riley, J. (2011). Process management. New York: McGraw-Hill/Professional.

Slack, N. and Brandon-Jones, A. (2018). Operations and process management. United Kingdom: Pearson Education Limited.

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An essay on supply chain management of Cruise International Inc.

Supply chain management is a challenge and industries are constantly responding to the present and changing demands. The essay is going to present the pressure or load on service organization like cruise international Inc. to adopt new supply chain management. Today’s customer indicates more on excellent customer services, different varieties, high quality, lowest price, and quick delivery. To succeed in the challenging market, service organizations are trying best to meet consumers in an effective manner. There is an increasing number of passenger that is above 39.6 billion according to data presented CII statistic. CII is seeking the techniques of supply chain management in maintaining an assured and adequate supply of entertainment equipment, mechanical equipment, food product, retail merchandise to maintain business to have a competitive advantage. CII expects they can meet their ultimate expectation on their ship or out of the ship by giving thrilling amusement and for that, they are seeking supply chain management. CII not only keep in mind the satisfaction of customer but also a partnership with suppliers and purchase procurement (Burf, 2009).

Christopher (2016) indicated supply chain management is a process of integration that manages product, information, the point of consumption and cash flows with maximization of consumer satisfaction and minimization of organization’s total cost. Supply chain management generally involves suppliers, manufacturers, retailers, consumers, service providers, and distributors. From fast few years it has been noticed competition among service organizations (cruise companies) are increasing due to horizontal differentiation and variety of offerings. In CII context, four dimensions for competition in the company include the quality of service, the time of cruise, booking process and the itinerary. Though focusing investment and effort on supply chain management is not crucial to maintaining heavy standards, these maintain balance to address supply chain management, achieve the right balance between efficiency and speed (Compton et al., 2005). 

Supply chain management involves a series of processes and activities that are efficient like doing it in the first right for meeting the requirements of the customer. From the overview of supply chain management’s seven rights, it can be portrayed as ability that guarantees the ordered products and services are placed in the right amount, to the right place, at the right cost, at the right time and with the right quality (de Menezes, Wood, and Gelade, 2010). Supply chain management is defined as two or more companies are directly connected by downstream and upstream flows of services, products, information, and finances. Supply chain management concept for Cruise Company outlines fulfillment of seven rights including accomplishing perfect order, confirming availability of preferred product, processing order correctly, shipping order, advanced shipping notification with tracking number, delivering complete order without damage and on time and billing correctly. CII’s interest to supply chain management has a mission that can be addressed as expanding clients deal with decreasing working cost and inventory (Rudzki and Trent, 2011). CII emphasizes more on manufacturing plant at first that is part of where the company can minimize working and inventory cost. CII’s need for effective flows of supply chain management and in there company and supplier have a vested interest in cash flow and financial flow. The more concepts are seven principles of supply chain management that covers supply chain initiatives and strategies. The seven principles are segmenting customer according to service needs, customizing logistics network, listening market signals, differentiating product, managing sources of supply management, developing supply chain-wide technology and adopting the channel-spanning status measure. 

Applications of supply chain management are adapted in CII along with concepts to design business strategy as SCM is regarded as a bank of organizations to reduce inventory costs and delivery costs. This organization found satisfactory results from the application of supply chain management that why it relay ob the principles of supply chain management. CII could use the form or application of SCM in such areas like fuel supply, food supply, port services, consumable supply, and warehousing near harbors and entertainment so that client gets best experiences from the services. CII realized they need to provide the accommodation service and the service can be provided to the customer by application of supply chain management (Harrison, Lee, and Neale, 2005). For this service management, CII use other business like partnering with a hotel company to provide accommodation service to a customer that can be pointed to as supply chain management. Again ticket selling service can be provided to the customer by building a partnership with tourist and travel agencies. Today financial and insurance service can be provided with making a chain with suppliers and these services can be provided from CII by building a chain relationship with tourist and travel agencies. Same to these applications, services including cruise maintenance, technical repairs, and cruse’s electronic equipment, maintaining cruise, machinery maintenance, lubricant, information technologies, and internet can be settled with another business which companies are specialized in these factors. But there have another objective or mission of CII’s supply chain management are allocating service responsibility to specialized business organizations so that customer can get a better experience to stay on the cruise. The supply chain management is the core of business especially to reduce operation cost. 

