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Precarious Employment at Australia: Causes and the Effects

Employment problems are the most rampant and common challenging issue affecting quite a good number of countries worldwide. More so in the developing countries and partly low in the third world countries. Due to this, a high number of workers are underemployed as well as being unemployed by government agencies, thus aiming at self-employment. Nonetheless, self-employment is faced with top capitation problems, including the acquisition of the government permits for a legal business transaction van (Kooy, and Bowman, 2019).  Thus, a high number of citizens seeks alternatives, mainly through casual laboring, where the payment is just a mere small figure. This brings on a high number of citizens, particularly Australia living under the poverty line. This is due to their idea to seek employment on the already mining fields. The type of jobs found on these sites can thus be confirmed to be presented at the Precarious Work.  

Precarious employment is the term which has been tasked to critique the globalization description on the non-standard type of jobs which are generally paid poorly, unsecured with any insurance policy, unprotected by any workers union thus failing o support the household demands and basic requirements (Mayhew, 2018). Therefore, the term precarious is often associated with part-time employment, fixed termly work, self-employment, telecommuting, and temporary work. Thus, the essay shall address the causes as well as the effects the precarious employment in the Australian land, based on the 21st century.

Causes of precarious employment

Precarious employment as a term can be denoted as having received a broader application for several decades. The argument has been based and discussed in various field of economics, sociology as well as political science. Thus, in terms of economic advancement, the name is more related and concerned on the health sector, more so concerning the position of women in the employment line up. Furthermore, the name has gained high popularity in the 21st century. This is seen through the published articles, where four items only were found online as the only published papers (Mayhew, 2018).

Considerably, precarious employment gained high interest, and from mid-1991 up to date, there are more than thirty already published articles. Moreover, there are several causes of dangerous work as dictated by the piece.

Lack of the Workers Union

In the first place, the nature of the conditions upon employment, which has thoroughly taken another direction from the middle 1970s. This includes the lack of more oriented union, which should take charge of various artistry roles and seek more lucrative offers for its citizens as a country.  Moreover, the case has been catalyzed by the higher number of workers who require employment opportunities. Thus, the action brings it more robust since the Australian investors saw the presence of all the casual laborers as one of the threats to the permanent employees (Mayhew, 2018). Thus, the high numbers of the organizations fought for the abolishment of the casual laborers and limiting them, wherein return they fought to increase the services retrieved by the informal workers. The action is seen to bear fruits through the advancement as well as the inception of  The Australian Council of the trade union, to cater for all the casual worker’s problem. Thus this is a sign that indicates the causes of these problems. They, therefore, had to launch the campaign on the enhancement of the job security for all workers regardless of their background.

Lack of Social Movements In Place

In the second place, there is what might be presented as the comparative lack of social movements, which in reality represents the growing number of the casuals. This indicates that the workers fail to enjoy the lucrative offers similar to their permanently employed colleagues. Therefore, as a truth of the matter, failure for this kind of employment to be supported by all stakeholders, gives the organization high chances of utilizing their presence in a more filthy subjective (Mayhew, 2018).

Lack of Permanent Employment

Moreover, the nature of the unemployment cases has led to the rise of precarious employment. In the past decades, the most current schedule of jobs was on a full-time basis, where one was subjected to secure the work as well as ensuring a good salary and the wages, including other motivational payments such as bonuses and tips. This has since ceased due to tot the emergence of the predominant structure on employment van (Kooy, and  Bowman, 2019).  This includes the evolution of temporary, part-time, and casual as types of unemployment. This is due to the tremendous increment of unemployment in Australia, where the number of graduates is low in comparison to the employment opportunities created annually.

Technological advancement through high innovations has also caused a hike on precarious employment. Technology, more so in the mining industries in Australia, has taken a new dimension. This includes the position of computing, where there is the presence of self-driven trucks, tasked with ferrying the raw materials from the mines to the industries. Thus, this is another issue steering on the rise of precarious employment.

The Overall Effects of Precarious Employment

The most disgusting sentiments upon the effects of precarious employment are the denotation of the studies which have consistently indicated that mental and adverse physical outcomes are linked to dangerous work. However, there are other effects as outlined and discussed in the essay.

Health and the Safety Risks

First, precarious employment is highly linked with health as well as safety risks. More so for the non-natives of Australia. The risk rises due to the lack of training and the experience required in the anticipated field. Additionally, lack of occupational health rights on the mines has led to the negativity of one’s safety rights as well as health.  In some instances, where the foreigners are employed, face the risk of being back in their country with the high level of toxic in their body which affects their health (Borland, and Coelli, 2016).

Primary Catalyst of Stress and the Depression

Secondly, precarious employment poses a threat to issues related to depression.  This is catalyzed by the stress caused by failure to secure a permanent job, more so the graduates who leave institutions with high expectations of getting high paying jobs (Landstedt et al., 2017). Also, the action is triggered by working overloading, which in return leads to mental anxiety, accompanied by long working hours and finally lack of the legal rights protections by the Australian government through the labor department.

Lack of Reliable Medical Attention

Third, the expectant women, who might be engaged in precarious employment, fail to receive the required medical care, which includes paid maternity leave and its allowances. Thus, with the insufficient time allocation, both mother and the infant might lack ample time upon the early developmental stages and the healing process of the woman. Additionally, due to the limited services offered to the woman, she might fail to access the best medical facilities as well as the prescribed drugs in case of any negative problem development in health (Landstedt et al., 2017).

Lack of Educational Upgrade

Last but not least, precarious employment does not give room for education upgrading. The employees are believed to have minimal chances and opportunities to go back to school and attain relevant skills. This is required in mining industries due to the technological advancement and the daily innovations being made on the technical side. Thus, to move with the current trend in the industrial world, the workers should at least attend workshops annually to be briefed with innovations. Moreover, with furthering their education, the workers are also in the position of securing jobs to other organizations which in return leads to the economic growth of both the company and Australia accordingly (Borland, and Coelli, 2016).

Conclusion

In a nutshell, the study has discussed all the causes and the effects of precarious employment in the industrialized Australian country. Thus, the report has indicated there is dire need of the Australian government to come up with collective measures set to aid with the issue of unemployment which is the key to all the effects and causes of the precarious employment. Moreover, the essay is more relevant to the various industries as well as the government departments dealing with labor problems, to aid in the alignment and presentation of functional outcomes in terms of offering reliable employment opportunities to the Australian citizens.

References

Borland, J., & Coelli, M., (2016). Labour market inequality in Australia. Economic Record92(299), 517-547.

Landstedt, E., Coffey, J., Wyn, J., Cuervo, H., & Woodman, D. (2017). The complicated relationship between mental health and social conditions in the lives of young Australians mixing work and study. Young25(4), 339-358.

Mayhew, C., (2018). Exploration of the links between workplace stress and precarious employment. Work Stress: Studies of the Context, Content, and Outcomes of Stress: A Book of Readings.

Van Kooy, J., & Bowman, D. (2019). ‘Surrounded with so much uncertainty’: asylum seekers and manufactured precarity in Australia. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies45(5), 693-710.

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Food safety concerns frequent make headlines around the world as they are an important issue

Food safety concerns frequent make headlines around the world as they are an important issue. China faced backlash when a chemical called memalime was found in infant milk powder (Xiu & Klein, 2010) and then in 2011 clenbuterol was found in excess use in animal food production as well (Xue & Zhang, 2013). Europe had its own share of scandals of which the most remarkable one was the mixture of horsemeat with beef in 2013 (Peng et al, 2017). In the recent years that have passed, South Korea also joined the circle of scandals when in 2000 crabs were found to have lead in them, while in 2005 Kimchi was found in kimchi. The cherry on the top was in 2010, when a famous snack company was found to be using rat carcasses as their ingredient (Yang and Yang, 2013). These food safety concerns effect not just locally but also internationally. Leading to a decline in human health and lots of economic losses for the country. 

Due to its importance, food safety has seen considerable efforts to improve its safety worldwide. Government officials have actively started establishing institutes which can deal with this issue by investing in hazard control systems like good agricultural practices or GAPS, good manufacturing practices or GMP, hazard analysis and critical control point or HACCP and more (Liu, Liu, Zhang & Gao, 2015). One of the most recent researches was done in Ontario to make a qualitative analysis of food safety steps that are taken up my cheese makers and the paper also reported the artisan’s awareness and perceptions (Le, Bazger, Hill & Wilcock, 2014). Other areas that have been research include the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese, Staphylococcus aureus in milk (Barancaeli et al, 2014; Lee, Cappato, Corassin, Cruz & Oliveira, 2016) and GMP assessment and introduction of the HACCP system (Carroascosa et al, 2016). 

South Korea’s, Korea Ministry of Food and Drug Safety or KMFDS, are in charge of foods safety and risk assessment and they have developed a sound regulatory system to keep in control the food quality and make sure the food hasn’t been adulterated (KMFDS, 2017). Health and nutrition are KMFDS’s ultimate goal for enhancing food safety (Peng at el, 2017). Though, KMFDS has put in a lot of effort to keep Korea’s food quality up to par, there are several food safety incidents still being reported. And these reported studies have been helpful to re-evaluate and propose ideas for risk communication and develop better food safety regulations and managements (Xue & Zhang, 2013). Systemic risk analysis helps to develop better strategies or even the best ones, but so far South Korea no such studies have been done in the country (Liu et al, 2015; Xue & Zhang, 2013). 

Though a study conducted by Park, Kim and Bahk (2017) complied media reported on food safety incidents, ranging from 1998 to 2016. The total number of reported incidents compiled were 975 which had an average of 51.3% in a year and 4.3% occurred a month. The food incidents were reported for the following cases:

  1. Fruits and vegetables
  2. Fish and its products
  3. Meat and its products
  4. Beverages
  5. Confectionary

Of the reported cases, at least 41.6% were chemical hazard related, while 20.4% were physical hazard. The study further performed an analysis about which conditions can lead to these hazards, and it found that primary production is the most common stage with 63% of incidents taking place at this point. Following the production stage, handling and distribution had incidents of food safety for about 6.7% of the cases.

Lee (2017), in the 8th conference on Food Quality and Safety policy talked about the application of DPSEEA framework for food safety development and health indicators in Korea. In his paper he reported that having food safety indicators are useful as they are important indicators to help one define food hazards, contamination pathways and levels of exposure in connection to public health. A link needs to be established whereby which one can interpret the difficult relationship between human health and food safety hazards. The paper further discussed pro’s and cons of the framework which can help develop food safety in Korea. The paper chose the DPSEEA framework as it can be divided into five domains and they allow different forms of action for each domain. Therefore, six procedures were developed for Korean safety food indicators and their developing process included forty-five initial indicators but only total of four were chosen from them. Among the four selected from the final list, one was called the state domain which helps to indicate the chemical hazards of residual pesticides. The other three indicators were termed as the effect domain and were indicators of food contamination and their effect on health. These final indicators are important as they provide information on overall food environment, which includes hygiene and food health. The framework not only helps to provide systemic intervention points but also in developing food safety health indicators which can be divided into domain points. Though, the structure does have gaps as it does not take into account the population sensitivity, effecting areas between each domain, therefore, causing health risks to differ across different areas. In the future a modified version would be needed when developing new indicators to fill the gaps. 

Policies regarding food safety regulation in Korea have been around for many years now, as one can state by reading Wang’s (2012) PhD paper. In her paper she has listed various policy makers and government agencies who have established framework and rules and help reduce Korea’s food safety incidence. The Framework Act on Food Safety, set in 2008) ensures that people will achieve a healthy and safe diet by clarifying the rights and obligations by people and the responsibilities which are held by the state and local government. The Food sanitation act is the most important one, as it aims to contribute to public health by reducing sanitary risks in food by prevention methods and promoting qualitative changes, which give true and accurate data to the public. The Functional Food Act targets specific food groups. 

Safety standards are also in Korea which act as important legal instruments in food safety. Such as the Food Code and Food Additive Code has been propagated by Korea food and Drug Administration and the Food Sanitary act. Food quality related standards have also been given importance which include information about the foods country of origin, and is applied to specific food groups, example, the agricultural food regulatory agencies, such as National Agricultural Product Quality Management Service. 

Agricultural foods have been regulated by Food, Agriculture, Forester and Fisheries department which take responsibility by setting up regulations and standard related to livestock and dairy products, including forester and fishery. Sanitary controls, standards, specifications and labelling requirements for domestic and imported livestock is ensured by the National Agricultural Product Quality Management Service and the Animal, Plans and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency. They do this by preventing harmful weeds, pests and diseases from originating from imported plants, fruits and vegetables. 

The basic responsibilities, which include the hygiene with regards to manufacture, process, distribution and sales, when caring for their hygiene and sanitary practices, sis covered by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. The organization is also responsible for other food acts such as the Functional Food Act and implementing the Enforcement Decree and Enforcement Rule. The KFDA sets and enforces specific standards for imported and domestic products, which include, functional food, additives and contact materials. Products manufactured via Biotechnological rules are also established by them for food processing, especially products containing GMO ingredients and guidelines for HACCP program. Self-production cannot ensure food supply, therefore imported food is important and this has increased ever since Korea jointed the WTO. 

