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CLOUD COMPUTING Assignment Help by AssignmentHero

Question 1

Commercial and business issues related to cloud computing are:

  • Security or privacy issues
  • Cost management issues
  • Compliance issues
  • Password security issues
  • Data privacy issues
  • Lack of expertise or resources issues
  • Control or governance issues
  • Performance issues
  • Reliability issues

Question 2

Specific areas of responsibility in terms of security in an enterprise includes the following

  • CISO (Chief Information Security Officer)
  • Technical manager
  • Managers of security programs
  • Senior analyst of security

Therefore, in order to protect the security within the organization certain application such as Firewall application, anti-virus, VAPT and much other application regarding security can be installed in each area of operation (Aldossary & Allen, 2016).

Question 3

Most relevant control of the security of an enterprise can be firewall application. It can be implemented within the organization as it helps in scanning all the outgoing as well as incoming information of the company. This way the company and its privacy can be well maintained and protected. 

In order to implement the application, the company’s IT managers need to install within the servers of the company (Aljawarneh & Yassein, 2016). 

Question 4

According to the compliance regulation of the company in the of data storage, the privacy of the customers of the company as well as the employee of the company should be maintained. Information related to the various stakeholders if the company should not be shared to others without any prior notice or consent of the respected stakeholders. Moreover, data related to the matter can only be accessed by the hierarchy or the managers of the company (Chou, 2015). 

Question 5

In order to maintain the business, continuity planning of business lifecycle can be followed by the company. It includes analysis of the issues that are being faced by the company, designing of the appropriate solution, implementing the solution, testing of the solution in order to ensure effective working and maintaining the solution and business further for attaining success (Díaz, Martín & Rubio, 2016). On the other hand, steps for the recovery plan of data in case of any types of eruption include the following.

  • Creating a possible list of all the threats that are likely to happen
  • Outlining of the continuity plan of the business as well as the data that are being stored by the company
  • Building an inventory of the IT assets of the business. 
  • Defining the policies of contingency plan of business
  • Developing as well as testing the plan of contingency

Question 6

Audit and logs such as licensing and other proofs of identification are available within the company. The proofs of identification of the various stakeholders of the company are important until the date they are functioning within the company (Hashem et al. 2015). However, in order to secure the documents, the company must be separating each stakeholder’s documents separately and soft copies of the documents will be easy to handle. Moreover, firewall application will be helpful in keeping the information safe over the cloud. 

Question 7

As per the observance of Sen (2015), the company is not taking enough care regarding the various documents of the stakeholders of the company and his is leading the company in the privacy issues. Moreover, this also leads to unsatisfied stakeholders and that is dangerous for any kinds of business. According to the Company Act 2006, the company should provide all the facilities needed by the employee as well as also take the proper care of the employee of the company. According to this act of the legislation of the country, the employee should be provided with all the health and safety related benefits within the company and should also be taking initiative in satisfying the employees of the company (Singh & Chana, 2016). Moreover, this also deals with the rights of the employee towards employment and also deals with the safety of the information provided to the company. In addition to this, this le also deals with the interest of the customers so that the company is successful in producing products as per the needs of the customers. 

Question 8

The company should be more careful about all the stakeholders within the company (Somani et al. 2017). The documents should be kept under proper observation and the company should also take the certain initiative that leads to the satisfied stakeholders in terms of meeting the needs and demands. Therefore, needs and demands must be analysed properly and production must be done accordingly. 

Question 9

In order to measure the performance, the current performance of the company must be analyzed. After the analysis of the issues, steps must be taken in order to improve the performance by implanting the necessary requirements within the company (Aldossary & Allen, 2016). This also leads to the enhancement of the security within the company as well as effective performance. 

Question 10

A relevant document that is needed is the proper identification of the stakeholders of the company along with their proper registration and a contract. Moreover, strategic planning can also be used in order to manage all the relevant documents within the company. In addition to this, customer segmentation and core competence can also be implemented by the company in order to maintain the operations within the company (Aljawarneh & Yassein, 2016). 

Question 11

The specification that has been mainly identified in this study is the management of the privacy and security sector of the company. The main objectives of the task are the implementation of firewall application that will help the company in dealing with the issues that are being faced by the company in the business environment. 

Question 12

Tools and techniques of management that are being used in this task is the strategic planning, core competence and customer segmentation (Chou, 2015). 

Question 13

The political and organizational context within the organisational includes the safety of the employee and other stakeholders that are related to the company as well as various demands and needs of the stakeholders. Moreover, the competition of the company can also impact over the security issues of the company in the business environment. 

Question 14

Based on the analysis of the above study, it can be observed that the issues of privacy and security are mainly observed in a company operating in cloud computing (Díaz, Martín & Rubio, 2016). SDLC within the company can be effective in the COOP of the company as it helps in the analysis of the different issues that are being faced by the company or that is likely to face by the company in the coming future. Moreover, this is followed by the solution to the issues that are effective and beneficial for the company. Furthermore, it is being implemented and is being used to ensure the proper functioning of the solution. However, it involves further maintenance of the solution to avoid the issues in the coming future. 

Question 15

Techniques that have been used in this task are the collection of data and information from various journals and analysing it by comparing.


Executive Summary

The present study deals with the various issues that are being faced by a company in the implementation of cloud computing within the business organization. Moreover, it is also being mentioned in this study that are services like the application of firewall and others can be effective to mitigating the issue. However, a detail discussion has been presented below. 


The present study deals with various issues that are related to the services of cloud computing within an industry. Moreover, management of the company in respect to the various tools as well as techniques of management has also been mentioned in this section of the study. However, a brief discussion of the factors has been mentioned below. 

Findings and analysis 

SDLC inside the corporate can be effective within the COOP of the company because it helps in the analysis of the various problems that are being visage by the company or that’s possible to face by the company in the returning future (Hashem et al. 2017). Moreover, this is often followed by the answer to the problems that are effective and useful for the corporate. The thing that is more, it’s being enforced and is being employed to confirm the right functioning of the answer. However, it involves any maintenance of the answer to avoid the problems within the returning future. Moreover, tools of management strategic planning and core competence have also been discussed in order to manage the company effectively. 


In order to solve the issues of privacy as well as security within the company, the company must implement the firewall application or other application that are related to the antivirus detention or detention of theft and other illegal; services within the company. Moreover, the company must also be strict regarding the operations of the company and also be taking care of the demands and needs of the stakeholders of the company. 


From the study, it can be concluded that SDLC is an effective technique that helps in the management of the company. It mainly deals with the analysis of the issues and creating a suitable solution out of this. Moreover, the solutions are being tested in order to ensure the proper functioning as it is followed by maintained so that the issues do not occur in the future. However, the tools that agreeing used are also effective in solving the issues. 


Aldossary, S., & Allen, W. (2016). Data security, privacy, availability and integrity in cloud computing: issues and current solutions. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications7(4), 485-498.

Aljawarneh, S. A., & Yassein, M. O. B. (2016). A conceptual security framework for cloud computing issues. International Journal of Intelligent Information Technologies (IJIIT)12(2), 12-24.

Chou, D. C. (2015). Cloud computing risk and audit issues. Computer Standards & Interfaces42, 137-142.

Díaz, M., Martín, C., & Rubio, B. (2016). State-of-the-art, challenges, and open issues in the integration of Internet of things and cloud computing. Journal of Network and Computer applications67, 99-117.

Hashem, I. A. T., Yaqoob, I., Anuar, N. B., Mokhtar, S., Gani, A., & Khan, S. U. (2015). The rise of “big data” on cloud computing: Review and open research issues. Information systems47, 98-115.

Sen, J. (2015). Security and privacy issues in cloud computing. In Cloud Technology: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications pp. 1585-1630. 