Human resource management is a part to have success in the service industry to get employee loyalty and satisfaction. Personnel training and staffing are important for any service organization and here CII to make concentration on customer’s demand. As the human resource is an asset to the organization, a strong human management will help create customer experience for that training is needed there. Training positively impacts on employee’s productivity with resulting high employee satisfaction. Employee management through training creates opportunities for employees to broaden skills and knowledge so that employees can achieve development and individual growth by engaging in efficient teamwork (Schniederjans and Olson, 1999). In cruise service organizations, the employee received training have a higher level of satisfaction and development of competencies as training programmes assist to improve skills, employee commitment, loyalty, and professionalism. CII found human resource management is needed for managing employees on the ship and in multiple harbors. All applications of supply chain management in CII require the collaboration of partners through building supply chain and improving trust. The great collaboration system increases flexibility for CII to supply product or service to remove serious problems from the operation. CII is waiting for a big change in business operation. 

Partnership with suppliers by CII is referred as a core operation of supply chain management needs for the company to serve best services to clients. Today business world completes most of the task through outsourcing. Outsourcing is the best method to minimize the production cost and customer service cost though outsource is the organization’s noncore function. In partnering with suppliers, the first task for CII is to identify the partners those can provide the services at the perfect time, in a specific location and with quality (Kildow, 2011). CII should assess the strategy of partnership with suppliers as a long-term strategy because partners in the supply chain need to be easy and flexible to business. Short term goal and relationship do not carry any significance for business organization and in here these are also important for CII to make sure that its customer is getting all services in right time, at the right place and with the right quality. The returns from the supply chain management operation are closely related to reward and here CII must ensure that its supply chain and operation are aligned with the reward structure.  Reward system and return system can be measured with building policy, contract and procedure between supply chain partners that encourage suppliers to encourage delivering the better services. 

Supplier’s practices and policies must be agreed and aligned with applicable regulations and laws including freedom of association, benefits and wage, working hours, aggregate haggling, child labor, forced labor, ecological practices, and wellbeing and security. Another advantage of partnering with suppliers is being socialization in where business relation and decision are influenced by social events to establish a right condition in contract and transparency on pricing as well as in providing services to the customer (Drake, 2012). 

Supply chain partnership provides CII strategic factors to extend strong business operation and improve the extensive delivery at lower or expected cost in just in time. Just-in-time is a big operational activity in supply chain management in where the organization can provide services without physical presence whenever customer demands from any location. Some issues in business operation provide more importance to supply chain partnership and the issues are solving the joint problem, information sharing, compensation sharing, decreasing in operating costs, decreasing in coordination, providing financial risk and non-financial risk. The issues are dealing in supply chain management partnership to have a quick reaction to customer and market needs. The important thing for CII is the business is going to utilize the synergy power that will make business success and provide greater output (Gunasekaran, 2007). 

Harris, Harris, and Streeter (2011) indicated the benefits of supply chain partnership are noticed in an organization like financial performance. With an example is strategic supply chain partnership between manufacturers and suppliers to have earmarked performance and competitive advantage. The collaboration of CII and partners will carry significant growth in organizational profits as these strategies avoid adversarial working environment and relationship. There evaluating processes, system, inventories, equipment utilization and cost of methodologies are reducing the expense of enhancing management and operation in exploring partnership opportunities and quality of operation. CII already has received some benefits in accessing new markets and enabling its growth in the geometric rate that becomes more praiseworthy for CII. Other benefits of CII are accessibility to tools and resources, modern technologies and effective training to be productive business organization through the expertise of supply chain management. Hope that CII can place advantageous payment schedules and terms, larger orders, fuel growth and more booking of customers without extra investment (Ke, 2012). 

Another important issue for CII that it faces a conflict of ethical issues or interests in purchasing function as in supply chain CII is a part of another company or supply chain partner of another company (Mentzer, 2001).  Becoming partners in the supply chain can raise conflicts from extending business courtesies, arising from external contracts, affiliations with the non-profitable organization and involving in political, professional, academic and private interest.  Private interests from business organization create more conflicts of ethical issues in the form of investment, partnership, board membership, and shareholding. 