Last but not the least, South Korea has modernized its risk analysis system not only by the regulatory ministries and risk management agencies but the Korea Food and Drug administration also established the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation on 1st May, 2009 which provides scientific evaluation on food, food supplements and other products in KFDA policy. National Food Safety Information Service set in June, 2009 acts as a risk communicator which provides food safety information to both public and policy makers. Apart from that, they also provide food traceability for industry, making it easier to recall food related cases when they happen. 

References

Barancelli, G. V., Camargo, T. M., Gagliardi, N. G., Porto, E., Souza, R. A., Campioni, F., … Oliveira, C. A. (2014). Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from cheese manufacturing plants in São Paulo, Brazil. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 173, 21-29. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2013.12.018

Carrascosa, C., Millán, R., Saavedra, P., Jaber, J. R., Raposo, A., & Sanjuán, E. (2016). Identification of the risk factors associated with cheese production to implement the hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) system on cheese farms. Journal of Dairy Science, 99(4), 2606-2616. doi:10.3168/jds.2015-10301

Korea Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (KMFDS). (2017a). Korean Food Standard Codex. Available at: http://www.foodsafetykorea.go.kr/foodcode/01_01.jsp.

Le, S., Bazger, W., Hill, A. R., & Wilcock, A. (2014). Awareness and perceptions of food safety of artisan cheese makers in Southwestern Ontario: A qualitative study. Food Control, 41, 158-167. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.01.007

Lee, J. (2017). Application of DPSEEA framework in developing food safety health indicator in Korea. Journal of Food Processing & Technology, 08(11). doi:10.4172/2157-7110-c1-073

Lee, S., Cappato, L., Corassin, C., Cruz, A., & Oliveira, C. (2016). Effect of peracetic acid on biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes isolated from dairy plants. Journal of Dairy Science, 99(3), 2384-2390. doi:10.3168/jds.2015-10007

Liu, Y., Liu, F., Zhang, J., & Gao, J. (2015). Insights into the nature of food safety issues in Beijing through content analysis of an Internet database of food safety incidents in China. Food Control, 51, 206-211. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.11.017

Liu, Y., Liu, F., Zhang, J., & Gao, J. (2015). Insights into the nature of food safety issues in Beijing through content analysis of an Internet database of food safety incidents in China. Food Control, 51, 206-211. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.11.017

Park, M. S., Kim, H. N., & Bahk, G. J. (2017). The analysis of food safety incidents in South Korea, 1998–2016. Food Control, 81, 196-199. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2017.06.013

Peng, G., Chang, M., Fang, M., Liao, C., Tsai, C., Tseng, S., … Cheng, H. (2017). Incidents of major food adulteration in Taiwan between 2011 and 2015. Food Control, 72, 145-152. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.07.043

Peng, G., Chang, M., Fang, M., Liao, C., Tsai, C., Tseng, S., … Cheng, H. (2017). Incidents of major food adulteration in Taiwan between 2011 and 2015. Food Control, 72, 145-152. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.07.043

Seunghye, W. (2012, July 27). Food safety regulation in the Republic of Korea. Retrieved from https://programmelascaux.wordpress.com/2012/07/27/food-safety-regulation-in-the-republic-of-korea/

Xiu, C., & Klein, K. (2010). Melamine in milk products in China: Examining the factors that led to deliberate use of the contaminant. Food Policy, 35(5), 463-470. doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2010.05.001

Xue, J., & Zhang, W. (2013). Understanding China’s food safety problem: An analysis of 2387 incidents of acute foodborne illness. Food Control, 30(1), 311-317. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.07.024

Xue, J., & Zhang, W. (2013). Understanding China’s food safety problem: An analysis of 2387 incidents of acute foodborne illness. Food Control, 30(1), 311-317. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.07.024

Xue, J., & Zhang, W. (2013). Understanding China’s food safety problem: An analysis of 2387 incidents of acute foodborne illness. Food Control, 30(1), 311-317. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.07.024

Yang, S., & Yang, S. (2013). A Study of the Perception and Purchase Behavior on Foreign Matters in Food. The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, 26(3), 470-475. doi:10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.470

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Psychology Assignment Help in Australia by Assignment Hero

Abstract
An experiment was conducted with 224 participants of which 85 were males and 139 females. The experiment was conducted between undergraduate students from an Australian tertiary institute. The experiment reflected the Asch experiment. For half of the trials participants were subjected to confederates results while the other half they were placed in a situation where they made their own choices. They were presented with the target line and three test lines. The general trend showed that particpants were not influenced significantly by the confederate’s choices and made majorly their own choices. 

Introduction

The experiment was based on a study conducted by Solomon Asch in which he investigated the extent to which social pressure can effect a groups conformity. He believed that that underlying problem with Sheriff’s (1935) conformity experiment was the absence of a correct answer to the ambiguous autokinectic experiment. He questioned that how can a person be sure that there was conformity when there were no correct answers. There Asch (1951) designed what we today known as the classic experiment in social psychology where we use a line as a judgement task in which one line is the control and right answer. If the participants were to give a wrong answer, it was considered to probably be because of the group pressure. The experiment gathered 50 male students in a college from USA who thought they were participating in a vision test. Using a line as a judgement task, Asch added a naïve participant in the room with seven confederated. The confederates had agreed in advance about what their responses would be when presented with the task. Only the actual participant wasn’t aware and made to believe that the other seven confederates were also real participants. Asch measure the number of times each participant agreed to a majority value. About 32% of the participants conformed at least once and 25% never conformed. In the control group there was no pressure put on the participants by the confederates, therefore the results only had less than 1% wrong answer.
At the end of experiment, each participant was interviewed. Most of them said that, they did not really believe their conforming answers but went along with the group from fear of being made fun of. While a few others actually believed that the confederate groups choices were correct. It was concluded that people conform either because they wish to fit in a group or they believe that the group is more informed than themselves.
There was a gap identified in this experiment though. The sample used for the study was biased as all participants were male students who belonged to the same age group. This means that there was lack of diverse population and the results cannot be generalized for a single gender or other age groups. Furthermore, ethical grounds weren’t laid out which means that participants weren’t protected from psychological stress. There is evidence that suggests participants in Asch experiments can be highly emotionally unstable as reported by Back et al (1963), who presented findings about the participants of the experiment having increased levels of autonomic arousal. 

Method

Participants

Participants were 224 (85 male and 139 female) undergraduate students from an Australian tertiary education institution. All participants were required to be over 18 years of age and participated in return for credit as part of a unit of study. Failure to participate did not impact the participants’ progression in the unit of study. The mean age of the participants was 27.62 years (SD = 3.38); male mean age was 28.52 years (SD = 2.14), and female mean age was 26.85 years (SD = 3.86). 

Materials

The conformity task used in this experiment was modelled on the original work of Asch (1956). Here participants were presented with a target line to the left of the screen and asked to select one of three test lines located on the right of the screen that most closely matched the target line on the left. Participants indicated their choice amongst the three lines by selecting the corresponding letter key on the computer keyboard. 

On half of the trials presented (n=48), participants made their judgement based solely on the line stimuli presented (SELF trials), while on the other half of the trials participants were able to view the responses of five confederate responders listed to the far right of the screen (CONFEDERATE trials). See Figure 1 for a depiction of the two trial conditions. The CONFEDERATE trials were designed to mimic the Asch (1956) condition where the participant was required to respond to the stimuli in the presence of five in-person confederates. In the current study the confederates were not in-person responders, but rather responses pre-selected by the experimenters and presented to all participants on the same trials. To begin, all CONFEDERATE trials included responses that accurately indicated the matching test line. Following the first seven trials the remaining trials were divided between accurate (35%) and inaccurate (65%) responses. 

Figure 1. Depiction of the two trial stimulus conditions (a) SELF trials where the participant is provide with no information about other responders selections and (b) CONFEDERATE trials where the responses of five confederates are provided. 

Procedure

Participants were seated before a computer screen at an approximate distance of 40-50cm. Participants responded throughout the task using the computer keyboard by pressing the keys [A], [B] and [C] to indicate their response on the experimental trials. Participants were required to log onto a secure server, Inquisit, which hosted the entire experiment.  The experiment was divided into two stages; demographic questionnaire which collected information about participant gender, age, cultural background, level of education and household income (Stage 1), and the conformity task (Stage 2). Participation took approximately 25 minutes.

Results

Prior to running the statistical analyses all data were screened for normality. As a result of missing data, the responses of 205 participants were retained for further analysis. Following the removal of the data of one participant, identified as a univariate outlier, the data was once again screened for normality and homogeneity of variance with no violations present. 

The data was collapsed into two groups, collectivist and individualist, according to the work of Hofstede (1980) and a t test was conducted to determine whether a difference existed in the level of conformity between the two cultural groups. Conformity was determined by comparing the number of incorrect responses selected by a participant when completing SELF compared to CONFEDERATE trials. 

Initial analyses revealed that in general, levels of conformity in this experiment were quite low, that is, when a participant made an error in line selection the error was not necessarily unique to responses made on CONFEDERATE trials; that is, participants made errors on trials where their decisions were based entirely on their own judgement and not impacted by confederates. On those trials where errors were made on CONFEDERATE trials approximately 35% of the errors were in agreement with the confederate responses, while 65% of errors were different to the confederate responses. Interestingly, on appraisal of trials where the Target Line did not match with any of the Match Lines (No Match Trials), the responses of the confederate selection did appear to be of greater influence. Specifically, on No Match Trials 81% of participant responses matched that of the confederates. 

An analysis of the influence of culture on the conformity exhibited by participants was significant. As can be seen in Figure 2, individuals belonging to collectivist cultures tended to make more errors on CONFEDERATE trials than did individuals from individualist cultures. Importantly, the incorrect decisions made by individuals belonging to a collectivist culture matched the selection of the confederates on the trial. That is, these individuals did not merely make the wrong decision but instead that wrong decision was in line with the confederate majority. This suggests that individuals from individualist cultures are less impacted by the implied presence of others (n=34% of CONFEDERATE trials) and are more likely to oppose an opinion held by the (implied) majority than individuals from collectivist cultures (n=55% of CONFEDERATE trials).  

Figure 2. The mean number of incorrect responses (in%) made in the CONFEDERATE condition for individuals from collectivist and individualist cultures where the response was consistent with the confederate line selection.  

Discussion:

The present investigation was concerned with the relationship of conforming behavior with cultural pressure. ‘Current thinking has stressed the power of social conditions to induce psychological changes arbitrarily…and has taken slavish submission to group forces as the rule,’ such was observed by Asch in his 1951 paper which described his attempt to challenge the assertions in his now classic study of conformity. After thirty years, students of social psychology are so accustomed to the brief summaries sources of the ‘Asch effect’ as its one of the basic ideas that demonstrate compliance and conformity when facing social that one can fail to realize the comparative emphasis that Asch himself has included in his discussion regarding the phenomenon. Towards the end of his study, Asch had questioned, ‘In what ways are independent and conformity related to sociological and cultural conditions?’. Though there had been many studies which tried replication and adding to the original findings, a handful of researchers choose to specifically address cultural conditions which underlined ones conforming behavior as they assumed that the response by everyone would be the same when by a large majority. Milgram (1961) did, however, reported important differences in the rate of conformity between students from France and Norway. He attributed these differences to the gap in the social factors in these countries. Though he admitted that he wasn’t sure of these wider social factors, he speculated that France had a greater power on its citizens when it came to the spirit of indolence, which was reflected in their lower rates of conformity. There have been no published British republications in the year after or immediately, following the original Asch experiment and neither have the British journal editors recently received any report or manuscript which attempts to replicate the exact details. It is my belief that the social and cultural ideals obtained in the 1950’s and the 1960’s from the USA and to a certain degree in Europe contributed to the Asch effect. Especially the contemporary conditions among the university students, as they would be so difference from the earlier ones that a student’s response to the Asch’s experiment in that time would be very different from the present ones and not replicate the original results. Therefore, the ‘Asch effect’ can be seen as a product of a definite social and cultural conditions and therefore, it should be possible to make predictions about the style of response to the conformity pressures that are experiences from the description of the subjects’ social and cultural background. To test this the current paper will study 224 participants who are undergraduate students at an Australian tertiary institute. A situation could be produced where one can use Asch’s terminology, ‘personal costs would be involved in not yielding to the majority’, which could be created by placing ethnic minority group members in a group of confederates also from an ethnic group.
In the experiment conducted in the present study, 224 undergraduate students; 139 females and 85 males, participated from an Australian tertiary education institute. These participants were of variable ages but were over 18 years. They participated in exchange of extra credit as part of their class study.
Participants were shown a target line to the left of the computer screen and asked to make a choice between the three test lines, which were located towards the right of the screen. They were too asked to choose any one of the test lines as most closely matching the target line. Participants had to choose by pressing the key letter on their keyboards. In 48 trials, participants made judgements solely on the line stimulus presented in SELF trials, while the other half of the participants made their judgement based on the confederate responses which were listed to the far right of the screen. The confederates were not directly present in front of the participants but rather their responses were pre-selected. The data was put in two groups, the collectivist and the individualists, based on the study by Hofstede (1980) to determine whether a difference existed in the level of conformity between two cultural groups. The general trend shows that the level of conformity in the experiment was quite low; participants errors were based solely on their individual decisions and not confederate influence. 35% of the errors were made on confederate trials as participants made errors by agreeing with the confederate response. 65% of the participants made errors but they were different from the confederate’s responses. An interesting observation was that in the task where the target line did not match any of the no match lines, the responses of the confederate did not make the greater influence. Individuals who belonged to the conformity exhibited participants was significant. The reason why most participants made their individual decisions could be because the confederates were not present their directly when they were performing trials. Similarly, others could have made errors because their social background always has been influenced by the presence of more influential people in their lives. While the others who made errors not matching the confederate’s responses could have been genuinely confused between the lines provided.