Singh, S., & Chana, I. (2016). A survey on resource scheduling in cloud computing: Issues and challenges. Journal of grid computing14(2), 217-264.

Somani, G., Gaur, M. S., Sanghi, D., Conti, M., & Buyya, R. (2017). DDoS attacks in cloud computing: Issues, taxonomy, and future directions. Computer Communications107, 30-48.

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Food safety concerns frequent make headlines around the world as they are an important issue

Food safety concerns frequent make headlines around the world as they are an important issue. China faced backlash when a chemical called memalime was found in infant milk powder (Xiu & Klein, 2010) and then in 2011 clenbuterol was found in excess use in animal food production as well (Xue & Zhang, 2013). Europe had its own share of scandals of which the most remarkable one was the mixture of horsemeat with beef in 2013 (Peng et al, 2017). In the recent years that have passed, South Korea also joined the circle of scandals when in 2000 crabs were found to have lead in them, while in 2005 Kimchi was found in kimchi. The cherry on the top was in 2010, when a famous snack company was found to be using rat carcasses as their ingredient (Yang and Yang, 2013). These food safety concerns effect not just locally but also internationally. Leading to a decline in human health and lots of economic losses for the country. 

Due to its importance, food safety has seen considerable efforts to improve its safety worldwide. Government officials have actively started establishing institutes which can deal with this issue by investing in hazard control systems like good agricultural practices or GAPS, good manufacturing practices or GMP, hazard analysis and critical control point or HACCP and more (Liu, Liu, Zhang & Gao, 2015). One of the most recent researches was done in Ontario to make a qualitative analysis of food safety steps that are taken up my cheese makers and the paper also reported the artisan’s awareness and perceptions (Le, Bazger, Hill & Wilcock, 2014). Other areas that have been research include the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese, Staphylococcus aureus in milk (Barancaeli et al, 2014; Lee, Cappato, Corassin, Cruz & Oliveira, 2016) and GMP assessment and introduction of the HACCP system (Carroascosa et al, 2016). 

South Korea’s, Korea Ministry of Food and Drug Safety or KMFDS, are in charge of foods safety and risk assessment and they have developed a sound regulatory system to keep in control the food quality and make sure the food hasn’t been adulterated (KMFDS, 2017). Health and nutrition are KMFDS’s ultimate goal for enhancing food safety (Peng at el, 2017). Though, KMFDS has put in a lot of effort to keep Korea’s food quality up to par, there are several food safety incidents still being reported. And these reported studies have been helpful to re-evaluate and propose ideas for risk communication and develop better food safety regulations and managements (Xue & Zhang, 2013). Systemic risk analysis helps to develop better strategies or even the best ones, but so far South Korea no such studies have been done in the country (Liu et al, 2015; Xue & Zhang, 2013). 

Though a study conducted by Park, Kim and Bahk (2017) complied media reported on food safety incidents, ranging from 1998 to 2016. The total number of reported incidents compiled were 975 which had an average of 51.3% in a year and 4.3% occurred a month. The food incidents were reported for the following cases:

  1. Fruits and vegetables
  2. Fish and its products
  3. Meat and its products
  4. Beverages
  5. Confectionary

Of the reported cases, at least 41.6% were chemical hazard related, while 20.4% were physical hazard. The study further performed an analysis about which conditions can lead to these hazards, and it found that primary production is the most common stage with 63% of incidents taking place at this point. Following the production stage, handling and distribution had incidents of food safety for about 6.7% of the cases.

Lee (2017), in the 8th conference on Food Quality and Safety policy talked about the application of DPSEEA framework for food safety development and health indicators in Korea. In his paper he reported that having food safety indicators are useful as they are important indicators to help one define food hazards, contamination pathways and levels of exposure in connection to public health. A link needs to be established whereby which one can interpret the difficult relationship between human health and food safety hazards. The paper further discussed pro’s and cons of the framework which can help develop food safety in Korea. The paper chose the DPSEEA framework as it can be divided into five domains and they allow different forms of action for each domain. Therefore, six procedures were developed for Korean safety food indicators and their developing process included forty-five initial indicators but only total of four were chosen from them. Among the four selected from the final list, one was called the state domain which helps to indicate the chemical hazards of residual pesticides. The other three indicators were termed as the effect domain and were indicators of food contamination and their effect on health. These final indicators are important as they provide information on overall food environment, which includes hygiene and food health. The framework not only helps to provide systemic intervention points but also in developing food safety health indicators which can be divided into domain points. Though, the structure does have gaps as it does not take into account the population sensitivity, effecting areas between each domain, therefore, causing health risks to differ across different areas. In the future a modified version would be needed when developing new indicators to fill the gaps. 

Policies regarding food safety regulation in Korea have been around for many years now, as one can state by reading Wang’s (2012) PhD paper. In her paper she has listed various policy makers and government agencies who have established framework and rules and help reduce Korea’s food safety incidence. The Framework Act on Food Safety, set in 2008) ensures that people will achieve a healthy and safe diet by clarifying the rights and obligations by people and the responsibilities which are held by the state and local government. The Food sanitation act is the most important one, as it aims to contribute to public health by reducing sanitary risks in food by prevention methods and promoting qualitative changes, which give true and accurate data to the public. The Functional Food Act targets specific food groups. 

Safety standards are also in Korea which act as important legal instruments in food safety. Such as the Food Code and Food Additive Code has been propagated by Korea food and Drug Administration and the Food Sanitary act. Food quality related standards have also been given importance which include information about the foods country of origin, and is applied to specific food groups, example, the agricultural food regulatory agencies, such as National Agricultural Product Quality Management Service. 

Agricultural foods have been regulated by Food, Agriculture, Forester and Fisheries department which take responsibility by setting up regulations and standard related to livestock and dairy products, including forester and fishery. Sanitary controls, standards, specifications and labelling requirements for domestic and imported livestock is ensured by the National Agricultural Product Quality Management Service and the Animal, Plans and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency. They do this by preventing harmful weeds, pests and diseases from originating from imported plants, fruits and vegetables. 

The basic responsibilities, which include the hygiene with regards to manufacture, process, distribution and sales, when caring for their hygiene and sanitary practices, sis covered by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. The organization is also responsible for other food acts such as the Functional Food Act and implementing the Enforcement Decree and Enforcement Rule. The KFDA sets and enforces specific standards for imported and domestic products, which include, functional food, additives and contact materials. Products manufactured via Biotechnological rules are also established by them for food processing, especially products containing GMO ingredients and guidelines for HACCP program. Self-production cannot ensure food supply, therefore imported food is important and this has increased ever since Korea jointed the WTO. 

Last but not the least, South Korea has modernized its risk analysis system not only by the regulatory ministries and risk management agencies but the Korea Food and Drug administration also established the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation on 1st May, 2009 which provides scientific evaluation on food, food supplements and other products in KFDA policy. National Food Safety Information Service set in June, 2009 acts as a risk communicator which provides food safety information to both public and policy makers. Apart from that, they also provide food traceability for industry, making it easier to recall food related cases when they happen. 