Utilizing an unethical way of cultivating of the position of supply chain partners like impelling someone to give undue advantages to them raise conflicts. Another one is potential conflicts emerge from the budgetary connection, business, and family. In the situations, a business expert or supply chain management expert must follow the codes and principles of corporate governance to maintain a safe and strategic relationship with suppliers so that conflicts cannot arise (Wilkins, 2012). To avoid such types of conflict CII must introduce or cover some areas like employer policies, conflict of interest, entertainment, gratuities, gifts, product samples, political matters, market power, the specification of standards and advertising (Corporate governance of non-listed companies in emerging markets, 2006). 

CII seeks to improve supply chain management with a variety of products on the ship and on land ship services by following the strategy of building a supply chain partnership. Supply chain partnership in CII will increase more strength to reduce total operating cost and improve service quality. CII faces some conflicts of interest and ethical issues and there policy and standard of supply chain management should be followed to minimize the effect. CII must be effective in utilizing the tools of supply chain management in operation and delivering services to the customer. 


Burf, D. (2009). World-class supply management. [Place of publication not identified]: Mcgraw-Hill Education.

Christopher, M. (2016). Logistics and supply chain management. Harlow (England): Pearson.

Compton, W., Fanjiang, G., Grossman, J. and Reid, P. (2005). Building a better delivery system. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.

Corporate governance of non-listed companies in emerging markets. (2006). Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

de Menezes, L.M., Wood, S. and Gelade, G., 2010. The integration of human resource and operation management practices and its link with performance: A longitudinal latent class study. Journal of Operations Management, 28(6), pp.455-471.

Drake, M. (2012). Global supply chain management. [New York, N.Y.] (222 East 46th Street, New York, NY 10017): Business Expert Press.

Gunasekaran, A. (2007). Build-to-order supply chain management. [Bradford, England]: Emerald.

Harris, C., Harris, R., and Streeter, C. (2011). Lean supplier development. New York, N.Y.: Productivity Press.

Harrison, T., Lee, H. and Neale, J. (2005). The practice of supply chain management. New York: Springer.

Ke, Y. (2012). Coordinating the optimal discount schedules of supplier and carrier. Waterloo, Ont.: University of Waterloo.

Kildow, B. (2011). A supply chain management guide to business continuity. New York: American Management Association.

Mentzer, J. (2001). Supply chain management. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Rudzki, R. and Trent, R. (2011). Next level supply management excellence. Ft. Lauderdale, Fla.: J. Ross Pub.

 Schniederjans, M. and Olson, J. (1999). Advanced topics in just-in-time management. Westport, Conn.: Quorum Books.

Wilkins, G. (2012). Conflict of Interest. Silhouette Special Edition.

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Project Management Assignment Help

We all know that the field of business is very practical and every business student especially the management students are familiar with the course named Project Management. Project management is both an interesting and challenging course you may ever face. Project management is a set of tasks that starts with initiation and ends with the success of the task. A limited time-frame is the main constraint for a project management assignment. 

As the subject is quite difficultmost of the students cannot grab the subject and fail to compose a good quality assignment paper. There are a lot of reasons, one of the main reasons is detecting the time frame for the project completion. Students mostly do not understand the requirements of the assignment and how to start or finish the assignment. At that point students need project management assignment help to get rid of this difficulty. Isn’t it! This is why you are here, to share your burdens with us and get relieved. 

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We offer you assignments done by our team of experts. Only the toppers with Masters and PhD holders are included in our professional team who can solve your assignment problems very skillfully. You just need to tell us, “I want my project management assignment to be done by you” and after that your assignment becomes our responsibility. We’ll deliver you a top quality assignment just on time. 

Benefits of choosing AssignmentHero as your Project Management Assignment Assistant 

We are proud of our assignment services as our customers are always happy with our services. We are here to assist you with your project management assignment using the updated information as we have access to a wide range of resources. We ensure you a quality assignment that is unique in nature and guarantee you a very good grade in your courses. 