References

Asch, S. E. (1956). Studies of Independence and Conformity: I. A minority of one against a unanimous majority. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 70(9), 1-70.

Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications. 

Milgram, S. (1961). Nationality and Conformity. Scientific American205(6), 45-51. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1261-45

Perrin, S., & Spencer, C. (1981). Independence or conformity in the Asch experiment as a reflection of cultural and situational factors. British Journal of Social Psychology20(3), 205-209. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8309.1981.tb00533.x

Back, K. W., Bogdonoff, M. D., Shaw, D. M., & Klein, R. F. (1963). An interpretation of experimental conformity through physiological measures. Behavioral Science, 8(1), 34.

Sherif, M., & Sherif, C. W. (1953). Groups in harmony and tension. New York: Harper & Row.

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Palliative Care- Case Study Nursing Assignment Help

Introduction

Palliative consideration has been characterized by WHO the World Health Organization that states that a methodology that improves the personal satisfaction of people and their families confronting the issues related with dangerous sickness, through the counteractive action and help of enduring by methods for early recognizable proof and flawless appraisal and treatment of agony and different issues, physical, psychosocial and profound (Smith & Brown, 2017).

WHO further states that palliative care is:

• Always try to come forward to help get away from a distressing situation.

• They didn’t have Plans either to rush or defer passing; 

• They always try to coordinate the mental and profound parts of patient consideration;

• Palliative care offers an emotionally supportive network to enable patients to live as effectively as conceivable until death (Smith & Brown, 2017).

• Utilizations a group way to deal with the location the requirements of patients and their families, including deprivation directing, whenever showed; 

• Will improve personal satisfaction, and may likewise decidedly impact the course of sickness;

• Is pertinent right off the bat over the span of ailment, related to different treatments that are expected to delay life, for example, chemotherapy or radiation treatment, and incorporates those examinations expected to all the more likely comprehend and oversee troubling clinical intricacies (Silbermann, 2015). 

A palliative approach to manage Mrs. Brown’s symptoms with a nursing strategy

Mrs. Brown needs palliative consideration that may encounter a portion of the accompanying side effects, contingent upon their sickness. These manifestations can affect their personal satisfaction and be troubling for their family and considerations.

We should be comfortable with these side effects and work with our group to figure out what can be tended to: 

•    Agony 

•    Ridiculousness

•    Nourishment and hydration 

•    Windedness 

•    Oral medical issue (Lee, 2015)

Nutrition and hydration

Numerous elements can add to diminished nourishment and hydration at end of life. Contributing variables for Mrs. Brown are included: 

•    Trouble gulping 

•    Poor oral wellbeing 

•    Perplexity/not perceiving sustenance 

•    The requirement for expanded help to eat 

•    Diminished eating and drinking habit (Lee, 2015)

Counterfeit sustenance and hydration may not be profitable in the last periods of life and does not haul out life. In specific models, it assembles the person’s uneasiness and the body does not require it over the last couple of significant lots of life. It is basic, regardless, to have the discourse with families around phony sustenance and hydration (Lebel, 2016).

The team introduced therapy with a view to enhance sustainability and endurance of restricted lung function and lessen lung dysfunction, knowing that breathlessness can be deadly. A controlled study was conducted on Mrs. Brown participating in breathing clinic and showed the need for medical intervention because of breathlessness, dysfunction, and problem in day to day activities (Corner, Plant & Warner, 2018). 

This analysis on Mrs. Brown was done to assess a nursing intervention for this symptom shown by lung cancer patients and to redo the study done before. The result of this study validates the previous study results and presents that Mrs. Brown can be aided by the intervention which is based on psychological assistance, control in breathing and different coping mechanisms (Green, 2016).

Breathlessness (Dyspnea)

Breathlessness is known as a displeasing and irritating feeling which creates complication while breathing. It affects Mrs. Brown’s living standards, everyday activities, socialization, strength and flexibility and causes anxiety and panic (Carlson, Lim & Meier, 2015). The symptoms noticed in Mrs. Browns are:

  • Notice changes in breathing pattern along with breathing frequency and depth.
  • Note the symptoms of panic or agitation that makes it difficult to breathe.
  • Mark the changes found in functioning capability caused by breathlessness.
  • Notice change in complexion or skin pigmentation.
  • Evaluate the timing of breathing difficulty which includes the frequency, timing, duration of the problem and amount of time between the occurrences (Bredin et al., 2018). 

To manage Mrs. Brown’s breathlessness following steps can be helpful:

  • Reduce anxiety, panic or agitation
  • The person should be positioned upright.
  • Deliver words in a comforting and calm manner.
  • Speed up physical activity
  • Based on the reason, the pharmacological agent can be appointed (Corner, Plant & Warner, 2018).  

Breathless can be very troublesome for elderly people and their families. That is why it is important to make them aware of the management and information regarding this matter.  Breathlessness is not just identified as a sign of breathing disorder. It is also a complicated interchange between various bodily functions of body, brain, and emotions (Carlson, Lim & Meier, 2015). The percentage of lung cancer patients who suffer from breathlessness is 10% to 15%. Among them, 65% experience the signs of the disease during their illness. Besides coughing, breathlessness is the indication as stated by most patients with lung cancer. Breathlessness may not occur based on the range of the disease. Different factors such as anxiety can make this problem worse, which can also be seen from the perspective of a deadly disease like lung cancer (Bredin et al., 2018). 

Authorized or unauthorized medical interventions for this problem have not been assessed. The main focus of the treatment is on the emission of pleural effusions and pharmacological medication is implemented to lessen the perception of the signs- still, it is proved that medications used or not, breathlessness stays unredeemed (Carlson, Lim & Meier, 2015). 

To find out and assess the nursing techniques for breathlessness management acquired a different perspective on it together. This approach focuses on ensuring the connection between psychological and physical features of the symptom (Bredin et al., 2018). 

Conclusion

At the end of the study, it can be said that Mrs. Brown is suffering from control and intervention and serious discomfort and agitation because of breathlessness. She was in poor condition and breathlessness exacerbated it. In the field of palliative care research, this case study of Mrs. Brown is long intervention study results with random ill patients is a great achievement. There has been no report of multicenter trials of nursing intervention and this study is believed to be the first in the Australia. The cooperative model used by specialist nurses and the coordinating center for the study shows a practical approach to control innovation is done through challenges which may be of great value in the future for any study like this.

References

Bredin, M., Corner, J., Krishnasamy, M., Plant, H., Bailey, C., & A’Hern, R. (2018). Multicentre randomised controlled trial of nursing intervention for breathlessness in patients with lung cancer. BMJ318(7188), 901-901. doi: 10.1136/bmj.318.7188.901

Carlson, M., Lim, B., & Meier, D. (2015). Strategies and Innovative Models for Delivering Palliative Care in Nursing Homes. Journal Of The American Medical Directors Association12(2), 91-98. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2010.07.016

Corner, J., Plant, H., & Warner, L. (2018). Developing a nursing approach to managing dyspnoea in lung cancer. International Journal Of Palliative Nursing1(1), 5-11. doi: 10.12968/ijpn.1995.1.1.5

Green, A. (2016). A Person-Centered Approach to Palliative Care Nursing. Journal Of Hospice & Palliative Nursing8(5), 294-301. doi: 10.1097/00129191-200609000-00015

Lebel, J. (2016). Managing symptoms during palliative care in older people in hospital. Retrieved from https://www2.health.vic.gov.au/hospitals-and-health-services/patient-care/older-people/palliative/palliative-physical

Lee, J. (2015). Principles for Inclusion of a Palliative Approach to Aged Care in Undergraduate Nursing Curricula. Retrieved from https://www.caresearch.com.au/Caresearch/Portals/4/Documents/AgedCare_FINAL_Principlesforinclusion.pdf

Silbermann, M. (2015). Palliative care Nursing. Journal Of Palliative Care & MedicineS4(3), 55-88. doi: 10.4172/2165-7386.1000s4e001

Smith, D., & Brown, S. (2017). Integrating a palliative care approach into nursing care homes for older people. International Journal Of Palliative Nursing23(10), 511-515. doi: 10.12968/ijpn.2017.23.10.511

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Appraise the way “recovery-oriented” mental health nursing care aims

Introduction

Recovery oriented practice aims to reduce the stigma, prejudice and discrimination towards the people, suffering from mental illness.  In the context of mental health practice, recovery-oriented practice includes gaining and retaining hope, understanding one’s ability, social identity and positive sense of self (Nemec, Swarbrick & Legere, 2015). In life, a definite sense of self has a perspective of an individual with mental illness and recovery for hope with care. Considering synonymous improvement with care is essential for mental health impact. Public and self-stigma define the attitudes and beliefs to general persons with mental health challenges for their family members. In the context of society and self-stigma, the mental health practice is focused on the setting of mental illness and extant research to focus on conceptual, discrimination and psychometric limitations. Prejudice in the context of mental illness is associated with the investigation of psychometric limitations. Prejudice towards people is included in the mental illness of people. Discrimination has effects on the people suffering from mental health. Recovery oriented practice helps to avoid discrimination to focus on promoting human rights on treatment process. Diagnosis and mental health treatment are focused on analysing the condition of the service users and the treatment process of the mental health of an individual. The essay has scope to analyse and focus recovery-oriented mental health for people diagnosed with mental illness. The essay aims to discuss the way of recovery-oriented nursing care to reduce prejudice, stigma and discrimination towards the people suffering from mental health.

Discussion

Recovery from mental illness and conditions are effects of disorders to change through individuals improvements of mental health and wellness. Recovery-oriented care is focused on developing and analysing improvements in health and wellness (Avdibegović & Hasanović, 2017). The service is focused on developing the recovery-oriented services in psychiatry. The initiatives are taken and engaged with multidisciplinary initiatives. Recovery-oriented mental health practice is focused on the necessity of care as developing the satisfaction and purpose of life. It empowers that it includes the centre of care to receive the care of people (Health.gov.au, 2019). Attitudes, rights, dignity, and respects are focused on establishing the ability to live in a meaningful life.

Stigma is considered as adverse effects of particular characteristics or attributes for treating any people with mental illness. Stigma happens when the people define anyone by the illness rather than an individual characteristic. According to Canfield & Cunningham (2018), it might define the person’s experiences of psychosis with mental health issues. Public stigma and self-stigma are focused in the study to avoid the experiences of the individual. For people, discrimination, mental health issues and social stigma are focused on avoiding the issues from people. Stigma has effects to discuss the understanding of treatment and lack of understanding for employment and social interaction.  Discrimination and social stigma are focused on mental health care users as providing better health impact (Avdibegović & Hasanović, 2017).  

Special issue on self-stigma include raises and contribution to develop the communication and uncertainty by their mental illness (Sahealth.sa.gov.au, 2019). Prejudice and discrimination are described in the context of a recent example of concerns to sign the negative attitudes and reliability towards the people with psychiatric diagnoses. The symptoms and expression of mental illness are discussed such as limiting access and manifestation for the pathological condition of people. If prejudice and discrimination are resulted to occur through useful ideas, the literature focus on addressing stigma influencing the approaches (Nemec, Swarbrick & Legere, 2015). Educators, supervisors, and trainers have a responsibility to care and guide the direct care staff to teach and monitor the care supports. In the context of mental health, oriented care has effects to focus on best practice and intervention of mental illness and behaviour.

As per The Framework for recovery-oriented rehabilitation in mental health care, it is developed to advise the reference group against the stigma and discrimination towards the people, having mental illness (Sahealth.sa.gov.au, 2019). National Framework develops the external forces to provide the social care professionals and service of carers and service users. Recovery care and delivery of individual with mental illness are focused on delivering the collaboration and framework the relationship between the service users and care providers. This framework helps to develop the general guidelines and values for involving proper care and medication towards the delivery of care. According to the Mental Health Act 2014, it protects the treatment, care, and support for those, who have mental illness (Mhc.wa.gov.au, 2019). It further guides the role of carers and families to support and relate to mental illness. It is related to the purposes of providing efficient care and treatment policy to sufferers. This legislation helps to contribute to the professional listing to both health professional care providers for health workers. 