Barancelli, G. V., Camargo, T. M., Gagliardi, N. G., Porto, E., Souza, R. A., Campioni, F., … Oliveira, C. A. (2014). Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from cheese manufacturing plants in São Paulo, Brazil. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 173, 21-29. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2013.12.018

Carrascosa, C., Millán, R., Saavedra, P., Jaber, J. R., Raposo, A., & Sanjuán, E. (2016). Identification of the risk factors associated with cheese production to implement the hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) system on cheese farms. Journal of Dairy Science, 99(4), 2606-2616. doi:10.3168/jds.2015-10301

Korea Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (KMFDS). (2017a). Korean Food Standard Codex. Available at:

Le, S., Bazger, W., Hill, A. R., & Wilcock, A. (2014). Awareness and perceptions of food safety of artisan cheese makers in Southwestern Ontario: A qualitative study. Food Control, 41, 158-167. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.01.007

Lee, J. (2017). Application of DPSEEA framework in developing food safety health indicator in Korea. Journal of Food Processing & Technology, 08(11). doi:10.4172/2157-7110-c1-073

Lee, S., Cappato, L., Corassin, C., Cruz, A., & Oliveira, C. (2016). Effect of peracetic acid on biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes isolated from dairy plants. Journal of Dairy Science, 99(3), 2384-2390. doi:10.3168/jds.2015-10007

Liu, Y., Liu, F., Zhang, J., & Gao, J. (2015). Insights into the nature of food safety issues in Beijing through content analysis of an Internet database of food safety incidents in China. Food Control, 51, 206-211. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.11.017

Liu, Y., Liu, F., Zhang, J., & Gao, J. (2015). Insights into the nature of food safety issues in Beijing through content analysis of an Internet database of food safety incidents in China. Food Control, 51, 206-211. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.11.017

Park, M. S., Kim, H. N., & Bahk, G. J. (2017). The analysis of food safety incidents in South Korea, 1998–2016. Food Control, 81, 196-199. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2017.06.013

Peng, G., Chang, M., Fang, M., Liao, C., Tsai, C., Tseng, S., … Cheng, H. (2017). Incidents of major food adulteration in Taiwan between 2011 and 2015. Food Control, 72, 145-152. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.07.043

Peng, G., Chang, M., Fang, M., Liao, C., Tsai, C., Tseng, S., … Cheng, H. (2017). Incidents of major food adulteration in Taiwan between 2011 and 2015. Food Control, 72, 145-152. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.07.043

Seunghye, W. (2012, July 27). Food safety regulation in the Republic of Korea. Retrieved from

Xiu, C., & Klein, K. (2010). Melamine in milk products in China: Examining the factors that led to deliberate use of the contaminant. Food Policy, 35(5), 463-470. doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2010.05.001

Xue, J., & Zhang, W. (2013). Understanding China’s food safety problem: An analysis of 2387 incidents of acute foodborne illness. Food Control, 30(1), 311-317. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.07.024

Xue, J., & Zhang, W. (2013). Understanding China’s food safety problem: An analysis of 2387 incidents of acute foodborne illness. Food Control, 30(1), 311-317. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.07.024

Xue, J., & Zhang, W. (2013). Understanding China’s food safety problem: An analysis of 2387 incidents of acute foodborne illness. Food Control, 30(1), 311-317. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.07.024

Yang, S., & Yang, S. (2013). A Study of the Perception and Purchase Behavior on Foreign Matters in Food. The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition, 26(3), 470-475. doi:10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.3.470

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Network Topology Assignment Help

Network Topology 

This scenario involves three generic routers (Router-PT). The routers are connected through a point-to-point serial link as shown in Figure 1:

  • R1🡪R2, R1 🡪R3 and R2  🡪 R4 are connected through serial links. 

Devices which are connected with serial links.

  • R1’s Serial2/0 interface connects to R2’s Serial2/0 interface.
  • R1’s Serial3/0 interface connects to R3’s Serial2/0 interface.
  • R2’s Serial3/0 interface connects to R4’s Serial2/0 interface.
  • R1 connects to Subnets 1, 6, 7, and 8.
  • R2 connects Subnets 2, 3, 4, and6.
  • R3 connects Subnets 7.
  • R4 connects Subnets 4 and 5.
  • Each FastEthernet interface of the router is connected to a generic switch.  

Technical Note:

Use Router-PT and Switch 2960 for your configurations.

Use write memory command to save your router configurations.  

Figure 1: Network Topology

Use Table 1 to list the subnetting details of the 8 subnets. 

Table 1: Subnetting Table

Slash NotationFirst Usable
IP Address
Last Usable
IP Address
Broadcast Address

Complete the addressing table (Table 2) based on the above addressing specifications.

Table 2: Addressing Table

DeviceInterfaceIP AddressSubnet MaskClocking
setting (Yes/No)
Default Gateway

Routing Specifications 

Use static routing forR1, R2, R3 and R4. Record all static routing in following tables.You may add more rows to the table if it is necessary.  

Table 3: R1’s Routing Table

RouterNetworkMaskNext Hop

Table 4: R2’s Routing Table

RouterNetworkMaskNext Hop

Table 5: R3’s Routing Table

RouterNetworkMaskNext Hop

Table 6: R4’s Routing Table

RouterNetworkMaskNext Hop

Packet tracer 


Configuration of static routing:

Ip address configuration of server and routers

Using ping command to verify connectivity:

In routers:

In servers:

Conclusion: In this assignment computer network is designed for an organization having four routers, five switches as the networking devices and servers as end devices. static routing is one way to route the data from one network to other , which is easiest but not most efficient, we have used this routing technique. the network is simulated in packet tracer and ping command is used to verify the network.


  2. Computer Networks by Andrew S. Tanenbaum

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Literature review of Small business that uses accounting software package in Australia


In this full competitive industry, it become harder to compete with other without having proper access advanced technology. Keeping account is the foremost work of any business organization. The larger the business the longest the accounting process                                                                                                                                                              which takes a lot of time to complete the process and continuing it without any mistakes. That is the reason business organization started using for accounting. This software helps the organization to keep all the account recorded and secure which also confirmed the possibility of mistakes in a least number. There are many accounting software packages like Reckon, Xero, MYOB, and QuickBooks online. All these accounting software are providing some common services like bookkeeping, payroll, tax calculation etc. Though all these software providing some common services they are different from each other by providing some special service.

Part 1

The organizational structure

In this literature review, types of organisation to use accounting software are SME business organizations. Start up business or ongoing business organizations need to save money as well as their time by using advanced technology and Services and these accounting software are tremendously helping  those organizations to minimized there cost of accounting and save a lot of time to focus on any other sectors of the business. Usually the number of employee in SME business are comparatively low than the established and large business. According to the structure small or medium businesses are included in the term of SME. So it can be said that in the term of structure the chosen organization sector is small in size considering the area of business, number of employees, capital of business etc.

Operational problems

As being small business in structure, this type of company faces many problems. Though the structure is being small business, the capital is also limited comparatively, many other things depend on the amount of the capital which will start the company and would work as working capital. So this amount is very essential for any business. This capital defines how many employees are needed for the business considering other sectors where people are needed. This type of company has low budget for hiring people in various structure of the business. Hiring more people will cause more money to provide them which will not be considerable. It often causes the company to shut down because they cannot higher the number of people needed for the business or after having them they cannot provide the salary to them. Beside that employee problem, small businesses face other problem like having experience people. As Startup Company, experience people often do not show interest in joining in this type of company for having other big opportunity. This cause unskilled people get hired which lead the company to have error in their working process. The numbers of people work in this type of business need to be more skilled to develop the new condition of the business. Experienced and skilled people can provide the service a startup company needs to make progress in their business. Inexperienced and unskilled employees will create more error then the experienced employees.  it could be positive in some sense, like an experienced people can work her together experience and to solve their errors by learning more.