We have experts who can assist you in your assignments at any level. We are efficient at providing assignments at high school level, college level, under-graduate level, graduate level, master’s degree level as well as PhD level. Our team of experts do the assignments on the following area: 

  • Project Planning: Project planning is important to safeguard successful project completion. First you need to identify the goals and objectives of your project. Specify all the tasks, beware of the threats, select a time-frame and set each and every tasks accordingly. AssignmentHero is here to craft and develop a project plan for you. Our experts will illustrate the implication of each and every steps and its effect to the completion of the project.
  • Project Life Cycle: Product life cycle is developed to craft a framework for any type of projects in the business. It helps to split the whole work into small segments and help to assign the task to the suitable employees. It is a very important part of project completion. The project team try to make each of the tasks effective thus the team works on its goals. We can a make a proper project life cycle for you including all facets of management.
  • Project Scheduling: Every project requires a proper scheduling in order to manage time and resources for each of the tasks. Project scheduling helps to specify the tasks that are needed to be performed earlier and the resources needed for the completion of the tasks. Our experts are able to prepare Schedule Network Analysis, Risk Multipliers, Schedule Compression, Gantt chart and many more to build a suitable project schedule for your assignment. Let’s talk about the most used tool of Project scheduling, Gantt chart.

Gantt chart is one of the common project management assignment criteria that requires the following tasks:

  • Draw a Gantt Chart and Network Diagram for your project
    • Give a proper estimation of your project
    • Forecast the resources needed for your project
    • Evaluate the effectiveness of each tasks
    • Estimate project risk and plan project risk management

The experts of AssignmentHero are able to make a Gantt Chart for you that will help you to understand the total project work, all the information and the working efficiency for a certain period. We can crack the assignment for you and provide you a sample time-frame to discuss the current model.

  • Project Development: Project development is considered as an end to end process that includes some constraints and resources. Project can be developed for the short term or for the long term. Project can be developed once in the life time or concurrently. We can arrange a project development plan that shows all the external opportunities for your project and its impact in the expansion.
  • Project Performance: Performance is measured in every level in order to evaluate the effectiveness of each level. To ensure the quality of the project the plan needs to be executed properly. AssignmentHero helps you to prepare a report on project performance and effectiveness using all the performance measuring tools.

Why do you need our Project Management Assignment Help?

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Explanation of HACCP Plan Assignment Help

Explanation of HACCP Plan

HACCP is a analytical system of defining the hazards and control point through which it can be defined the process of the maintenance control of hazardous foods those are at potential critical points of control for the preparation of food and processing. Generally it is a plan that ensures the quality of food so that the consumers of these foods are safe from getting sick. A process that controls any possible hazard with analysis and control is one of the critical points that could affect the health of the consumers in food processing. In HACCP plan the most crucial part is critical control point. It is a step that controls the limit of food quality. This step determines the highest and the lowest value of biological, chemical or physical parameter that might cause hazard in the safety of potential food. This plan explains the complete safety process of food considering the health issue of its consumers. This plan is required to provide highly classified service for potential food hazard. These plans need to be approved after submitting to the department of health before starting the food service. This is a plan usually organisations who provide food product or create foods for sale needs to create this plan and approve this from the department of health before serving the food to the consumers. The health issues of the consumers are always precious for any business organisation because it may cause the organisation being shut.

Necessity of HACCP Plan

HACCP is a management system for food safety. This plan is recognized internationally as a system for diminishing the threat of safety hazard in any potential food that includes the analysis as well as control of different hazards create form the production of raw materials, handling the food, procurement etc. It also spans the area of food distributions, manufacturing as well as consumption of the food product those finished manufacturing process. Authoritarian agencies are occupied with HACCP that also conclude the USDA, FDA, along with numerous agencies of state. International business organizations are also sponsoring HACCP, as example Codex as well as ISO. At the same time as HACCP is proposed to decrease the risk of hazardous food products, which could also gain the advantage of guiding to enhanced quality of food product.

Initial steps in mounting a plan of HACCP are:

  • Congregate the team for HACCP, which might include a person in the team who have completed the HACCP-training.
  • Portray the food as well as the method of the production along with the distribution of that potential food product.
  • Build up and authenticate the diagram of process flow
  • Determine if the products could be parted in group by using the categories of procedure or not.

For a lucrative program of HACCP for being properly put into practice, the management might be entrusted to the approach of HACCP. This also largely depends on the verification activities of regularly schedule. The plan of HACCP might be rationalized and amended as required. An essential feature of preserving the system of HACCP for assuring the involved individuals are by the book qualified so they can comprehend their responsibility and could efficiently carry out their farm duties.