Psychiatric nurses are expert to focus on developing health practice to analyse the disease and crisis intervention. Mental health nurse’s role and intervention process include the statements to focus on implementing the identifications of patient care and quality of treatment policy (Nemec, Swarbrick & Legere, 2015). The nurses and nursing intervention have a role and responsibility to focus on crisis intervention, the mental health condition of patients, medication, and therapies in a healthcare setting.  

Lived experience in mental health care perspectives defines the systematic advocacy position and education to support roles in healing and regardless of personal experiences in health care. Consumers’ perspective and personal experiences are focused on describing the best practice to produce the health care service towards people with mental illness. As evidenced by Sapag et al. (2018), lived experience is considered as consumer development and human rights to focus on practice-based treatment and intervention towards the care users. It includes the shared engagements and personal experiences in mental care unit to participate in the intervention process.

Conclusion

The essay is focused on the way of recovery-oriented mental health nursing care to reduce the stigma, prejudice and discrimination towards the people with mental illness. The study is focused on describing and analysing the care service to deliver the care users with mental care facility. Recovery-oriented care in mental illness has the opportunity to satisfy the purposeful life and value for a member of the community. It empowers the strengths and responsibility for definite risks and opportunities for care users with mental health.

It can be recommended that the recovery-oriented model needs to be focused on and developmental care settings. It needs to be implemented within the care setting of mental wards. The hospitals need to maintain the codes of conduct and legislation to retain mental health convention. 

References 

Avdibegović, E., & Hasanović, M. (2017). The stigma of mental illness and recovery. Psychiatria Danubina29(5), 900-905. Retrieved on: 26 Feb 2019 from:  http://www.psychiatria-danubina.com/UserDocsImages/pdf/dnb_vol29_sup5/dnb_vol29_sup5_900.pdf

Canfield, B. A., & Cunningham, H. A. (Eds.). (2018). Deconstructing Stigma in Mental Health. IGI Global. Retrieved on: 26 Feb 2019 from: https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=3VJVDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR1&dq=recoveryoriented+mental+health+nursing+care+and+consider+the+effect+on+reducing+public+and+selfstigma,+prejudice+and+discrimination&ots=1R51GQo5wy&sig=c6QTFL46lzE3vt0TiSsamvioXLE

Health.gov.au  (2019) The Department of Health Retrieved on: 26 Feb 2019 from: http://www.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/mental-pubs-i-nongov-toc~mental-pubs-i-nongov-pri

Mhc.wa.gov.au  (2019) Mental Health Act 2014 Retrieved on: 26 Feb 2019 from: https://www.mhc.wa.gov.au/media/1245/mental-health-act-2014.pdf

Nemec, P. B., Swarbrick, M., & Legere, L. (2015). Prejudice and discrimination from mental health service providers. Psychiatric rehabilitation journal38(2), 203. Retrieved on: 26 Feb 2019 from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Margaret_Swarbrick/publication/278330764_Prejudice_and_Discrimination_from_Mental_Health_Service_Providers/links/55d4789708ae0b8f3efacb42.pdf

Sahealth.sa.gov.au  (2019) Mental Health & Substance Abuse Division Retrieved on: 26 Feb 2019 from: https://www.sahealth.sa.gov.au/wps/wcm/connect/c17e5f804eb00bcaac5aeee39488de5b/Rehab+Recovery+Frameworkmental+health20130108.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CACHEID=ROOTWORKSPACE-c17e5f804eb00bcaac5aeee39488de5b-lITywZA

Sapag, J. C., Sena, B. F., Bustamante, I. V., Bobbili, S. J., Velasco, P. R., Mascayano, F., … & Khenti, A. (2018). Stigma towards mental illness and substance use issues in primary health care: Challenges and opportunities for Latin America. Global public health13(10), 1468-1480. Retrieved on: 26 Feb 2019 from: http://repositorio.uchile.cl/bitstream/handle/2250/159276/Stigma-towards-mental-illness.pdf?sequence=1

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Impact of Childhood Deprivation and Psychosocial Adversity on Emotional Development and Behavior of Children

Introduction

Deprivation in general is defined as the lack of a basic necessity or commodity, which has a negative or damaging impact on an individual. In the context of psychology it can be defined as the separation from a figure of significant importance, the loss of the same, or the inability to form a strong bond with the same. In the field of social sciences, the term refers to the inhibition of development of normal social interaction between an individual and the society that result in exclusion of an individual from the rest of the society. The dictionary meaning of adversity is an unfavourable or difficult situation. Psychosocial adversity however holds a slightly different meaning. It refers to the prevalence of situation that interferes with the emotional wellbeing of an individual. Deprivation, neglect and psychosocial adversity create a long lasting negative impact on the mental health and social behaviour of children. Lack of proper opportunities and an unhealthy environment for child development, adversely affects their cognitive development and social behaviours in the future. Therefore, it is of utmost importance for the social workers to identify the underlying causes behind such deprivation and psychosocial adversities faced by several children and understand the impact of these on their emotional wellbeing and social behaviour. This, in turn, will help them to develop strategies to mitigate the problem.

Discussion

The experiences and memories gathered by an individual at an early age stays with them for the rest of their lives and have a significant impact on both their emotional development and social relationships. Lack of adequate parental care is one of the most common and important form of adverse experiences an individual might have in their childhood, which increases the risk of mental disorders (Danese & McEwen, 2012). According to Freud, an individual’s personality is framed during the first few formative years of their life. Bowlby, in several of his research works stated, that children who are deprived of maternal care are more likely to develop a psychological issue that in some cases might be irreversible as well. Deprivation and childhood adversities, not only result from lack of parental care, but have a varied range of causes such as foetal exposure to alcohol, parental divorce, extreme poverty, poor hygiene, social insults and abuse, environmental stressors and others(McLaughlin et al., 2012). The effects of these can be manifested as mental disorders or mild retardation, criminal traits, personality or behavioural disorders and even psychopathic behaviours in some cases.

In most Western countries, parental divorce or conflicts within the home environment is the most common environmental stressor. Divorced parents have little capacity to look after the needs of their child, and very often the child has to experience economic difficulties and loss in social stature. These children feel like refugees because of the constant need of shifting houses, school and adopting the new environment, which also implies they have to constantly adjust with new friends and neighbours. Moreover, some parents consider remarriage, in case of which the child is forced to accept a new individual as their parent’s partner, and in some adverse cases they might have to encounter a step sibling. Studies have shown that children from broken families are extremely likely to develop behavioural or emotional disorders(Elder, 2018). In several severe cases, encountering family conflict, parental divorce and remarriage in the formative years have led to psychiatric fatality in the adulthood.

The incidences of childhood abuse and neglect are prevalent, though the extent of maltreatment may vary. It has been observed that one out of 10 children, experience sexual abuse in their early childhood irrespective of their gender (Varese et al., 2012). The abuse experienced by the children is often associated with their family backgrounds and social stature, which include parental divorce, poor socio-economic condition or psychopathologic conditions of parents. Studies revealed that sexual abuse of children, especially women, leads to depression and anxiety later in their lives. Statistics shows that these women are three time more prone to developing eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia and are about 20 times more likely to develop suicidal tendencies. Child abuse, especially sexual abuse aggravates the risk of developing behavioural disorders and personality disorder which might even proceed to multiple personality disorder. The children who have been deprived of love and care early in their life, or have been brought up in adverse conditions tend to abuse drugs, alcohol and might develop the habit of smoking. They feel that these addictions would provide them relief from the constant pain in their daily life, even if it’s a temporary relief.  Women, who have had a difficult childhood, face significant problems in having healthy sexual relationships with their partners(McLaughlin, Sheridan & Lambert, H. K. 2014). This can be attributed to the fact that the abuses they have experienced in their childhood have lowered their self-esteem and snatched away their self-confidence. Moreover, they have body image issues and face a constant identity crisis, which makes them socially clumsy. On the other hand children, who have been abused physically, tend to showcase an aggressive behaviour. Most of them are characterized by criminal traits, violent behaviour and are prone to developing self-harm tendencies and attempt suicide. The social interpersonal relationships of these individuals are also significantly hampered. 

The short term effects of deprivation and adversity in childhood are many. They lack in cognitive capabilities from the very childhood and tend to have frequent mood swings. Both their emotional and physical development is significantly hampered and they suffer from attachment security. It becomes very difficult for them to make new friends, adapt themselves at school. They naturally turn extremely apprehensive about people and are unable to trust them as they always fear losing their loved ones. In later life, they are confused about their sexual identity which affects their adolescence deeply in a negative sense. Since these children experience a constant emotional turbulence, their physiologic growth and maturation is hampered equally. However, the pathwaythat leads to an altered physiological development in response to childhood abuse has not been identified yet. However, it is clear that a deprived and compromised childhood is the basis for a disturbed or difficult adult life.

In earlier times institutions played a major role in eliminating or at least minimizing the problem of childhood abuse. These institutions provided shelter to the deprived, unwanted children or children from broken families in their formative years. The children could then be adopted by loving families in order to be nurtured and nourished. It has been seen that children who have been deprived in the childhood, or have been brought up amidst adverse conditions, could cope up with their impacts by the time they stepped into adolescence. Although they could overcome most of the negative impacts of the abuse they have faced in childhood, they still faced difficulties in making friendships or establishing any healthy social relationship. The cultural beliefs often restricts the independence of the children, depending on the societal position of their families, economic background and even the case and religion, which adversely impacts the normal mental development of the children and leads them to suffer from deprivation. This adversely affects the views that are nursed by the children, about the societal norms and about different cultural as well as religious groups, and thus, the way they behave in the society. 

In most cases, it has been seen that children with difficult childhood, who have been raised in institutions, have a normal adult life with very few emotional or behavioural problems. However, some studies have also revealed that children reared in institutions are more likely to develop psychological disorders, behavioural problems, psychosocial issues such as criminal traits, violent behaviour, suicidal tendencies and more prone to problems in interpersonal relationships (Brietzke et al., 2012). Their married life is often hampered and they end up getting divorced from their partners.Researches revealed that for males, it is a difficult childhood that had a greater impact on their adult life, while for females; it is the transition period or adolescence that had a greater impact on their adult lives. The negative impacts of a disturbed childhood can be counteracted with positive experiences at school or colleges, a good partner later in life or a good loving friends and family. On the contrary, a deviant partner, unfavourable environment in educational institutions will not help the individual in any way and instead aggravate their emotional, psychological and mental health issues. Thus family support and the surrounding environment is a major factor deciding whether an individual will be able to overcome the negative impacts of childhood deprivation and adversity and lead a normal adult life. It can also be said that although the negative impacts of a troubled childhood are many, yet the most common one remains to be depression. However in the context of recent times, where violent acts have become a part and parcel of everyday life, the way in which antisocial or criminal behaviours are being triggered by a difficult childhood is of prime importance. This will help several social welfare organizations to adopt measures in order to mitigate the problem.

Since the impact of childhood deprivation and psychosocial responsibilities has been significant, social workers have been working day and night in order to identify the underlying causes behind the problem and to develop measures that would help in solving the issue. There are several teams that deal with the emotional, psychological and social wellbeing of young people. Since the time, when it has been revealed that emotional wellbeing of young adults has a direct connection with childhood deprivation, social workers have been working on developing strategies that would help to mitigate these issues (Hovens et al., 2012). These social workers work in close coordination with the mental health professionals, psychiatrists, psychologists and psychotherapists in order to understand the pathways that lead from troubled childhood to difficult adulthood. These social workers then develop strategies that would help to eliminate these problems. These professionals can stay connected with various nursery schools and primary educational institutes in order to be better acquainted with the risks associated with a deprived childhood. The midwives and G.P’s are responsible for tracking both the physical and emotional development of the children and hence they can provide a better picture of the impact of a troubled childhood on the young adults to the social workers(McLaughlin, 2016). In addition, being constantly around the children, they are able to notice the first signs of deprivation in the child and therefore communicate the same to the human services professional. Moreover, the social workers might educate parents about how family conflict and divorce among parents affects the child. They should consider taking the child out from such unhealthy social environment and send them to an institution that will nurture and nourish them in a healthy environment. The social workers must stay well connected with several rehabilitation centres that will enable them to take the children out of substance abuse, antisocial behaviours, clinical depression, suicidal tendencies and other behavioural or psychosocial issues.

Conclusion

Deprivation and adversity are the two most commonly used terms, whose definitions vary according to the subject. In this essay, deprivation refers to the lack of adequate love and care in the childhood of an individual, where love is the basic necessity for emotional well-being and adversities refer to an unhealthy psychosocial environment that influences a child in a negative manner. The study has been successful in understanding the impact of childhood deprivation and psychosocial adversity on the emotional development and behaviour of a child. It has been observed that parental divorce, family conflict, foetal exposure to drugs and alcohol, child abuse in various public places and at homes, especially sexual abuse, physical abuse are the prime causes leading to a difficult adult life. The implications of such negativities can be manifested later in life as depression, psychopathic behaviours, suicidal tendencies, antisocial criminal like behaviours, violent acts and several others. The social workers have a significant responsibility in mitigating the problemby adopting several measures. These measures would include staying connected with the G.P’s and the midwives in order to know the implications of troubled childhood better. Additionally they would also make the families aware about these issues and staying linked with rehabilitation centres in order to cure the children from the various mental health issues.