System acquisition method

There are many types of system to adopt for the business some could be commercial software, some could be custom software and so on. To understand which type of business needs what type of software for completing the accounting process, it requires understanding the configuration of the software first. Commercial software is for average use any kind of business organization can use commercial software. All the common features are included in this type of software which can be beneficial for any business organization. Some packages are available which includes extra benefit to some commercial software for organizations to complete their additional works. As example MYOB has a feature that creates BAS Report along with its other features like bookkeeping, purchase orders, creating note of credits, payrolls etc. Another important system is custom software; custom software provides special order service from the organization. Sometimes some company needs their own service system to make the service unique from others. They might have their special requirement about some feature of the software; the software made according to the requirement of client is called custom software. Custom software is for bigger companies that has their own unique system of operating. Though small business organizations have limited number of employees and the size of the business is not much bigger, they need to minimize the cost, on the other hand custom software are costly. That indicates custom software are not for small business and small business needs commercial software. Accounting software companies offers different packages for their clients. Small business organizations can choose packages according to their needs and requirements.

System flowchart of sales procedure

The selling processes of a small business organization are easier than any bigger organization. Usually small organizations follow few steps to complete sales procedure. There are some steps to follow accordingly for completing a proper sales process. This steps confines the procedure easily understand by the people who are related to the organization. These steps would be discussed below:

Step 1: (Getting a response to campaign and requests for information.)

This is the first step of the procedure of sales, in this step the organization will need to campaign about their product or service. Campaign of the company would get some response related to their campaign, product or service. After getting the response, management needs to understand what the response was and how to reply the response from clients. Information should be gathered about the client and their response to understand and reply properly.

Step 2: (Reply the response from clients and describe the product or service to them)

This is the second step of the procedure of sales, in this step the management need to reply to the responses they gathered from people. The organization can contact people in many different ways like calling directly, knocking on social media, sending SMS and many other way of communication. This step is the first direct connection with the client for the business.  If this step is finished successfully done the client will be interested to buy or take product or service.

Step 3: (Meeting in person and showing the demo of products)

In this step the business will show the client their product of service.  The client will get to know more about the product and service and any related information about the product.  It will also avail a chance for the client to use the product or services as a trial. If the product or service can gain the interest of the client then it will be permanent deal with the company for sure.

Step 4: (Submitting the proposal to prospect)

This is the step where the selling team will submit a proposal of the expectation from the selling to this client. In this step the target, expectation, achievement etc. would be shown as a prospect to the company from the sale group or team after getting the confirmation from the client. In this step client will be able to know the price expected from the company and if they are agree or not.

Step 5: (Agree on the prospect, and process first payment)

This is the step after the client agrees with the prospect of the company offered.  If the client is agree to the deal of the company then the company and the client will make a deal which will lead the client to make their first payment regarding this product or service. This step because payment and basically finish the procedure of sales so far.

                                                  Figure: Sales Process

Control problem of the system

At the time of using any software, there could be some technical problems in controlling the system. The structure of the company who are using this software is small business and the people employed in this type of business are not so well experienced. Sometimes this could be a barrier to you software properly and controlling it as far demand.  In controlling the system there would be some reason behind it which could be lack of knowledge about software, not knowing the proper use of the software, unaware about the feature of the software, and so on. Sometimes the chosen software could be difficult to understand. Not all the software is made for any kind of business organization. So picking the best software for the business is a challenge if that’s not happen then there would be some controlling problem of the system. There could be some problem related to fraud action.  Regarding buying the software, the company needs to analyze site they are buying the software from and the authenticity of the site and the company as well. If the company is any random company then there is a possibility to fraud action. So while considering to buy a software the business organization needs to know if it is important for the business or not as well as the site they are buying the software from should be authentic to avoid fraud actions.

Part 2

Development and adoption the package of accounting software

For small businesses among all the accounting software in the market MYOB is the most suitable one. Maximum small businesses in Australia required using MYOB as their accounting software. More than 1 million small business organizations are using this software to complete the accounting actions. In comparison with other software this software provides the maximum service in a reasonable price which is a way ahead for small businesses to save their money. This software has the most updated features of using the software using computer to access data from any close and it follows working remotely and the capability is 28%.  This feature made this software adaptable to maximum small business organization to manage their business from a distance or any location which is beneficial for businesses which are not located in the most city site. These facilities provide an advantage which is very competitive.

Current market size

The current market size for MYOB accounting software is highly considerate as large according to the usability and the client satisfaction of using this software. According to the journal report more than 1 million people are using this software for their accounting work and most of those organizations as small business organizations. SME is one of the largest part business organizations all over the Australia. About 80 percent businesses in Australia are SMS business. So taking into consideration the fact, the market of accounting software is large in size.

Market leaders and their competitive advantage

There are many accounting software companies leading in the market.  All of this company is well known and leading business equally in the market with their service quality and commitment. Among them the chosen software MYOB is also running their business successfully in the Australian market. This company has more advantage in competition considering the fact that the government of Australia also uses this software in some of their sectors. This brings the company competitive advantage and reliability and trust of people just by knowing the fact the government also using these features. It brings trust towards the company. This company is providing a service which is called cloud controlling. Cloud controlling is a feature that allow its uses to use the software from anywhere through the internet. These features make them unique from others and help them to leave the market with this competitive advantage.

Current challenges encountered by users

Besides having many benefits and advantages, this software are highly configurable and the usability of this software depends on the expertise of the person who is using it.  That means the person who use this software needs to know about the features of accounting and the functions of this software very well. Without knowing the functions of the software is quite difficult for any random person to operate the software. SME businesses and not are not prepare to hire more people for accounting work or sometimes it seems that the owner do the accounting work by own self and it is not necessary that the owner should have accounting knowledge for opening  a business. That is the reason they buy accounting software to do the work by their own. Sometimes the future confuses them to do the work if this features are constructed any random person would be able to run this software is a little knowledge about accounting. Show the user of this software are having problem with understanding the feature recently and they are complaining about that to make it easy and these information was gathered from various survey taken by the company to understand the opinion of their  client and to solve the problems.

Recommendation to overcome the challenges

To overcome this problem the users of this software are using, main essential steps should be taken. Though the main problem is proper knowledge of using the software, the company can provide user instruction to make its users understand the process of using the software even if they don’t have any previous knowledge about accounting software. Another step can be taken as the software company can hire some people who can teach the random people understand how to use the features of this software easily while delivering the software. User instructions can be provided by making a video which is very easy to understand for all kind of people you don’t know about accounting software. By seeing the video they can understand instructions about the features which will also reduce the cost of the software company. This could be the better solution solve this problem.


Cherry, M. (2016). Accounting for Trust: A Conceptual Model for the Determinants of Trust in the Australian Public Accountant – SME Client Relationship. Australasian Accounting, Business and Finance Journal, 10(2), pp.3-22.

Chua, W. (2007). Accounting, measuring, reporting and strategizing – Re-using verbs: A review essay. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 32(4-5), pp.487-494.

Financial Review. (2018). Firms reveal their preferred cloud accounting software. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 Apr. 2018].

Garand, B. (2009). Open Source Software: The Customer Perception from SME and SMI?. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Handley, K., Wright, S. and Evans, E. (2017). SME Reporting in Australia: Where to Now for Decision-usefulness?. Australian Accounting Review.

James, D., interviews), W., MYOB AccountRight Basics, X., James, D. and interviews), W. (2018). 7 accounting packages for Australian small businesses compared: including MYOB, QuickBooks Online, Reckon, Xero. [online] Business IT. Available at: [Accessed 26 Apr. 2018].

Quintiliani, A. (2017). SME Growth: The Role of Government Grant. Asian Journal of Finance & Accounting, 9(2), p.307.

Technologies, R. (2018). MYOB: Benefits and Challenges for your Organisation. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 Apr. 2018].

Teittinen, H., Pellinen, J. and Järvenpää, M. (2013). ERP in action — Challenges and benefits for management control in SME context. International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, 14(4), pp.278-296. (2018). MYOB on Why SME will Play a Big Role in The Future of Australian Tech. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 Apr. 2018].