Legislation and Regulations for the food safety plan

Food safety laws and regulations: The Food Act 1984

The authoritarian and legislative apparatus to make certain food safety that includes the rules below:

  • The Food Act 1984 is one of the vital legislation that manages the selling of food in any business organization
  • Regional councils as well as the Division of the Act of Services administer of Health & Human. Underneath the Act, the owners of food business are responsible with authorization for making that food sold certain to consumers is safe as well as proper to eat.
  • The rationale of this Act is for ensuring that sale of the food for both safe as well as proper for human ingestion.
  • It set out the offences for contravene of the laws of food as well as the applicable punishment and resistance.
  • The process in the course of which the code of Food Standards in Australia is functional as law
  • Ascertaining food assertion system of categorization as well as the powers enforcement, consist of emergency powers as there are threats that is instantaneous to the health of public
  • Ascertaining the means in the course of the register of urban council of food commerce as distinct by this Act.

Outline the procedures to take for handling, storing, preparing, cooking and serving food for public

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The process of providing the information to new employees

There are many ways to provide information to the employees who are working in any organisation. First of all, the employees need to be informed about any new change as well as the regulations. There could be many ways to inform the employees about any information. Official meeting, employee training, notice board, regulation leaflet, instructions from seniors etc. the voice through which the organisation can spread the news or the new information to their new employees. Considering the other ways of providing information employee training is the most efficient method.

Information for the new employees

According to the HACCP plan, new employees should acknowledge the related information about handling food, hygiene issue, preparing food, washing dishes, serving manner, following rules, food safety regulation, cooking, washing hands etc. issues. The employees should be informed about all this issues related to food safety to avoid hazard and any critical situation for any particular food product. Following these the plan of HACCP can be handled successfully. All the information is needed to be informed to the new employees to make the fact sure to that they know their duty very well about what to do and what not to do.


  1. Basics for Handling Food Safely. (2018). Retrieved from
  2. Brand, S. (2018). The Importance of an HACCP Plan for Food Manufacturers. Retrieved from
  3. HACCP Principles & Application Guidelines. (2018). Retrieved from
  4. Regulations and standards in food safety | Rentokil. (2018). Retrieved from
  5. Safe Food Handling. (2018). Retrieved from
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Porter’s Five Forces analysis Of Cleveland Clinic

Porter’s Five Forces analysis Of Cleveland Clinic


One of the most popular and widely used tool for analyzing the competition of a business, its rivalry and the hostile environment around business is Porter’s five forces model. In this model, there are five key factors that are considered while analyzing a business’s strengths, weaknesses and the competition revolving around the business. These five forces are:

  1. Bargaining Power of suppliers
  2. Bargaining power of buyers
  3. Threat of New Entrants
  4. Threat of Substitutes
  5. Current Rivalry

Image result for porters five forces model


Cleveland Clinic was one of the nation’s first multi-specialty clinic which was founded in 1921 by 4 physician with an aim to provide outstanding patient care and show compassion and innovation. In this case the long operational facts from 1921 to 2015 are showcased. Cleveland Clinic is a pioneer in the health and care industry. It has expanded its operation to give service to a variety of regions. It also expanded its operation to some other countries such as Abu Dhabi, Canada etc. After interpreting the activities of Cleveland Clinic, we will analyze it using the porters five forces model to identify its potential threats and competitions.

Cleveland Clinic’s Porters five forces model Analysis is illustrated below:

  1. Bargaining Power of suppliers: The bargaining Power of Cleveland Clinic suppliers is moderate. Among the main factors in the suppliers, we can consider the physicians and all the medical equipment as the supply for Cleveland Clinic. And in this case we have seen that Cleveland Clinic has implemented its own Information technology system. Cleveland Clinic has also set up medical education facilities in conglomerate with Ohio University’s Heritage College of Osteopathic medicine in 2015. In October 2004 Cleveland Clinic also opened the nation’s first medical school in 25 years, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, which was a huge initiative taken by the Clinic. Cleveland Clinic was pioneering at the time and IBM’s Watson computer was being educated in the medicine Lerner College. As Cleveland Clinic is largely sophisticated Medicare system, High levels of competition exists among the suppliers, thus they reduce price and it is a positive for Cleveland clinic. There are a large number of suppliers that supply product to Cleveland so it is easier for Cleveland to switch suppliers. As Cleveland buys its supplies in great volume so it reduces the bargaining power of suppliers.