References

Brietzke, E., Kauer-Sant’anna, M., Jackowski, A., Grassi-Oliveira, R., Bucker, J., Zugman, A., …&Bressan, R. A. (2012). Impact of childhood stress on psychopathology. RevistaBrasileira de Psiquiatria34(4), 480-488.

Danese, A., & McEwen, B. S. (2012). Adverse childhood experiences, allostasis, allostatic load, and age-related disease. Physiology &behavior106(1), 29-39.

Elder, G. H. (2018). Children of the great depression.Routledge.

Hovens, J. G., Giltay, E. J., Wiersma, J. E., Spinhoven, P., Penninx, B. W., &Zitman, F. G. (2012). Impact of childhood life events and trauma on the course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Actapsychiatricascandinavica126(3), 198-207.

McLaughlin, K. A. (2016). Future directions in childhood adversity and youth psychopathology. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology45(3), 361-382.

McLaughlin, K. A., Green, J. G., Gruber, M. J., Sampson, N. A., Zaslavsky, A. M., & Kessler, R. C. (2012). Childhood adversities and first onset of psychiatric disorders in a national sample of US adolescents. Archives of general psychiatry69(11), 1151-1160.

McLaughlin, K. A., Sheridan, M. A., & Lambert, H. K. (2014). Childhood adversity and neural development: deprivation and threat as distinct dimensions of early experience. Neuroscience &Biobehavioral Reviews47, 578-591.

Varese, F., Smeets, F., Drukker, M., Lieverse, R., Lataster, T., Viechtbauer, W., …&Bentall, R. P. (2012). Childhood adversities increase the risk of psychosis: a meta-analysis of patient-control, prospective-and cross-sectional cohort studies. Schizophrenia bulletin38(4), 661-671.

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Salmonella Enterica Serotype Nosocomial Outbreak

Analysis of research paper abstracts

Research Study 1

Salmonella enterica serovar Oranienburg outbreak in a veterinary medical teaching hospital with evidence of nosocomial and on-farm transmission(having proper abstract)

In case of veterinary medical teaching healthcare organisations, the outbreak of nosocomial Salmonellosis imposes a significant threat to the members of organisations. The main aim of this study is analysing the impact of Salmonellosis outbreak, mainly caused by Salmonella enterica serovar, for highlighting their unique features. These can be applied for reducing or preventing the nosocomial Salmonellosis in upcoming years. In this research study, the researcher(s) has analysed the data of patients having fecal-culture positive Salmonellosis, admitted in the hospital in between the date range of 1 January 2006 to 1 June 2011. The detection of Salmonellosis has been completed through clinical, historical, as well as pulse-field gel electrophoresis data. In this particular veterinary medical healthcare setting, the Salmonella outbreak has been diagnosed among three cows, five alpacas, twenty horses, in the time range of August 2006 to January 2008. The researcher(s) has evaluated that most of the people were infected through either on-farm or nosocomial transmission, which has been proved through the results of molecular sub-typing as well as other supportive epidemiological information. 

Due to the presence of various related Salmonella Oranienburg sub-types, the results obtained from PFGE are difficult in case of analysis and interpretation. Besides this, the interpretation is also harder as most of the infected people have been detected with fecal culture-positive along with the outbreak of Salmonella Oranienburg, almost within 24 hours of hospital admission. Although it has been thought that these patients may open a new window related with the outbreak of nosocomial Salmonellosis, however, their medical report histories show that there were an in-depth connection between their health condition and hospital outbreak among the animals. 

Therefore, this study also represents the fact that the risk of Salmonellosis includes the chances of nosocomial outbreak, which acts as a ‘source of infection’. Besides this, it also depicts the fact that veterinary medical teaching organisations needs to focus on the underscore as the nodes of infection can also spread the transmission route outside from the healthcare organisation. 

Research study 2

Prevalence and characterization of extendedspectrum βlactamaseproducing clinical S almonella enterica isolates in Dakar, Senegal, from 1999 to 2009(not having proper abstract, aim not mentioned)

In Senegalese Reference Centre for Enterobacteria, the scientists have identified approximately a huge number of clinical isolates of Salmonella species; approximately 1623 numbers of clinical isolates belong to 229 serotypes. The study has been performed in the time range of January 1999 to December 2009. Among the isolates, the percentages of serotypes are as 19% Enterotidis, 8% Typhi, 7% Typhinurium, and 4% Kentucky. Besides this, the study also has revealed that the non-typhoidal serotypes of Salmonella show significant resistant level against nalidixic acid and amoxilin. However, for some other significant antibiotics, such as cephalosporine and ciprofloxacin, the resistant level is lower than the previous ones, which are 0.5% and 0.3% respectively. In order to test the molecular basis of this resistant mechanism, a comparative analysis has been followed including three ESC-resistance Senegal strain and seven ESC-resistant Salmonella strains. After successful analysis, it has been assumed that all strains having ESC-resistance nature can produce ESBL or Extended Spectrum B Lactamase. The strains are SHV-2, SHV-12, and CTX-M-15. Among them, total six strains, including three CTX-M-15 and three SHV-12, a larger plasmid like IncHI2 STI pK29, has been found. On the other hand, IncF and IncN have also been found among them. The four strains having capabilities of producing ESBL, can produce plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance or PMQR genes qnrB1 and aac(6′)-Ib-c. This leads to decrease the susceptibility, often develop full resistance towards ciprofloxacin. Therefore, the study concludes that combination of ESBL along with the PMQR mechanisms in different strains impose severe threat and a serious concern.

The main aim of this study is to understand the resistant mechanism followed by Salmonella serotypes, especially ESBl producing clinical Salmonella enterica. The prevalence as well as characterisation of ESBL producing Salmonella species can be understood from this study, which can assist in developing some clinical and medication plan for preventing the outbreak caused by Salmonella serotypes. 

Research Study 3

Nosocomial outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium primarily affecting a pediatric ward in South Africa in 2012 (very small abstract, donot represent major viewpoint, no aim)

In this study, the researcher has focused on an incident of diarrheal disease outbreak caused by ESBL producing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, occurred in a pediatric ward, situated in South Africa. These organisms also show their internal resistant power towards various antibiotics as well as other anti-diarrheal drugs. The study has been conducted in the time range of 2012 May to 2012 July. They have assumed that the most considerable reason behind this outbreak was on-farm infection spreading or person-to-person transmission. A central reason behind this outbreak was infection through absence of proper hygienic standards, absence of sub-optimal disease and infection control approaches, excessive crowing inside treatment area and imbalanced nurse-to-patient ratio. 

The central focus of this study is to understand the transmission mechanism of Salmonella in the pediatric ward of South African healthcare organisation, by which they spread the diarrheal disease in the healthy individuals of involved personnel. Besides this, the current research paper also assists in determining the associated internal and external factors that may have direct or indirect impacts on disease outbreak. 

Research study 4

Antimicrobial and molecular analysis of Salmonella serovar Livingstone strains isolated from humans in Tunisia and Belgium (adequate)

This study represents that most of the nosocomial Salmonellosis has been caused by Salmonella serovar Livingstone, especially between Belgium and Tunisia. The study has been conducted through multilocus sequence typing, virulotyping, and antibiogram. The technique of virulotyping has been carried by simple Polymerase Chain Reaction process, including five chromosomal and two plasmid genes. During the study, the researcher(s) has analysed total 42 types of Salmonall serovar Livingstone through analysing the information collected from the Belgium and Tunisia healthcare organisations. Among the 42 isolated types, 31 strains have been identified from Tunisia people, 9 strains have been isolated from Belgium people, and the rest 2 have identified from food products, including pork and beef.  Through analysing the outcome of this study, it has been assumed that the Tunisian strains can show their resistant power ticarcilin, cefalotin, kanamycin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, and third-generation cephallosporin antibiotics. On the other hand, the Belgium strains show their resistant power towards all the antibiotics involved in this study. Furthermore, the Tunisian strains have revealed that they belong to the ST457 profile whereas the Belgium strains show that they belong to ST453, ST457, and ST638 groups. By analysing the contents present in the virulent genes, it has been assumed that the strains isolated in various years show same virulence profile.  All of these strains carry the five chromosomal genes; however, genes present plasmid-located virulence factors are not present among them. Therefore, the main consequence of this study is that there is a relationship between most Belgium strains and all Tunisian strains, as they show similar virulence type, sequence type. However, they do not have similar resistant profile against popular antibiotics. 

This study helps in determining the reason behind presence of Salmonella serotype Livingstone in Tunisia and Belgium. The antimicrobial and molecular analysis of this strain can assist in understanding the factors related with the outbreak of Salmonellosis among Tunisians and Belgium people. Besides this, the connection between the strains of Tunisia and Belgium can also be reported from this research study. 

Research Study 5

Trends in serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility in Salmonella enterica isolates from humans in Belgiumm (partially adequate)

According to the research study of Belgian National Reference Centre, total 16.544 human isolates of Salmonella species have been identified during the study conducted from Januart 2009 to December 2013. Among the 377 various serotypes, the entire picture has been dominated by two serovar types, which are 55% Typhimurium and 19% Enteritidis. Besides this, significant changes have been identified in the fluctuation rate in case of different serotypes like Stanley, Paratyphi B. Var Java as well as Ohio, during this five year study period. For example, study shows that Belgian Salmonellosis has occupied around 1.2% of the total typhoid strain accout. 

Through focusing on large-scale antibiotic resistance testing, it can be stated that the for the 8 and 3 tested agents, the Enteritidis and Typhimurium strains show the level of resistance declination. Due to the reason of increasing clonal lineages, the resistance against cefotaxime and ciprofloxacine has also been enhanced among the detected strains of Salmonells bacteria. In most of the cases, the quinolone resistance has been determined hrough including serotype-based GyrA residue mutation of Asp87 and Ser83, whereas in 95.5% cases, ciprofloxacin resistance can be caused by the additional ParC_Ser80ile mutation. However, among the 533 isolates having resistant power against nalidixic acid, only 3% show their plasmid-resistant quinolone resistant power. Therefore, from this study, the researcher(s) has assumed that human Salmonella enterica species do not show excessive resistance against cefatoxime and fluoroquinolones. However, due to the reason of increasing number of clonal resistance serotypes, it is required to follow the continuous national or international surveillance standard, for identifying the route cause, analysis, and dissemination of routes. 

This study can be considered as quite uncommon from the traditional study, as it focuses on the serotype distribution trends through aligning with the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica. The identification of Salmonella serotype trends can support in understanding the common occurrences of Salmonellosis, also by determining the factors, causes, and consequences of this trend. 

Research study 6

Antimicrobial resistance and management of invasive Salmonella disease (adequate)

Through analysing the available evidences, it can be mentioned that Invasive Salmonella Infection, either typhoidal or non-typhoidal, can impose a huge threat to the human health, as nearly 600,000 deaths occur every year due to the this disease. Besides this, apparently 3.4 million cases have been documented every year, especially in the resource-restraints settings. Studies suggest that in the Sub-Saharan Africa, the group of immunosuppressive people, especially the children under age of 5, shows excessive vulnerability towards the Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella infections, along with a mortality rate 20-30%. Besides this, the multidrug resistant strains are present among the area, where routine antimicrobial resistance surveillance could not be performed. The strains show resistant against 3rd generation cephalosporins and fluorquinolones, Moreover, many parts of Asia and Africa has been suffered from the emergence issues of typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A. 

The central aim of this study is to analyse the previous evidence and existing numerical data related with the prevalence as well as the epidemiology of invasive Salmonella infection, along with the process of adequate management, especially in the endemic countries. The central problem highlighted in this research study is the increasing number of MDR strains, due to which infection prevention and control become excessively difficult. This issue is mostly vulnerable in the resource limited areas, where the effective antimicrobial agents are either not available or beyond affordable range. Therefore, it can be assumed that although researcher(s) has invented various types of new antimicrobial agents and new techniques of maintaining hygienic standards, it is necessary to consider the WHO recommended typhoid vaccines intervention process or iNTS vaccine trials. 

This research study focuses on investigating the causes behind antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella species, especially in the area where proper management and administration system could not be implicated. Besides this, the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance followed by Salmonella species have also been recognised and evaluated, based on which some prevention mechanisms can also be developed. 

Research Study 7

Rapid draft sequencing and real-time nanopore sequencing in a hospital outbreak of Salmonella (adequate)

Among all the present health concern of people, Salmonella outbreak through food intake can be considered as one of the most common occurrence. This study has been performed through analysing the patients affected by a recent outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteriditis phage-type 14b. The researcher(s) has assumed that certain factors have direct relationship with this disease, such as community standard, national protocols, and many others.  The research study reveals that patients admitted in the hospital having high risks of Salmonella infection. In order to understand the manner of Salmonella infection spreading, whole-genome sequencing through Illumina MiSeq, surveillance sequencing and a new sequencing technology, known as MiniOn, have been followed, which can further assist in managing the nosocomial outbreak of Salmonella. 