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Operating Systems Assignment Help by AssignmentHero


Section 1:  Operating Systems

  1. List five services provided by an operating system(OS). Explain how each service provides convenience to the users. Can some of the OS services be provided by user level programs?

Setting Switching and Scheduling, which apportion a procedure CPU time to execute its directions.

Memory Management, which manages designating memory to forms.

Interposes Communication, which manages offices to enable simultaneously running procedures to speak with each other.

Document Systems, which give larger amount records out of low level unstructured information on a plate.

Abnormal state I/O offices, which free a procedure from the low-level points of interest of interfere with taking care of.

  1. To which extent are the two OS’s (Linux/Unix and Windows) essentially the same and importantly different?       

Approaching the source code is likely the absolute hugest distinction amongst Linux and Windows. The way that Linux has a place with the GNU Public License guarantees that clients (of assorted types) can get to (and modify) the code to the very piece that fills in as the establishment of the Linux working framework. You need to peer at the Windows code? Good fortunes. Unless you are an individual from an extremely select (and first class, to many) gathering, you will never look at code making up the Windows working framework.

You can take a gander at this from the two sides of the fence. Some say giving the community to the code opens the working framework (and the product that keeps running over it) to malevolent engineers who will exploit any shortcoming they find. Others say that having full access to the code realizes quicker enhancements and bug fixes to shield those noxious engineers from having the capacity to cut the framework down. I have, now and again, plunged into the code of some Linux application, and when all was said and done, was content with the outcomes. Would I be able to have done that with a shut source Windows application? No.

  1. Discuss multiprocessing systems and explain how multiprocessing increases the utilisation of resources.

As illustrations handling units (GPUs) are extensively embraced, running various applications on a GPU in the meantime is starting to pull in wide consideration. Late proposition on multitasking GPUs have concentrated on either spatial multitasking, which allotments GPU asset at a spilling multiprocessor (SM) granularity, or concurrent multikernel (SMK), which runs numerous bits on a similar SM. Be that as it may, multitasking execution shifts vigorously relying upon the asset segments inside each plan, and the application blends. In this paper, we propose GPU Maestro that performs dynamic asset administration for productive usage of multitasking GPUs. GPU Maestro can find the best performing GPU asset segment misusing both spatial multitasking and SMK. Moreover, dynamism inside a bit and obstruction between the pieces are naturally considered in light of the fact that GPU Maestro finds the best performing segment through direct estimations. Assessments demonstrate that GPU Maestro can enhance normal framework throughput by 20.2% and 13.9% over the standard spatial multitasking and SMK, individually.

  1. Illustrate the concept of batch processing operating system.

The primary capacity of a group handling framework is to consequently continue executing the occupations in a bunch. This is the vital assignment of a group preparing framework i.e. performed by the ‘Bunch Monitor’ dwelled in the low end of primary memory.

This strategy was conceivable because of the innovation of hard-circle drives and card perusers. Presently the occupations could be put away on the plate to make the pool of employments for its execution as a bunch. To begin with the pooled employments are perused and executed by the clump screen, and afterward these occupations are assembled; putting the indistinguishable (occupations with the comparative needs) in a similar cluster, So, in the bunch handling framework, the grouped occupations were executed consequently in a steady progression sparing its opportunity by playing out the exercises (like stacking of compiler) just for once. It brought about enhanced framework usage because of diminished pivot time.

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Language and Literacy Environment Answer

In this report the researcher was supposed to do a research in a day care center for infants and toddlers for long term in Melbourne and named Matrix early learning. The researcher had the need to take permission of the director of the center about spending some time in this center for doing research. After seeking permission the Director was happy to help in this academic research and understanding. Finally he gave permission and also gave some rules to follow to spend time here, like doing good behavior with the children, not to provoke them with anything, need to help them if need and some other rule was to follow.

Profile of Setting

The name of the day care the researcher visited is “Matrix Early Learning” situated in Melbourne, Australia. This is one of the best day care for the city. The researcher went to seek permission to visit the day care and the director of the center was so cooperative to this kind of academic aspects and even he inspired and provided some essential information about the center. Every year this center take a fixed number of children to ensure best service to them. At the age of 0 to 6 years, child are allowed to get admitted there.

Physical Environment Explanation

In Australia, the children of pastoral and distant areas, and homegrown children in maximum number face the specific risk of less knowledge of literacy. The magnitude and strictness of the setback is also reflected in current statement by Human Rights as well as the EOC on an investigation into pastoral and distant study in Australia, the experienced of disadvantage by students who are from country is designated as amounting to discernment. “A pre-emptive approach is imperative, safeguarding that families are braced in their part as their first knowledge educators of their children with the intention of preventing the social as well as economic problems accompanying with low levels of literacy, predominantly in less privileged population zones.” That is why it is very essential for the parents to have proper knowledge about providing the right information at the right age of their children. For ensuring the best early learning of children, Matrix provide training for the parents. Our highly expert consultants consults with the parents every month discussing the progress of the children.” These are the saying of the director of the selected day care. He provided some essential information in addition to give the permission.

Physical environment means the overall physical structure of something. The physical environment of Matrix is really very appraisal. It has a large area to serve at least 90 children at a time. They have large rooms as 1 for 10, then children could easily play and learn in a room so easily. They also have rooms for the staffs and the amount is 5. Toilet for children are very clean and big for feeling comfortable. Thinking of the children they colored all the room as theme to feel different and homely. Total home décor is designed with finest layout.  Furniture was all home based to feel for the children as homely as possible. Food menu, food habit, staff, children, appearance of parents, stuff’s behave with children, living place, playground etc. was the main key element to keep an eye on them. These was observed by the researcher. The researcher tried to get as much as idea could be gathered about infants and toddlers and their nutrition, nurturing and literacy in addition to environment also. Maximum children have working parents at the same time that makes them unable to stay home with children. So they get their children admitted into this kind of day care to make sure they are safe when parents are not beside them. It’s actually a huge responsibility to take. The center have to make sure that the children are safe with food and education.

Rooms in the perspective of infants are really comfortable. Children were so comfortable in their rooms. They were playing without any hesitations. The rooms were full of learn full toys though children could learn through playing with each other. Children seems so comfortable that defines that they get home comfort and they are free here as home. So according to the perspective of children and toddlers the rooms were home based. They could feel homely and there were also sweet smell to make them more comfortable. And they seems to like the smell of the rooms also. Children get their food at the room they stay all day so that they don’t feel like eating is another thing to do or they don’t get eating as a work. They just need to eat with joy. That is why the rooms are also available with lots of chocolates that would be given as a prize of doing anything good.

It is very often that children are uncomfortable usually everywhere. Parents need to make them comfortable. This tough work could be done by making the environment comfortable for them. If the children is free of hesitation then it would try to explore its activity that could be motivated in some way. These features are enough to make a baby feel home that would make him explore his activities. Children loves to talk. When they feel free than they would be willing to communicate with other children and also with their teachers. Matrix basically focus on learn with fun. They manage to have fun with children by educators in the class to make them learn something new. Oral language is vital to learn. For that is very essential to hear more and more and this task is got done by the tutors as well they play educative music and cartoons that teaches alphabet, number, name of things etc. This process make them ask questions about those things they don’t know and it is really a huge matter for the language development of children.