  2. Bargaining Power of Consumers: The Bargaining power of the consumer is Low as Cleveland Clinic has competitive edge over Customers. The primary Consumer of Cleveland’s Service are the Patients. Cleveland Clinic provides 45% care to its counrty and 25% in the broader Ohio region. Cleveland has diversified its facilities, and created institutes too support the treatment of various patients. Dr. Cosgrove’s central message was “Patients First”; which means that Cleveland employees and physicians work relentlessly to focus on measurable quality. Range of specialties grew through clinical expansions. It started with 13 physicians in 1921 but now it had many diversified institutes comprising of thousands of physicians and nurses. Cleveland also developed state of the art technology to acquire information from patients and used own formula to track patient data. Some of the initiatives were MyCare Online, DrConnect, MyConsult, MyChart, My Practice etc. Healthcare is important, and there is a huge consumer for Cleveland clinic’s services and buyers have limited choice. That is why the bargaining power of consumer is low.

  3. Threat of New Entrants: Threat of new entrants is really low because the barriers to entry is really high. No firm can enter easily because of the sophistication of the health care industry. There is high cost of entering the industry so no other firm can enter this industry easily.

  4. Threat of Substitutes: The primary substitute to Cleveland Clinic is the University Hospitals Health system which provides almost same level or kind of services like The Clinic. The UHHS system serves patients at about 90 locations in northeastern Ohio area. It has about 2 million physician visit and 63000 patient discharge annually. Also there are six smaller health systems in northeastern Ohio area that compete with Cleveland Clinic. The threat of substitutes is still very low and The Clinic has potentiality to expand its presence in Ohio and States around it. Substitutes have low performance and their service is of inferior quality compared to Cleveland Clinic. And high cost exists (Monetary + Opportunity Cost) to switch from Cleveland and choose any of the substitutes. As Cleveland provides the most quality service. So Threat of substitutes is low.

  5. Current Rivalry: The competition is not much intense. This is because of the large industry size and Cleveland Clinic has started since 1921. The barriers to entry are high. And also Very few competitors exist. The main competitor of Cleveland Clinic is the University Hospitals Health System. There are six smaller health systems in northeastern Ohio area that also compete with the Clinic. But the rivals are not as powerful. Because Cleveland has expanded over the industry and overseas also. Cleveland has its branches in Abu Dhabi which is an Exemplary activity of Cleveland Clinic. Government legislation also limits the competition in the Health and Care industry. That is why the intensity of existing rivalry is not high.


  • Bird, T. (1990). Consumer Power. Dublin: O’Brien Press.
  • Hospitals, clinics, and health centers. (1972). Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
  • Hunnicutt, S. (2010). Universal health care. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.
  • Kronenfeld, J. (2011). Medicare. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Greenwood.
  • Meier, G. (1998). The international environment of business. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press.
  • Michaux, S., Cadiat, A. and Probert, C. (2015). Porter’s five forces. [Place of publication not identified]: 50Minutes.
  • Morris, J. (2012). Medicine, Health Care, & Ethics.
  • Porterfield, D. (2007). Health Care, Medicine, and Science. New York: Infobase Pub.
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Table of Contents

Part 1: Victorian Curriculum 1

1.1: Introduction of the Victorian Curriculum 1

1.2 Summary about the importance of Victorian Curriculum 2

1.3 Summarizing level description and achievement standard 3

Level description 3

Achievement Standard 3

Part 2: Australian Professional Standards for Teachers 4

2.1 Introduction of the Australian professional standards for teachers 4

2.2 Significance of these standards 5

Part 3: Cultural and Ethnic diversity 5

Part 4: Formative and summative assessment 6

References 7

Part 1: Victorian Curriculum

1.1: Introduction of the Victorian Curriculum

To prepare the Australian future generation with solid foundation, the Victorian government came up with the idea to introduce the new Victorian Curriculum, during late 2015 (September). This isn’t the first time the state is being responsive to the educational requirements of the future generation. The state officials have always been enthusiastic towards making innovation to the state curriculum. The summary underneath makes a clear projection of the commitment that the state showed towards continuous reformation to enhance the learning experience for the learners/students (Ambrosetti, 2014).

1995Curriculum and Standard framework was implemented for the first time across Victorian schools
2000The CSF has been republished by the name “CSF 2”, including what students must know in relation to the future
2006The CSF was substituted by “VELS” (Victorian Essential Learning Standards). The core idea was to equip learners with the fundamentals of CSF along with interdisciplinary skills.
2013The new version “AusVELS” (Australian Curriculum in Victoria) was designed and implemented.
2015Introduction of “Victorian Curriculum” that was planned to be implemented from the year 2016 and finished by the end of 2017. The core idea behind this was to equip learners with the fundamental skills that would help them throughout the life (Evans, 2014).