The result of this study is associated with a comparison between standard sequencing process and rapid MiSeq sequencing protocol. Researcher(s) reveals that for obtaining authentic and reliable information related with Salmonella outbreak, MiniOn can assist in acquiring real time information within a very limited time. Besides this, the MiniON technology can also provide the opportunity of applying novel phylogentic placement and completing adequate experimental methods. Therefore, it can be concluded from the study that both processes are beneficial in case of collecting actionable and reliable clinical data regarding nosocomial Salmonella outbreak, which can further help in facilitating epidemiological investigations and infection prevention practices.

In order to understand the process of infection spreading, it is necessary to understand the molecular basis of the infection spread by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteriditis. The conventional process of whole-genome sequencing is excessively lengthy and time-consuming. Therefore, the new technology-based whole-genome sequencing method can reduce the issues and provide valid, authentic, reliable, and adequate clinical information necessary for future researches. 

Research Study 8

Nosocomial outbreak of a novel extended-spectrum β-lactamase Salmonella enterica serotype Isangi among surgical patients (adequate)

The invasive Salmonella serotypes infectious disease can increase the morbidity and mortality rate of immune-suppressed people and children and people having HIV infection. The central objective of this study is to investigate the associated protocols, situations, conditions, mechanisms, and control processes, related with nosocomial outbreak of ESBL Salmonella enterica serotype Isangi in a South-eastern Michigan hospital. The mode of transmission has been investigated and analysed through assessing infection control approaches, environmental cultures, case-control studies, and real-time PCR. Besides this, screening of healthcare workers and determination of strains related with the outbreak also has been analysed by pulse-field gel electrophoresis. 

The study includes total 30 people, among them 19 are surgical patient, 10 are patients of organ transplantation, and 1 is healthcare worker. Study reveals that although these patients have various clinical issues, like gastroenteritis, surgical inection, bacteremia, the outcome of pulse-field gel electrophoresis represent 89.5% similarity index among them related with Salmonella infection. Besides this, the intra-operative transesophageal probe of TEE has also been identified as a considerable route of Salmonella transmission, especially among the case patients. Removal of these TEE probes helps in reducing chances of Salmonella outbreak. Therefore, it can be assumed that multiple control and prevention processes are required to implement for interrupting the pathogenic transmission process. Periodic monitoring of TEE re-processing can assist in ensuring optimum level of disinfection. 

This study aims to investigate the possible external transmission route inside hospital premises, which are mostly responsible for the nosocomial outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Isangi. Through this research, it has been proved that similar types of strain can be present in people having various health related issues. Besides this, exposure to infected equipment can also spread the infection within the healthy or immune-suppressed individuals.

Research Study 9

Whole genome sequencing identifies in vivo acquisition of a blaCTX-M-27-encoding IncFII transmissible plasmid as the cause of ceftriaxone treatment failure for an invasive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection (adequate)

A ceftriaxone treatment failure has been reported in case of bacteremia caused by Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica serovar Typhimurium. Due to the reason of in vivo storage of plasmid belongs to IncFII, encoded by blaCTX-M-27, it has been proved that during ceftriaxone treatment process, the ESBL producing isolate ST8825 has been replaced byST931R resistant strain. However, after relapse, ciprofloxacin has been used for treating the patient, and it shows positive result on patient’s health. Whole-genome sequencing of ST8825, ST931R, trans-conjugant of E.coli, and the plasmid DNA isolated from the strains, has been conducted by the researcher(s). After conducting these techniques, it has been showed that identical chromosomes and identical SNPs or single nucleotide polymorphism numbers are present in both strains. The strains can also be identified as isogenic, apart from the presence of 3 extra plasmids present in ST931R. Due to the presence of 60.5 kb IS26-flanked-blaCTX-M-27 encoded IncFII plasmid, the E.coli conjugant and ST931R shows ceftriaxone resistance power. Besides this, both strains have 3904 cryptic bp replicon and similar virulence plasmid like pSLT14028s of 94kb. 62 kb IncI2 and 93 kb cryptic IncII are present in ST931R.

From this research paper, various molecular details can be understood, which are revealed through whole-genome sequencing process. Besides this, the similarity and differences among ST8825 strain and St931R strain of Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica serovar Typhimurium has also been identified in this study. This information can help in future studies related with nosocomial outbreak of Salmonella species. 

Research Study 10

Serotype diversity and antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella enterica isolated from patients at an equine referral hospital (adequate)

Previous studies suggest that most of the Salmonella serotypes can cause life-threatening illness, especially in the horses; however, some specific serotypes are extensively associated with the infection processes as well as clinical diseases. The focus of this study is the evaluation of proportional morbidity rate, related with various Salmonella serotypes, along with its genotypic and phenotypic antimicrobial resistance pattern. Researcher(s) has studies the patients of Equine referral hospital, situated in the United States. Through analysing, the patients admitted in the time range of 2007 to 2015, total 255 numbers of serotypes have been collected from the clinical samples. Besides this, the US National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System has determined resistances against 14 antibiotics, through a commercial available panel. In order to identify the genotype and serotype AMR, whole genome sequencing has been used. The study reveals various serotypes, including 18% Newport, 15.2% Anatum, and 11.8% Braenderup , among which most are pan-susceptible and around 25 are MDR. Besides this, gene encoded beta-encoded resistance power has also been detected. Due to the presence of qnrB2 as well as aac(6′)-Ib-cr genes, reduction of ciprofloxacin susceptibility has also been observed. Resistance against gentamicin, streptomucin, trimethoprim, sulphonamides, phenicols, tetracyclines, and macrolides has also been determined from the study result. Therefore, the study concludes that AMR Salmonella can enhance the risk of unsuccessful treatment process among of the equine patients, resulting significant types of zoonotic transmission. 

This paper is helpful for understanding the prevalence of Salmonella serotypes causing zoonotic infection, which can further cause human health issues, especially among those involved with veterinary care. 

Analysis of Scientific Publications

Paper Structure

A critical analysis of the ten papers has been provided in a normal format that is generally provided on a scientific research paper. The abstract of all the 10 papers provided in-depth analysis of the subject. There has been a proper insight about the topic that are well structured and pre-planned. It answers all the questions of the subject and provides effective findings and outcomes. However, it needs to be noted that abstract of the research 2 “Prevalence and characterization of extended‐spectrum β‐lactamase‐producing clinical S almonella enteric” do not have a proper abstract. The research paper has failed to provide appropriate aims. Thus, this particular research did not address the gaps and is not well structured for the study. 

The methodology of all the research paper has been described in details. All the steps and supplement data have been provided appropriately. The results and the analysis portion have provided the authenticity of the data collection. However, there has been no methodology in the research 6 “Research study 6: Antimicrobial resistance and management of invasive Salmonella disease” and Research 7 “Rapid draft sequencing and real-time nanopore sequencing in a hospital outbreak of Salmonella”. Thus, without methodology proper conclusion and recommendation cannot be provided. Thus, the research questions are not answered in the research paper 6 and 7. 

Facets of good abstract

A good abstract is always well- structured and brief that is divided into paragraphs and is specific to the point. A proper abstract must be condensed, formatted and provide details of the entire project without deviating from the subject. A good abstract must include the aim of the subject, the purpose of the study, background of the research, methodology, data analysis and recommendations. There must be a flow among all these parts so that the learner can understand the findings and the results. There must be a consistency between the information provided in the abstract and the overall summary of the research paper. A good abstract is essential, as it is the first thing that is analyzed during the review process. Moreover, it helps the learner and other researchers to understand the topic and its discussion. It also assists the learner to understand the main subject and analyze its findings. By studying and analyzing the observations, it can be concluded that the arguments provided in a good abstract addresses the three basic points i.e. What, How and What’s New. 

Adherence to the golden rule

PaperAuthorsMeets Golden Rule?Abstract made me want to read paperAbstract conveyed all essential info from paper
1Cummings et al., 2014YesYesYes
2Harrois et al., 2014partiallyPartiallyPartially yes
3Smith et al., 2014SlightlypartiallyNot that much
4Guedda et al., 2014almostPartiallyPartially yes
5Ceyssens  et al., 2015partiallypartiallyAlmost yes
6Kariuki et al., 2015yesyesYes
7Quick  et al., 2015yesyesYes
8Suleyman et al., 2015yesyesyes
9McCollister et al., 2016


10Leon et al.,  2018


Peer-review process of ‘Antimicrobial agents and Chemotherapy’ journal (5, 9)

Articles used from this journal:

Article 5: “Ceyssens, P.J., Mattheus, W., Vanhoof, R. and Bertrand, S., 2015. Trends in serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility in Salmonella enterica isolates from humans in Belgium, 2009 to 2013. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 59(1), pp.544-552. http://aac.asm.org/content/59/1/544.full.pdf

 Article 9: “McCollister, B., Kotter, C.V., Frank, D.N., Washburn, T. and Jobling, M.G., 2016. Whole genome sequencing identifies in vivo acquisition of a blaCTX-M-27-encoding IncFII transmissible plasmid as the cause of ceftriaxone treatment failure for an invasive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, pp.AAC-01649. http://aac.asm.org/content/early/2016/09/20/AAC.01649-16.full.pdf

The Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy Journal is a journal having good impact factor due their peer-review process. Editors, qualified Ad-Hoc viewers and members of the editorial board review the articles that researchers submit. The journal management understand the need for efficacy and speedy publication process. Hence, the management board also requests the authors to suggest at least three reviewers for review. The policy demands that these reviewers are not from the same institutions to the author. The pre-review process includes the manuscript as well as the in-press and submitted manuscripts, which are essential for reviewing. The journal board also assigns at least two peer-reviewers who are anonymous to the author. These reviewers are also kept blind as to the identity of the author in order to conserve the integrity of the review process. The timeframe for review is then communicated to the reviewers. The modifications are then communicated to the author and a timeframe is provided, which is between 4 to 6 weeks. However, if the author fails to submit the modifications within the said timeframe the manuscript is then withdrawn from the publication process. 

In the situation of rejection, the journal management establishes that the reasons for rejection is clearly cited and mentioned in a separate file. The same is then communicated to the author and an option for re-submission is given. This is aimed towards ensuring motivation and provides encouragement to the authors. The resubmission policy by the journal management requires that a cover letter should be present with the resubmitted article stating the cause and mentioning that the article is a resubmission. It is clear that the overall review policy is comprehensive and governed with stringent guidelines. This effectively ensures the relevance, authenticity and integrity of the articles published in the journal.

Contribution to scientific integrity

In the present time, peer review is considered the base of every scholarly publication system for the reason that it successfully focuses upon the work of the author in reaction to the examination and analysis of other professionals in the same field. Therefore, it encourages the authors to endeavor in producing higher and better quality research, which will help in advancing the field. Peer review further maintains and supports the authenticity and integrity in the advancement and progress of science. A scientific statement or hypothesis is commonly not acknowledged by the different academic communities unless the work has been published in any peer-reviewed journal. The ISI (Institution for Scientific information) only takes under consideration the journals, which are peer-reviews as entrants in order to obtain Impact factors. It is considered a entrenched and ingrained process that is considered a formal section of scientific communication for nearly 300 years (Jacalyn Kelly, 2014). 

The process of peer review commences when a particular scientist finishes a research and notes down a manuscript, which talks about the experimental design, purpose, conclusion and results of the research. Subsequent to this, the researcher submits the paper to some appropriate journal specializing in the concerned research field. This step is known as the pre-submission step. The journal editors then review the submitted paper in order to ensure the reliability and content of the paper. Once the paper is passed is passed by the editors, it is moved forward to the peer reviewers for final evaluation before the publication of the journal.

Credibility of non refereed conference presentations and online material

A non-refereed publication refers to the publications that are published without being peer reviewed. When an individual publishes a paper, they tend to always be restricted in scope and size; that is, the publication must adhere to the key topic of the discussion and must be completed within a certain page limit. However, if these limitations are removed, the publisher will able to produce the paper without any filter; thus, providing better information and data (Liyanagunawardena et al., 2013). These publications are however, not real or actual publications, as they do not have much difference from the original content it has been taken from, but are applicable when one is interested in availing additional information on a certain topic. Irrespective of the fact that these non-referred conferences are not actual publications, the authenticity or reliability of these publications cannot be always questioned. However, sometimes the data and facts used in the non-refereed reading materials may not provide the readers with the current and pertaining information; thus, misleading the readers. The peer-reviewed journals are however, edited and reviewed through a long series; therefore, leaving no scope of unauthentic or unreliable information on the concerted subject. As a result, individuals tend to opt for refereed journals for availing information in comparison to non-refereed journals.

Percentage of unreliable references

There were no unreliable references used in this context, as all the study materials such as peer-reviewed journals, articles and other content materials were selected on the basis of their authenticity and reliability. Most of the journals provided ample amount of required information concerning the topic. However, there were some of the journals which could have been more elaborative and in-depth content on the topic; thus, making it more elaborative. Nonetheless, the content was reliable and provided accurate information. 