Interactions as potential for supporting the literacy learning and language of the children

It seems very positive to the researcher that all the children showed much known attitude toward the researcher though he was unknown to them. That defines that their communication system with other is well developed that is why they didn’t afraid of unknown. That also define that they have learned to communicate and face the fear. Interaction between the staff and children are very impressive. Children are very easy with the staffs. They consider them as family both staff and children. Children are easy to ask for any help from them and as well to play with them. They are very well preserved with discipline to control behave with the children. Children are also very easy with each other. They play like friends and help each other in doing any tough thing that could not be done alone. It was also remarkable that they have strong bonding between them and this could be feel at the time of their going back to home. They show love to each other and wish for coming back soon tomorrow. That definitely confirms that they have a strong bonding to miss each other. So it also shows the quality of having literacy learning and frequency of language as well as content to communicate with each other, their love for each other is the result of non-verbal communication. Thinking of the children they colored all the room as theme to feel different and homely. Total home décor is designed with finest layout.  Furniture was all home based to feel for the children as homely as possible. Food menu, food habit, staff, children, appearance of parents, stuff’s behave with children, living place, playground etc. was the main key element to keep an eye on them. These was observed by the researcher. The researcher tried to get as much as idea could be gathered about infants and toddlers and their nutrition, nurturing and literacy in addition to environment also. These make the children to have maximum learning of literacy and using language in a proper way.

Toddlers are active partakers in building the skills of language as well as literacy. They absorb as they take part in any meaningful involvements and intermingle with children as well as adults, making language at the time of the procedure. Children learn maximum language that imitates the language as well as behavior taking adults as model they try to interact with also listen to them. Adult sustenance the language of children learning by making a model which is communicative, receptive, and pleasurable. They use another way to develop the language of children as experience is concluded the use of telling story. Many learning have proved that children figure vocabulary, learn the use of complex sentences, as well as they improve understanding when habitually visible to stories. They use this method for making their students learn words and using strong and long sentence. And they ask the children to repeat the story that confines their concentration level while hearing the story. This a very effective way for interactive communication.

Toddlers who rehearsal wonderful stories that was told by their whole-hearted teacher that give benefit in various ways connected to the development of language as well as literacy. They practice active participation in the making of another story. They construct understanding of the story as well as they discover the resolutions of the form of literary. They sympathize with as well discuss the moods of the persons and the impasses they overwhelmed. This make them explore their thinking as well as understandings about things. Visiting the day care center, the researcher justified the fact that Matrix Early Learning is a center that follows the rules of mental and physical building of a child. Children are very easy with the staffs. They consider them as family both staff and children. Children are easy to ask for any help from them and as well to play with them. They are very well preserved with discipline to control behave with the children. Children are also very easy with each other. They play like friends and help each other in doing any tough thing that could not be done alone. It was also remarkable that they have strong bonding between them and this could be feel at the time of their going back to home. They also care for the proper nutrition of children. They do not increase the number of student more than they manage. They have highly qualified teachers. A pre-emptive approach is imperative, safeguarding that families are braced in their part as their first knowledge educators of their children with the intention of preventing the social as well as economic problems accompanying with low levels of literacy, predominantly in less privileged population zones. So they manage parents meeting for the better building of the children they are taking care of. For ensuring the best early learning of children, Matrix provide training for the parents. Their highly expert consultants consults with the parents every month discussing the progress of the children.


Brambring, M., Rauh, H., & Beelmann, A. (1996). Early childhood intervention. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Conkbayir, M. Early childhood and neuroscience.

Genishi, C. (1992). Ways of assessing children and curriculum. New York: Teachers College Press.


Palaiologou, I. Ethical practice in early childhood.

Penn, H. (2008). Early childhood services. Buckingham [u.a.]: Open Univ. Press.

Rolfe, S. (2004). Rethinking attachment in early childhood practice. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.

Seefeldt, C. (1999). The early childhood curriculum. New York: Teachers College Press.

Sheridan, M., Foley, G., & Radlinski, S. (1995). Using the supportive play model. New York: Teachers College Press, Teachers College, Columbia University.

Wolfendale, S. (2000). Special needs in the early years. London: RoutledgeFalmer.

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The SMART home heating problem- Solution

The SMART home heating problem Overview You have been asked to design the user interface to a “smart” home thermostat. The system will be targeted at middle-income home owners, for both new and existing homes. The marketing strategy for the system will be to emphasize the cost-savings and environmental benefits of pre-setting the system to keep rooms warm only when they are likely to be in use. A preliminary market survey has shown that homeowners are quite receptive to this idea, and the survey has shown that a number of competing systems are already on the market. However, the marketing survey has also shown that existing systems are typically very complex and confusing for the homeowner to use effectively. The key to your system’s success, therefore, will be its excellent user interface. Requirements The major requirements and constraints of the design are: • The control system will initially be marketed in cold-climate areas, so you should consider only heating functions, not air conditioning. • Different heating methods (such as hot air, hot water, steam, or electric) may have slightly different requirements. o In a real design situation, you would discuss this issue extensively with the appropriate engineers. For the purposes of this project, you are to act as your own engineering expert and consider only the kind of heating that you currently have in your home. o The supply of power to the heating system is NOT part of the design problem. You can assume that you have a continual and reliable supply of power from whatever power source you choose. • An important contribution to heating cost savings has been identified as “zoned” heating. For example, the bedrooms should be kept cool during the day when no one is using them, even if the kitchen or playroom is being heated during that period. o Design the system to support three or more zones, and assume the method of heating will also support this. • The marketing and production departments have a rough idea of how much hardware you can afford to incorporate into the interface. o It’s assumed that you will need a simple microprocessor, ROM for program code, and non-volatile RAM for storing settings. o As a rough estimate, assume you have the processing power of a Macintosh or an IBM-PC. • The physical interface is more limited than the underlying processor. Marketing has determined that homeowners don’t want large, complex controls on their walls. o You must incorporate the controls onto a control panel that is 150mm x 150mm (6 inch x 6 inch) at the most. o You are free to reduce the control panel size, if you think it appropriate. For example, would a 100mm x 150mm (4 inch x 6 inch) panel be a better fit? o In this space you can put whatever you want: buttons, dials, gauges, LCD screens, touch screens, stylus pads, colour, etc. o Stay with hand-and-eye interactions; don’t propose voice controlled systems. • Each zone can have its own control panel, or you can combine all controls on a single master panel. (Marketing likes a single panel, because that’s cheaper and easier to install.) • Each zone has its own temperature sensor. The heating system will be able to maintain a set temperature for each zone. However, changes to temperature won’t occur instantly. • Some of the tasks that marketing thinks the control system should support are: o Pre-setting temperatures that the heating system should maintain for zones at various times during various days of the week (for example, keep bedrooms at 150 C (590 F) in the daytime, except Sunday before 10 a.m.; then heat bedrooms to 220 C (720 C) between 5 p.m. and 11 p.m.); o Allow pre-set settings to be over-ridden for a few hours (for someone at home on a single-day holiday); o Allow pre-set settings to be over-ridden for a few days (when no one is at home during holidays). Your task and user analysis should confirm, deny, or expand on these.
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Potential use of Magnesium Alloy in Orthopedic Implants- Answer