There are eight different learning areas of Victorian curriculum that are mentioned underneath:

Learning AreasDisciplines
ArtsDance, Drama, Media Arts, Music, Visual Arts, Visual Communication Design
Health and Physical Education
The HumanitiesCivics and Citizenship, Economics and Business, Geography History
TechnologiesDesign and TechnologiesDigital Technologies

1.2 Summary about the importance of Victorian Curriculum

The Victorian curriculum does have several learning areas that students can select from. Learning about the curriculum area at the “VCAA” official website would help children to be aware about the disciplines they are open to along with measuring the scope they have for their future. However, students do have their fundamental rights to be made aware about the learning area or the disciplines they world learn about. Science does have a reputation for being experiential in order to provide answer to any queries revolving around technological, physical or biological world (Gannon, 2012). The science curriculum has been designed in consideration to the concept of developing learners with the knowledge to be able to understand vital scientific mysteries and concepts. It is vital for students to be informed and scientifically sound to respond to questions about everything. This curriculum would prepare the students in the most effective manner for achieving excellence in their professional career. The curriculum does have a list of aims including-

  • Changing the perspectives of the students by changing their knowledge and perspectives
  • Making students and learners aware of things that would help them to break any misunderstanding about anything unexplored or unexplained matter to them.
  • Raising learner’s ability to judge and view things with different perspective (Hammond, 2014).

1.3 Summarizing level description and achievement standard

Level description

The “Foundation level 2” of the curriculum emphasizes over self consciousness along with being aware about the world as well. The likelihood of students or learners coming across changes is relatively higher; the changes can either be small or big or might even happen gradually or quickly. Students or learners in such situations tend to compare the occurrence with similar phenomena or familiar objects, which to certain extent helps them to learn about the situation or object. Students as mentioned above come across different aspect and incidents; they sometimes are introduced with the idea of resources that how much of it comes from earth (Hunter, 1982). They also come across the utilization of different materials and manipulation to extract something useful. Students also become familiar with the fact that, observation has always been a core part especially when dealing with science and learning about it. It is vital for students at the foundational level to observe things and aspects that are necessary to learn things. Students also have a tendency to compare observations in order to develop pictorial or tabular presentations, which makes it easier for describing and showing various patterns (Kemmis, 2014). Students tend to reach to the conclusion by making and comparing observations that link one incident to another.  This is great way for students to learn about how science can help society in different ways. They can explore different contributions that science has made to the modern society, the lives they are leading, the technologies they come across in their daily lives, the way they travel, communicate and even be aware about the current happenings about the world. Victorian curriculum is a great innovation to the learning process of the students or building block of their future career scopes (Leonard, 2012).

Achievement Standard

Once completed with the level 2, students will be equipped with knowledge and information about how their lives are affected with science. The level of their knowledge would be substantial enough to portray examples about facts and occurrences that contribute to the living of human being. The completion of this segment would enlighten their knowledge about different materials, uses and other effects of materials along with objects. Science does have a range of contributions that students upon completion of the level would be able to portray, which might include environment, different resources and others (Mayer, 2014). Students would also be able to respond to questions regarding objects they are familiar with, since their comparability would enhance by drastic measures. The students would now be equipped with enhanced investigational senses that are important for exploring the surroundings in order for making comparisons regarding different observations. Students would gradually start to expand the level of their knowledge once they start sharing their knowledge with other students experimenting with different objects. This is a vital procedure for students to explore aspects, gather information about them, and sort the information as per their needs and finally making a projection of the information in an understandable manner (Moats, 2014). Thus, they would be able to learn about things in an effective manner.

Part 2: Australian Professional Standards for Teachers

2.1 Introduction of the Australian professional standards for teachers

The Australian professional standards for teachers involve seven fundamental standards, which outline the obligation for the teachers along with their fundamental duty. All of these seven standards are interdependent, overlapping and interconnected with one another (Mockler, 2012). The professional standards have been sorted into three different domains of coaching-

  • Professional knowledge
  • Professional practice
  • Professional engagement

Teachers have been asked to draw over each aspect of every domain. The seven Australian professional standards for teachers are:

Domain of teachingStandards
Professional knowledgeKnow your students and how they learnKnow the content and the way to teach them
Professional practicePlan for and implement effective teaching and learningCreate and maintain supportive and safe learning environmentsAssess, provide feedback and report on student learning
Professional engagementEngage in professional learningEngage professionally with colleagues, parents/carers and the community (Oakley, 2014).