DOIs and ISBNs

Digital Object Identifier or DOI is referred to a persistent handle or identifier that is used in order to identify things that are standardised by the ISO (International organization for Standardization). The functioning of the identifier system, DOIs are extensively used in order to identify, professional, academic as well as government information. These information are generally found in the form of articles, data sets, journals and research reports, official publications and so forth (Paskin, 2010). 

On the other hand, International Standard Book Number or ISBN is referred to a unique and “significant numeric commercial book identifier”, that the publishers buy from certain associate of the International agency of ISBN. It is further assigned to every variation and editor of a particular book. For instance, a paperback, e-book or a hand-cover edition of a similar book will encompass a different ISBN number (Carnoy and Shearer, 2016). 

Reference List

Carnoy, M. and Shearer, D., 2016. Economic Democracy (Routledge Revivals): The Challenge of the 1980s. Routledge.

Ceyssens, P.J., Mattheus, W., Vanhoof, R. and Bertrand, S., 2015. Trends in serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility in Salmonella enterica isolates from humans in Belgium, 2009 to 2013. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy59(1), pp.544-552. 

Cummings, K.J., Rodriguez-Rivera, L.D., Mitchell, K.J., Hoelzer, K., Wiedmann, M., McDonough, P.L., Altier, C., Warnick, L.D. and Perkins, G.A., 2014. Salmonella enterica serovar Oranienburg outbreak in a veterinary medical teaching hospital with evidence of nosocomial and on-farm transmission. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases14(7), pp.496-502. 

Guedda, I., Taminiau, B., Ferjani, A., Boukadida, J., Bertrand, S. and Daube, G., 2014. Antimicrobial and molecular analysis of Salmonella serovar Livingstone strains isolated from humans in Tunisia and Belgium. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries8(08), pp.973-980. 

Harrois, D., Breurec, S., Seck, A., Delauné, A., Le Hello, S., Pardos de la Gándara, M., Sontag, L., Perrier‐Gros‐Claude, J.D., Sire, J.M., Garin, B. and Weill, F.X., 2014. Prevalence and characterization of extended‐spectrum β‐lactamase‐producing clinical S almonella enterica isolates in Dakar, Senegal, from 1999 to 2009. Clinical Microbiology and Infection20(2), pp.O109-O116. 

Jacalyn Kelly, K. (2014). Peer Review in Scientific Publications: Benefits, Critiques, & A Survival Guide. EJIFCC, [online] 25(3), p.227. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4975196/ [Accessed 12 Sep. 2018].

Kariuki, S., Gordon, M.A., Feasey, N. and Parry, C.M., 2015. Antimicrobial resistance and management of invasive Salmonella disease. Vaccine33, pp.C21-C29. 

Leon, I.M., Lawhon, S.D., Norman, K.N., Threadgill, D.S., Ohta, N., Vinasco, J. and Scott, H.M., 2018. Serotype diversity and antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella enterica isolated from patients at an equine referral hospital. Applied and environmental microbiology, pp.AEM-02829. 

Liyanagunawardena, T.R., Adams, A.A. and Williams, S.A., 2013. MOOCs: A systematic study of the published literature 2008-2012. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning14(3), pp.202-227.

McCollister, B., Kotter, C.V., Frank, D.N., Washburn, T. and Jobling, M.G., 2016. Whole genome sequencing identifies in vivo acquisition of a blaCTX-M-27-encoding IncFII transmissible plasmid as the cause of ceftriaxone treatment failure for an invasive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, pp.AAC-01649. 

Paskin, N., 2010. Digital object identifier (DOI®) system. Encyclopedia of library and information sciences3, pp.1586-1592.

Quick, J., Ashton, P., Calus, S., Chatt, C., Gossain, S., Hawker, J., Nair, S., Neal, K., Nye, K., Peters, T. and De Pinna, E., 2015. Rapid draft sequencing and real-time nanopore sequencing in a hospital outbreak of Salmonella. Genome Biology16(1), p.114. 

Smith, A.M., Mthanti, M.A., Haumann, C., Tyalisi, N., Boon, G.P., Sooka, A., Keddy, K.H. and GERMS-SA Surveillance Network, 2014. Nosocomial outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium primarily affecting a pediatric ward in South Africa in 2012. Journal of clinical microbiology52(2), pp.627-631. 

Suleyman, G., Tibbetts, R., Perri, M.B., Vager, D., Xin, Y., Reyes, K., Samuel, L., Chami, E., Starr, P., Pietsch, J. and Zervos, M.J., 2016. Nosocomial outbreak of a novel extended-spectrum β-lactamase Salmonella enterica serotype Isangi among surgical patients. infection control & hospital epidemiology37(8), pp.954-961. 

In numerical order

  1. Cummings, K.J., Rodriguez-Rivera, L.D., Mitchell, K.J., Hoelzer, K., Wiedmann, M., McDonough, P.L., Altier, C., Warnick, L.D. and Perkins, G.A., 2014. Salmonella enterica serovar Oranienburg outbreak in a veterinary medical teaching hospital with evidence of nosocomial and on-farm transmission. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases14(7), pp.496-502. 
  2. Harrois, D., Breurec, S., Seck, A., Delauné, A., Le Hello, S., Pardos de la Gándara, M., Sontag, L., Perrier‐Gros‐Claude, J.D., Sire, J.M., Garin, B. and Weill, F.X., 2014. Prevalence and characterization of extended‐spectrum β‐lactamase‐producing clinical S almonella enterica isolates in Dakar, Senegal, from 1999 to 2009. Clinical Microbiology and Infection20(2), pp.O109-O116. 
  3. Smith, A.M., Mthanti, M.A., Haumann, C., Tyalisi, N., Boon, G.P., Sooka, A., Keddy, K.H. and GERMS-SA Surveillance Network, 2014. Nosocomial outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium primarily affecting a pediatric ward in South Africa in 2012. Journal of clinical microbiology52(2), pp.627-631. 
  4. Guedda, I., Taminiau, B., Ferjani, A., Boukadida, J., Bertrand, S. and Daube, G., 2014. Antimicrobial and molecular analysis of Salmonella serovar Livingstone strains isolated from humans in Tunisia and Belgium. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries8(08), pp.973-980. 
  5. Ceyssens, P.J., Mattheus, W., Vanhoof, R. and Bertrand, S., 2015. Trends in serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility in Salmonella enterica isolates from humans in Belgium, 2009 to 2013. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy59(1), pp.544-552. 
  6. Kariuki, S., Gordon, M.A., Feasey, N. and Parry, C.M., 2015. Antimicrobial resistance and management of invasive Salmonella disease. Vaccine33, pp.C21-C29. 
  7. Quick, J., Ashton, P., Calus, S., Chatt, C., Gossain, S., Hawker, J., Nair, S., Neal, K., Nye, K., Peters, T. and De Pinna, E., 2015. Rapid draft sequencing and real-time nanopore sequencing in a hospital outbreak of Salmonella. Genome Biology16(1), p.114. 
  8. Suleyman, G., Tibbetts, R., Perri, M.B., Vager, D., Xin, Y., Reyes, K., Samuel, L., Chami, E., Starr, P., Pietsch, J. and Zervos, M.J., 2016. Nosocomial outbreak of a novel extended-spectrum β-lactamase Salmonella enterica serotype Isangi among surgical patients. infection control & hospital epidemiology37(8), pp.954-961. 
  9. McCollister, B., Kotter, C.V., Frank, D.N., Washburn, T. and Jobling, M.G., 2016. Whole genome sequencing identifies in vivo acquisition of a blaCTX-M-27-encoding IncFII transmissible plasmid as the cause of ceftriaxone treatment failure for an invasive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, pp.AAC-01649. 
  10. Leon, I.M., Lawhon, S.D., Norman, K.N., Threadgill, D.S., Ohta, N., Vinasco, J. and Scott, H.M., 2018. Serotype diversity and antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella enterica isolated from patients at an equine referral hospital. Applied and environmental microbiology, pp.AEM-02829. 
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NMBA is the higher level courses in Australia in the field of nursing. It is a very demandable course. On or around 3000 nurses are participating in the NMBA course in Australia. Development of the health care system is increasing the demand for this course. It is also a reliable course that can make nurses more professional in their field of expertise.

The main concern of nursing is to provide a proper health care support to the patient. This profession needs more dedicated and soft hearted people who can feel the others. As nursing bridges the connection between the doctor and the patient they need to be more careful and caring. It is a best place if you want to serve the society with all your heart, the scope is open for you.

Nursing includes a diverse area of courses. They ensure a secure healthcare and take care of the patients. It is a subject that includes physical science, sociology, medical science and other aspects of life science. Nurses are the authorized body as they have LPN that stands for Licensed Practical Nurse that is important for nursing to work under an RN. RN is enlisted as the higher position than LPN.

In Australia there are a lot of nursing institutes who provides these degrees and certify nurses as registered and give them the authority to work freely. The courses are arranged in different levels and the course outline is different. Mostly it takes 4 years to complete the course and pursue the degree in the field of nursing. The area of nursing is broad and it is arranged in numerous sectors. You can contact to https://www.assignmenthero.com/ for details about the nursing courses and any kind of assignment help. We are here to guide you with your assessments and you can have an accurate information about nursing from us.

Nursing Assignment Help with the Experts

Nursing students need to submit different essays, research papers, and other assignments in order to make the students more proficient. Most of the assignments requires critical reasoning, analytical skills, clinical expertise etc. for good grades. Nursing students find it really difficult to finish all the tasks and submit the assignments timely. Experts of AssignmentHero are there to complete your whole assignment and they are more concerned about all the requirements as they have all the basic ideas about nursing. Our experts are prominent in solving any type of nursing assignments easily as they are also from the same background.

10 advantages of choosing AssignmentHero as your assignment assistant are as follows:

  1. Nursing assignments are designed to affirm the skills of a student, our experts are ready to assist you with your assignment at any level
  2. Experts of AssignmentHero are able to assist you to compose a nursing research paper with the help of valid and updated information
  3. Our experts of AssignmentHero are much concerned about the quality and standard of your assignment. Whenever you place an order our team of experts analyze the whole task and split the task for better result.
  4. AssignmentHero allows you to allocate any significant part of your assignment to us for composing the critical parts with the help of the experts.
  5. AssignmentHero helps you to create a paper of your own by establishing your intuition with the combination of logical and numerical application.
  6. AssignmentHero guaranty you a plagiarism free unique assignment. you just need to place your requirements here https://www.assignmenthero.com/express and your assignment becomes our responsibility.
  7. Our expert teams are able to compose any nursing assignment proficiently as they are focused to the fundamentals of the subject and they are enlightened with the nursing procedure.
  8. Experts of AssignmentHero are skillful and creative in their way of working. We are always ready to provide you support at any courses of nursing, weather it is Diploma in nursing, Bachelors in nursing or Masters in nursing.
  9. Our assignment service comes with a multiple revision phases. So the chance of any mistakes are erratic. We have PhD level experts who are able to assist you with any of your required tasks.
  10. AssignmentHero offers you a quality assignment with an affordable price. With the help of AssignmentHero you will be able to fulfill all the requirements needed for the progression to the next level.

AssignmentHero is promised to provide you the best quality assignments at any diverse field of education. As nursing is a critical subject to study at, we are offering team of experts to lessen the burdens of your shoulder. For more details, please visit https://www.assignmenthero.com/

Being one of the successful assignment help services we are always open for you to help you with your nursing assignments. Whenever you are stuck with the assignment just place an order to https://www.assignmenthero.com/express and let us complete the task for you. We assure you a reliable, quality assignment which will be delivered on time. 

Five steps that can boost your academic grades in nursing

Nursing assignments requires a lot of hard working and critical assessments. You need to have adequate knowledge and expertise to write a nursing assignment. You have to go through numerous steps to compose each of your nursing assignments. Here are the 5 easiest steps that can boost up your academic grades. These steps are:

Step 1: Be aware of the topic before you start writing: Before you start composing your nursing assignment, you need to have proper knowledge about the topic and the field of nursing. If you have little knowledge you won’t be able to write the full assignment appropriately. For this reason first you need to assemble all the necessary lessons and information before you start working on your assignment.

Step 2: Follow the guidelines: For each of your nursing assignments your course instructor will set some specific criteria. You must follow those as guidelines for your assignments. You need to understand the total work from the very beginning and then you need to split the work according to its importance to stick to the instructions. Follow a particular structure for your nursing assignment.

Step 3: Focus on the concept: you need to exhibit your learning in your composed assignment. For that you need to study more and collect all the relevant components for your assignment and apply those learnings to your assignments. It will help you to produce a far reaching successful assignment.

Step 4: Use logical and numerical terms: In nursing you will find a lot of logical terms and numerical data that can help you to support your outcome of the assignment. These are powerful tools that can justify your decision and make your assignment viable. It will help you to maintain the standard of your assignment.

Step 5: Present the effectiveness of your assignment: Your nursing assignment should talk about the nursing process and extensive learning process. Your nursing assignment need to showcase all your efforts and participation in the work. The main focus of the assignment and the outcome should be presented in a proficient way.