Assessment: Literature Review Research Topic: Potential use of Magnesium Alloy in Orthopedic Implants Student Name: Roll No: Word Count: 2167 Orthopedic implants are usually divided into two main categories; permanent joint replacements and temporary fracture fixation devices. Permanent orthopedic implants include the hip, knee, ankle, shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger joints (expected to act permanently in a patient’s life-span) whereas the temporary orthopedic implants include the plates, screws, pins, wires, and intramedullary nails (temporary replacements for until the bone heals). Since orthopedic devices need to be implanted in vivo, it is important that we understand the biological response and the physciological conditions in the human body thereby which one can design and optimize the device depending on their specific applications, of which metallic alloys, ceramics and polymers are commonly used. Despite the success of traditional materials, new and better biomaterials are being developed continuously to satisfy the ever-increasing demand of which magnesium alloys are being paid much attention for their properties (Weihong & Paul 2019. P 425) Magnesium has been considered many times as a potential alloy for orthopedic implants Magnesium possesses mechanical properties similar to those of bone tissue. Development of biodegradable implants has grown into one of the important areas in medical science. Degradability becomes more important for orthopedic accessories used to support fractured and damaged bones, in order to avoid second surgery for their removal after healing. Clinically available biodegradable orthopedic materials are mainly made of polymers or ceramics. These orthopedic accessories have an unsatisfactory mechanical strength, when used in load-bearing parts. Magnesium and its alloys can be suitable candidate for this purpose, due to their outstanding strength to weight ratio, biodegradability, non-toxicity and mechanical properties, similar to natural bone. The major drawback of magnesium is its low corrosion resistance, which also influences its mechanical and physical characteristics in service condition As the fourth most abundant mineral in the body, Mg is an essential element, and over half of its total content is stored in bone (Rude. 2008). In a research conducted at Peking University’s Department of Material Science and Engineering, the in vivo and in vitro experiment showed positive results for the grain refining showed good bio-compatibility after being implanted into the dorsal muscle and femoral shaft of the New Zealand rabbit, though with higher degradation rate in the latter muscle (Hou. L et al. 2014). In terms of corrosion there are other elements such as Y (-2.37 V), Nd (-2.43 V), and Ce (-2.48 V) which have similar chemical potentials to Magnesium (-2.37 V) (Chen et al. 2014). But biocompatibility also needs to be considered. Reports have shown that biological nutrients and trace non-toxic elements if added together or separately in the Magnesium matrix do not cause any detrimental local tissue effect and are easily absorbed by the surrounding tissues (X. Lin et al. 2013).  AZ series alloys (Mg-Al-Zn), particularly the AZ31 (Mg-3Al-1Zn) (Wang & Shi. 2011). The rate of corrosion of Magnesium can be reduced by increasing the mass fraction of Zinc (Zn) and mixing it with it, thus strengthening the mechanical properties of Mg by solid solution hardening (Zhang et al. 2010). Magnesium alloys have also been used in bone repair. Apatite, an inorganic component of natural bone, is known to improve bone repair due to its low solubility and high thermal stability. Hydroxyapatite (HA) belongs to the family of Apatite, and has been found to have the closest chemical composition with bone mineral and it has been researched to act as a positive magnesium alloy for bone repair. A similar research was conducted by Shen. S et al (2017) on hydroxyapatite bilayer coating with double layer structure on magnesium alloy a rapid microwave aqueous chemical route. The coating was prepared with microwave heating and  consisted of cotton-like HA as the surface layer and strip-like HA as the bottom layer. Potentiodynamic polarization test demonstrated that corrosion current density of HA coated magnesium alloy prepared with microwave heating was hundred times lower than the naked counterpart. Moreover, HA coated magnesium alloy prepared with the microwave heat enhanced osteoblast proliferation than the naked counterpart which indicated that the HA bilayer coating was a potential protective coating on biodegradable magnesium and its alloys for orthopedic application. Shen. S et al (2018) performed an in vitro biological test where the FHA coating (fluoridated hydroxyapatite) enhanced osteogenic differentiation capacity in comparison to hydroxyapatite coating (HA). The simulated body fluid immersion test demonstrated that the FHA coating combined with HA, mineralized layer together offering favorable long term protection for magnesium alloy. Thereby, providing a new avenue for biomimetic surface topography design for orthopedic implants. In the research Wang et al. (2013) coated ZK60 Mg alloy with HA and found that cytocompatability with  L929 cells (cells derived from mouse in 1940), thereby, rendering it suitable for orthopedic applications. Jaiswal. S (2018) et al, made an effort to reduce the corrosion rate of magnesium in their research by synthesizing Mg-3 w% Zn matrix composite which was reinforced with thermally treated  HA which was effective in reducing the corrosion rate by 42% and it also improved the compressive yield strength of biodegradable magnesium alloy by 23%. Moreover, osteoblasts cells showed better growth and proliferation on HA reinforced surfaces of the composite thereby showing potential to be used orthopedic fracture fixing accessories. Cheng et al (2016), studied two open-porous magnesium scaffolds with different pore sizes though of nearly the same porosity, were successfully fabricated with high purity Mg ingots through the titanium wire space holder (TWSH) method. The scaffolds with larger pore size can promote early vascularization and up-regulate collagen type one and OPN expression, leading to higher bone mass and more mature bone formation. Therefore, the new method is introduced to develop an open-porous magnesium scaffold with controllable microstructures and mechanical properties, which has great potential clinical application for bone reconstruction in the future. Also no significant deterioration was seen in the coated ones in comparison to uncoated ones. Magnesium alloys have also shown promising result as polymer coatings for orthopedic applications. Munro et al. studied the influence of the polymer coating on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy in SBF for the rate of corrosion. It was observed that using PLA (semi-crystalline biodegradable polymer) during the early days of implantation prevented corrosion. In comparison to in vivo experiments, in vitro experiments provide quick and reasonable feedback concerning efficacy (Xin, Hu & Chu. 2011). Though in vitro experiments are convenient, there were some in vivo experiments that were conducted as well; Zhang et al. investigated the degradation of Mg alloy by implanting Mg-Zn-Mn to see how the bones respond to the biodegradable Mg implant. Furthermore, the effect on blood composition and organs was also studied. It was found that Mg-Zn-Mn alloy degraded at different rates in the marrow cavity and the cortical bone. New bone tissues formed around the Mg implants but not the fibrous capsule. The implant caused less damage to the blood composition, liver and kidney. The physiological environment plays an important role for magnesium degradation. In an experiment conducted by Ehrensberger and Brooks (2017), they 2% Sr to Mg in a binary alloy (MS), which caused rapid dissolution of the material which was thought to be due to microgalvanic corrosion initiated by the increased volume of the second phase. The Mg-Ca-Zn (MCZ) showed lower degradation in comparison to the MCZS. MS showed higher corrosion in comparison to MCZS. All the materials investigated showed fast corrosion in the physiological environment due to the microgalvanic corrosion between the second phases and intermetallics formed by the high alloy loading. Peng et al. successfully developed an PEO/LDH (plasma electrolytic oxidation/layered double hydroxide) composite coating on LZ31 by sealing its pores using in-situ growing Mg-Al LDH, this remarkably enhancing the corrosion-resistance of the substrate. In the experiment the adhesion and proliferation of rat bone marrow stem cells was improved thereby increasing the hemolysis rate test of PEO/LDH was decreased for clinical application. The prepared composite showed promising application in orthopedic surgeries as a favorable drug delivery method. Koo et al (2017) studied the development of a suitable in-vitro model to examine the effects of mechanical stress and interstitial flow on biodegradable implant materials by assessing the degradation of biodegradable magnesium pins in a bioreactor applying cycling loading and stimulating-body fluid perfusion. It was found that cyclic mechanical loading and interstitial flow caused significant increase in the overall corrosion rate leading to loss of mechanical strength. A polymer coating as polycaprolactone (PCL) is applied to improve the initial corrosion resistance of biodegradable magnesium. Kim et al. (2018) studied the optimal conditions for producing a polymer coating on a screw, which was determined by varying the concentration of polycaprolactone (PCL) and the coating cycles, in vivo and in vitro. It was found that in case of non-uniformed PCL layers, oxides and gases were present between the Mg and PCL layer due to internal Mg corrosion and peel off. When the 6 wt.