2.2 Significance of these standards

The “Australian professional standards for teachers” have been approved and acknowledged by the “New South Wales” Ministry of Education during mid 2012. The application or implementation of these standards began under “Ministerial Council for Education, Early Childhood Development and Youth Affairs” during 2009. The standards clearly portray the significance of being connected with the learners and students in order to ensure they learn in the best possible manner. One of the major professional obligations of teachers is to be familiar with the manner students tend to capture whatever is being taught (Santoro, 2012). It also is the quality of a great teacher to be aware about every student; as it isn’t possible for every student to be brilliant. Teachers must also be aware about the content they are to teach their students; they must plan for a teaching style that is appropriate while the teacher is interacting with the students. Teachers must as well maintain safer environment for their students to learn effectively; being supportive is a blessing to the students. Feedback is of paramount importance; students and their parents have to be aware about the child’s growth, providing feedback is the best solution for this (Schleicher, 2012). Similarly, being professional with colleagues, parents and community would certainly be as much effective for the teacher to extract best possible result.

Part 3: Cultural and Ethnic diversity

Jamie has been very precise in terms of engaging each one of the student in the process of teaching. The strategies she used might be put up as-

  • Engagement with the student on a personal level
  • Emphasizing over innovation, out of need

There also is a clear essence of group among each one of the student that is participating in the learning process. They are very much engaged in the learning process irrespective of the diversity they have within (Simoncini, 2014). It practically isn’t possible to avoid cultural diversity in organisations including educational or professional. The “” did post a blog that involves the story of a boy named “Jordan” and the school that admitted him was “Hope Technology School”.

Part 4: Formative and summative assessment

Teachers often engage in the process of assessing the growth of their students, which might either be summative or formative. Both of these terms have different meaning,

Formative assessment: Assessing students at the end of the curriculum or course can draw extra effort; teachers might have to pay extra attention at the end period (Van Driel & Berry, 2012). Formative assessment looks after the learning needs of the students during the learning process. This evaluates the academic progress, learning and comprehensive needs of the student in the middle of a lesson. Assessing students during their learning period would help the teacher to gather the information about students and particular points at the lesson that need immediate consideration.

Summative assessment: Unlike the formative assessment, this term deals with student assessment at the end of the curriculum to check on the preparation. The students are checked on their learning, the skills they have acquired during the course, their academic achievements by the semester or the school year end. This is comparatively low on success meter as the teachers have to face a lot of trouble about student preparation if the summative assessment shows an undesired result about student growth (Vivian, 2014).


Ambrosetti, A. (2014). Are you ready to be a mentor? Preparing teachers for mentoring pre-service teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education39(6), 3.

Evans, L. (2014). Leadership for professional development and learning: enhancing our understanding of how teachers develop. Cambridge journal of education44(2), 179-198.

Gannon, S. (2012). Changing lives and standardising teachers: The possibilities and limits of professional standards. English Teaching11(3), 59.

Hammond, J. (2014). An Australian Perspective on Standards‐Based Education, Teacher Knowledge, and Students of English as an Additional Language. TESOL Quarterly48(3), 507-532.

Hunter, M. C. (1982). Mastery teaching. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Kemmis, S., Heikkinen, H. L., Fransson, G., Aspfors, J., & Edwards-Groves, C. (2014). Mentoring of new teachers as a contested practice: Supervision, support and collaborative self-development. Teaching and teacher education43, 154-164.

Leonard, S. N. (2012). Professional conversations: mentor teachers’ theories-in-use using the australian National professional standards for teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education (Online)37(12), 78.

Mayer, D. (2014). Forty years of teacher education in Australia: 1974–2014. Journal of education for teaching40(5), 461-473.

Moats, L. (2014). What teachers don’t know and why they aren’t learning it: addressing the need for content and pedagogy in teacher education. Australian Journal of learning difficulties19(2), 75-91.

Mockler, N. (2012). Teacher Professional Learning in a Neoliberal Age: Audit, Professionalism and Identity. Australian Journal of Teacher Education38(10), n10.

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