AssignmentHero offers nursing assignment writing with the expert’s assistance. Our experts are always available to help you with their years of experience. AssignmentHero proposes you totally plagiarism free and authentic content. Please visit https://www.assignmenthero.com/express to place your nursing assignment now. If you need your assignment on an urgent basis you can also contact us at any time. To read more about nursing assignment help visit https://blog.assignmenthero.com/nursing-assignment-help-by-assignmenthero/

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Nursing Assignment Help

Nursing Assignment Help

Nursing is an art and science that is designed to provide every possible care to all living beings. The core purpose of nursing is to help the patients to recover their illness by offering them the best services. Nursing is termed as a health care profession that creates a relationship between the patient and the nurse. Nurses are appointed for their specialization in safeguarding patient’s health. This profession demands sympathy and dedication at its center. For the improvement of health and provide patients the best services, they work relentlessly. Nursing includes a wide range of services to the community, such as taking care of the injured, old people, babies, families etc. At the very first place, they assess the main problem and make a proper diagnosis plan. After that they offer the best available services to the patients. AssignmentHero is such a site which claims to provide best quality nursing assignments to the students within the required time. For more details visit https://www.assignmenthero.com/

Nursing Courses Available in Australia

There are a lot of courses open for you in the field of nursing, in Australia. You can pursue a Diploma, Bachelors, Masters & PhD in nursing from different universities. From the broad category of institutes you can choose the one that mostly matches with your interest. The first step of nursing starts with your appearance in the TAFE also known as college level courses. After passing the level you are free to choose the working area from the available courses in Australia.

Nursing is not an easy subject. It requires a lot of hardworking and patience. A wide variety of fields are related to the subject and it covers different areas. Assignments include actual care, medical- surgical care, intensive care, nurse practitioner etc. Sometimes students get nervous as the syllabus covers a massive area in comparison to your attained knowledge.   Then it opens up a depressing situation that can easily dampen your confidence. Don’t get panicked, https://www.assignmenthero.com/ we are always there to help you out. AssignmentHero is offering the facility to get assignment on different fields of nursing with the expert’s assistance.  AssignmentHero includes a wide range of experts who maintains professionalism in assignments. They maintains the guideline properly and delivers a quality assignment solving all the difficulties in a simple way.

Popular Nursing Courses in Australia

There are a lot of nursing courses open for you. At present, new courses related to this field are being developed and are opened as a new sphere of profession. You can choose any of the courses according to your area of interest. In Australia, local students as well as overseas students get the chance of choosing any of the nursing courses. These courses are designed to prepare nursing students for the next level.

Now let us discuss some of the popular nursing courses available in Australia:

Diploma of Nursing

Diploma of Nursing is the very first level of nursing. It is also addressed as an entry-level of nursing. To pursue the nursing course you need to fulfill some specific requirements. In Australia, Year 12 is a must if you decide to get admitted in any nursing course. Some nursing institutes require Year 12 that includes the subject Mathematics. In Australia the minimum age for getting enroll in any nursing course is 18 years. If you’re an overseas student you must accomplish the requirements for English language.

The Diploma in nursing course varies as the areas are different. In Australia, generally the time-period for a Diploma course is 1.5 to 2 years for a full time student. The time-period is 2 to 3 years for a part time nursing student.

Sometimes academic background and mental ability are tested as a requirement for Diploma course. This is how students are assessed for the nursing course. To get enrolled in Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (APHRA) you need to complete your Diploma course first. After completing your course you will receive the title of a nurse.

TAFE is another equivalent course that offers Diploma. TAFE are a very popular and available institutions in Australia. It is designed to broaden your knowledge and skills in the field of nursing. AssignmentHero can best help you with your TAFE assignments. For details please visit https://www.assignmenthero.com/

Diploma is such a course that is mostly designed to be managed as a hospital program. Diploma itself is hospital based not college based course. The primary module of this Diploma course is clinical training. As it is more focused on clinical base there are less theoretical components. Diploma in nursing does not make a student a registered nurse but it gives you the authorization to work on acute care, rehabilitation, mental health, palliative care, community care, operating theatres, nursing homes, pathology, maternity, aged care etc.

Bachelor of Nursing

Bachelors of nursing is the higher degree that is designed to provide professional expertise. It is 4 years course that will help you to learn different process of nursing. Bachelor of nursing is more dedicated to theory of nursing and nursing process. This course is designed to expand the area of your knowledge in the nursing field through nursing practice. Social and behavioral science, liberal arts, food and nutrition, anatomy, chemistry, mathematics, English are the courses relevant to nursing as additional courses. For Bachelor’s degree you also need to take some other courses like physical science, social science, leadership, communication, critical thinking etc.

Students get the chance to get them admitted into the bachelor’s after they completed their Year 12. For that you need to pass social science as well. Bachelor’s degree requires some other courses for adding your skills in different fields. After completing bachelors you can register your name as a nurse. APHRA authorizes your name as a registered nurse once you finish the nursing course.  It is not easy to pass every level of courses with distinction as there are many courses and the time period is really short, https://www.assignmenthero.com/ is there to always support you and complete your assignments with original content.

Master of Nursing

Masters in nursing is a graduate degree that helps to become more skilled in the field of nursing. Master’s degree helps you improve and gather skills and training in nursing. You are also free to choose any of the professional field you want. It is designed to provide you the depth knowledge of nursing.

There are some prerequisite for the master’s degree. The utmost requirement for this degree is bachelor’s of nursing. You also need to be registered with the APHRA. Some of the institutions that offers master’s degree might ask you for admission tests. After that you might need to face an interview session. Here, in Australia the duration for the course may vary. It takes 2 or more years to complete the full course. After completing the course you will be entitled as Nurse Practitioner (NP). After completing Master’s degree in nursing you will get extra benefit as you will be considered as a professional expert.

For all of these courses you need assistance, as these courses are designed to bring out the best of you. AssignmentHero is the site that can ensure you a quality assignment with an affordable price. Please visit https://www.assignmenthero.com/express to place your order now.

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Pain in Children: Assessment and Non pharmacological Management

Article “Pain in Children: Assessment and Non pharmacological Management”

Background of the study:

a. The study focused on a specific health issues that is children’s experience different level of pain and the impact of that pain. Pain is a stressful experience for the children; this has negative impact on the children which is not good for the mental growth.  Different psychological problems like distress and anxiety, depression and much long term impact on behavior can cause due to pain (Rasha, 2010). So, care professionals should keep this in mind and more clinical improvement is needed for bringing painless medical procedure for the children aged 0-18 years. The concern of this study is analyzing the impact of pain and distress on children.  

b. Results from previous studies indicate that pain can cause emotional damage with potential tissue damage. People’s perceptions regarding pain is complex and this is connected with psychological behavior and development factors. The impact of pain is underestimated by care professionals and parents, but this can bring long term change in children’s behavior and perception.

C. the significance of the study is the impact of pain in children and the responsibilities of Health care management regarding this. The impact of pain is different in different age, so health care workers should have the ability to detect the symptoms of pain of different people. This kind of research is important for understanding the impact and

2. Overview of Research Design:

A. Aim of the research:

The aim of the research is to show the impact of pain on children and why people should give concentration on this.

B. Research design:

It is a qualitative Open Access journal; it is research article which gives an idea about the impact of pain in infant, children and adolescents.

C. The main characteristics of the research design are it gives a clear idea about the situation. Analysis and description has been given from the author’s perception and the data which has been collected through different research. Author has given suggestion about how this problem can be managed (Morton, 2010). Comparison among the information which is shown in other research also described here, and the problems of latest research regarding this issue also have been discussed.

D. the aim of the study is giving an inside about the impact of pain on children’s and capturing people’s attention that they should give concentration on this issue. This article has given a clear idea about the different impact of pain and what are the negative consequences of this. This research design gave an open analysis on this topic, so people will easily understand this. This research design has achieved the aim of the study successfully by giving a open discussion on this topic, so people will understand this easily.

3. Sampling tools:

The participants of this research are 19 people; those are randomly chosen for this research, among them 9 mothers, 2 fathers and 4 mother and father pair. People have been chosen randomly among the people who visit in the health care organization regarding child care issues.

This is an inclusion criteria of the sample as this article gives a clear description about the topic. The concept is completely clear in this article, and the aim also achieved successfully (McGrath, 2014).

Identifying the criteria before starting the recruitment is important as this allows designing the research in properly. Different research is conduct for different objective so this should be clarified properly before starting recruitment.

For this research a systematic sampling techniques has been chosen. People have been chosen carefully among the population and this has been ensured they have knowledge about this issue.

Systematic sampling helps to get the desire outcome, the aim of the topic is pain in children, this is a health issue and many researchers are concern about this. Most of the people do not have knowledge about this and they are now aware about this issue. So, it’s important that parents and care workers become aware about the impact of pain on children.

4. Data collection:

Data has been collected through survey, sample has been chosen and discussion was made. This has helped to collect people’s opinion regarding the impact of pain on children’s. Parents and care workers should give focus on this, as this can cause long term impact on a children’s behavior (Hagan, 2015). Along with this secondary has been collected from previous researchers which have been conduct on this topic.

Researchers have collected data in primary and secondary data collection method. In primary method, they chosen sample carefully, they took interview of some mother, some father and some pair of parents. This helped them to understand different people’s perceptions regarding this. This is the specialty of this research.

The aim of the research is showing the impact of aim on children. Children of different age has different impact of the pain, the negative impact also depends on their perception, behavior and psychology. Children’s perceptions and behavior is affected by their parents, they learn from their parents (Hamers, 2010). Along with this, parents can give proper information about their children’s. So, collecting data from the father, mother and parents of children is helpful for achieving the aim of the research.

Primary and secondary data collection methods are the most suitable and accepted methods for a research. This helps to make a research more reliable and accepted. The advantage of primary method is, it gives relevant and authentic information. Disadvantage is, it’s time consuming and require lots of resources. Secondary data collection method is simple and easy to collect data, this are the advantages. Disadvantage is the relevancy of the data cannot be ensured. So, during the data collection for this research, this advantages and disadvantages has been faced by researcher.

Researchers can use observation data collection method as an alternative data collection technique for this research. Observation is also a useful tool and most of the case researchers get much important information which primary and secondary research cannot provide. For collecting information in this method, researchers can observe the behavior of children and their parents (Roberts, 2016).

5. Data analysis:

Data is analyzed after collecting those from different sources before representing those in the research paper. For this research data has been analyzed for ensuring the relevancy and then that is described in qualitative technique. Different tools have been used for successfully analyzing the data.

Qualitative research is basically descriptive; this gives detail discussion of the issue. On the other hand quantitative research shows statistics and numerical information. Using proper data collection is equally important for both the methods. In qualitative method information is collected from different sources for providing lots of information, so for getting relevant information choosing appropriate method for analyzing data is crucial. Proper analyze helps to describe the information’s clearly (Polit, 2012).

Rigour of the analysis is providing proper example and evaluation of the methods.  In qualitative research, different examples and real scenario is described for making the research more relevant. Different case is represented and proper analysis is done for making the research completely perfect and accepted. Researchers have gave detail discussion and gave proper justification where needed. They have given description of real life situation and successfully achieved the aim of the research.

The finding of the study is pain is not good for children’s, this changes people’s perception regarding same type of situation. Care professionals do not give any attention on this issue, but they should bring change in the system. Changes in medication and treatment process are necessary for managing this situation (Moule, 2009). Children’s are sensitive and they are emotional, they can feel the pain more extensively then adults. This can cause different kind of psychological problem. Sometime this can also cause problems in children’s growth process. This research has given detail information about the impacts of pain on children’s, and what kind of initiative responsible authority should take for managing this situation.  

This finding can be transferred in other different setting; in education sector this finding can be implemented. This can help to expend this information among people, so people will become aware. Children’s should get proper attention in every sector as they can face the pain in different aspects of life. So, parents should understand children’s problems so that they can easily solve the problems.

Reference:

Rasha Srouji, Savithiri Ratnapalan, and Suzan Schneeweiss, 2010.  Pain in Children: Assessment and Nonpharmacological Management, Available in: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpedi/2010/474838/

Morton NS. Pain assessment in children. 2010 Paediatric Anaesthesia. 1997;7(4):267–272. [PubMed]

McGrath PJ, Frager G 2014. Psychological barriers to optimal pain management in infants and children. The Clinical Journal of Pain. 1996;12(2):135–141. [PubMed]

Hagan JF, Jr., Coleman WL, Foy JM, et al. 2015.  The assessment and management of acute pain in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2001;108(3):793–797. [PubMed]

Abu-Saad HH, Hamers JPH. 2010 Decision-making and paediatric pain: a review. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 1997;26(5):946–952. [PubMed]

aylor, B. and Roberts, K. (2016). Reviewing the literature. In: B. Taylor, ed., Research in Nursing and Health Care: Evidence for Practice, 3rd ed. Australia: Cengage Learning, p.86.

Polit, D. and Beck, C. (2012). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice, 8th edition. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/lippincott Williams & Wilkins, p.72.

Moule, P. and Goodman, M. (2009). Nursing Research: An Introduction. London: SAGE publications ltd, p.127.

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