% + 4 cycle was applied uniformly to the screw thread, a high corrosion resistance was observed. Therefore, denser and thicker bones formed around the PCL-coated screw in rat femur.  Magnesium and its alloys are promising biodegradable biomaterials but are still challenging to be used in person with high levels of blood glucose or diabetes. Therefore, Zeng et al. (2015), studied the magnesium’s corrosion response to saline and Hanks solution with glucose contents. It was found that the corrosion rate of Mg increases with glucose concentration in saline solution by transforming rapidly into Gluconic acid and promotion the absorption of chloride ions on the Mg surface. Though, in Hanks solution corrosion resistance was observed due to the fact that glucose coordinated with Calcium ions in Hanks solution and therefore improved the formation of Ca-P compounds on the pure Mg surface. In clinical practice, tumor recurrence and metastasis after orthopedic prosthesis implantation is an intensely troublesome matter. Therefore, to develop implant materials with antitumor property is extremely necessary and meaningful. Wu et al. (2016) investigated the influence of Mg alloy extract (Mg-1Ca-0.5Sr-xZn), on the proliferation rate, cell apoptosis, migration and invasion of the U2OS cell line (Human Bone Osteosarcoma Epithelial Cells). The results showed that Zn containing Mg alloys inhibit the cell proliferation by altering the cell cycle and inducing cell apoptosis by the activation of the mitochondria pathway. Therefore, suggesting that Mg-1Ca-0.5Sr-6Zn alloy can act as a promising orthopedic implant in osteosarcoma limb-salvage surgery for avoiding tumor recurrence and metastasis. Similarly, there has been concern for using Mg implants in patients suffering from Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) due to risk of hypermagnesemia. Wang. J et al. (2016) did a research based on the concern where they induced CRF in model rats by adenine administration prior to magnesium implantation. The results had shown that there were no significant changes of magnesium levels in urine, serum, feces and internal organs. Moreover, biochemical indices detection and histopathological analysis in kidney, liver and heart tissue confirmed that Mg implants did not induce any extra damage in the rats with renal failure. Titanium has also been used along with its alloys in orthopedic implantation due to its favorable properties for hard tissues. Though, there is a need for surface modification to improve the osteointegration. Li. X (2017) did a study where a bio-active magnesium was coating was implanted by the means of arc ion plating. The in vitro study of cytotoxity and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 (cell line from mouse) showed that the magnesium coated porous TI6A14V (porous titanium alloy) had suitable degradation and biocompatibility. The study also showed that magnesium coated porous titanium could significantly in rabbit femoral defects after implantation for four to eight weeks with better osteogenesis and osteointegration. Therefore, it is expected that this bioactive magnesium coating on titanium scaffolds can be used for orthopedic implantation.  It must be remembered that Magnesium is a highly reactive metal so there is bound to be corrosion in a certain physiological environment where even its alloy properties fail. Thus, Hou. P (2017) performed a research to study the impact of co-existence of Titanium on the corrosion behavior of high purity magnesium (HP Mg) both in vitro and in vivo. The in vivo experiments showed accelerating corrosion of HP-Mg when they were co-implanted with the titanium screws in Sprague-Dawley rat’s femur. It was hypnotized that the abundant blood vessels on the periosteum act as wires to connect the Mg and Ti screws and act as galvanic cell, thereby, accelerating the corrosion of Mg. Therefore, it was concluded that a certain distance is critical to maintain the mechanical and biological property of Mg when it is co-implanted with Ti. A promising biodegradable Magnesium alloy suitable for clinical vascular stent application was researched by Mao. L (2017) et al where a Mg alloy, Mg-2.2Nd-0.1Zn-0.4Zr (wt.%, denoted as JDBM-2) was tested for integration advantages of the traditional medical stainless steel and polymer. The vascular stents manufactured from the JDBM-2 were implanted into rabbits for long term evaluation for which the results confirmed above expectations tissue compatibility and up to six months structural and mechanical integrity which represented a major breakthrough and a promising alternative to traditional medical stainless steel and polymer for clinical applications. References:
  1. Jin, W and Chu, K P 2019, Encyclopedia of Biomedical Engineering: Orthopedic Implant, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
  1. Rude, R.K. Magnesium homeostasis. Principles of Bone Biology; Bilezikian, J., Raisz, L., Martin, T., Eds.; Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2008; Volume 1, pp. 487–513.
  1. Hou, L et al. 2014. ‘In vitro and in vivo studies on biodegradable magnesium alloy’, Progress in Natural Science: Materials International, 24, no. 5, pp 466-471.
  1. Lin, L. Tan, Q. Zhang et al. 2013, “The in vitro degradation process and biocompatibility of a ZK60 magnesium alloy with a for sterite-containing micro-arc oxidation coating,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 8631–8642.
  1. Wang and Z. Shi. 2011, “In vitro biodegradation behavior of magnesiumand magnesium alloy,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 203–209
  1. Zhang, L. Yang, J. Xu, and H. Chen. 2010, “Microstructure, mechanical properties and bio-corrosion properties of Mg-Si(-Ca, Zn) alloy for biomedical application,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 1756–1762
  1. Wang, P. Huang, C. Ou, K. Li, B. Yan, and W. Lu. 2013, “In vitro corrosion and cytocompatibility of ZK60magnesiumalloy coated with hydroxyapatite by a simple chemical conversion process for orthopedic applications,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 23614–23628
  1. Cheng, M.-q. et al. A novel open-porous magnesium scaffold with controllable microstructures and properties for bone regeneration.” Sci. Rep. 6, 24134; doi: 10.1038/srep24134
  1. E. Gray-Munro, C. Seguin, and M. Strong. 2009, “Influence of surface modification on the in vitro corrosion rate of magnesium alloyAZ31,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 221–230
  1. Xin, T. Hu, and P. K. Chu. 2011, “In vitro studies of biomedical magnesium alloys in a simulated physiological environment: A review,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 1452–1459
  1. L. Zhang, L. P. Xu, G. N. Yu et al. 2009, “In vivo evaluation of biodegradable magnesium alloy bone implant in the first 6 months implantation,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, vol. 90A, no. 3, pp. 882–893
  1. Brooks, E. K., & Ehrensberger, M. T. (2017). Bio-Corrosion of Magnesium Alloys for Orthopaedic Applications. Journal of Functional Biomaterials8(3), 38.
  1. F et al. 2017, “Sealing the Pores of PEO Coating with Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide: Enhanced Corrosion Resistance, Cytocompatibility and Drug Delivery Ability”, Scientific Reports, vol 7, no. 8167,
  2. Koo, Y et al. 2017, ‘The Effects of Static and Dynamic Loading on Biodegradable Magnesium Pins In Vitro and In Vivo’, Scientific Reports, vol 7: 14710 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-14836-5
  3. Kim, Y et al. 2018, ‘Improvement of osteogenesis by a uniform PCL coating on a magnesium screw for biodegradable applications’, Scientific Reports, vol 8:13264 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-31359-9
  4. Wu, Y et al. 2016, ‘Unique antitumor property of the Mg-Ca-Sr alloys with addition’, Scientific Reports, vol 6:21736 | DOI: 10.1038/srep21736
  5. Wang, J et al. 2016, ‘Related Metabolic Disorders in Rats with Chronic Renal Failure’, Scientific Reports, Vol 6:26341 | DOI: 10.1038/srep26341
  6. Li, X et al. 2017, ‘Novel Bio-functional Magnesium Coating on Porous Ti6Al4V Orthopaedic Implants: In vitro and In vivo Study’, Scientific Reports, vol 7:40755 | DOI: 10.1038/srep40755
  7. Hou, P et al. 2017, ‘Accelerating Corrosion of Pure Magnesium Co-implanted with Titanium in Vivo’, Scientific Reports, vol 7:41924 | DOI: 10.1038/srep41924
  8. Mao, L et al. 2017, ‘A promising biodegradable magnesium alloy suitable for clinical vascular stent application’, Scientific Reports, vol 7:46343 | DOI: 10.1038/srep46343
  9. Shen, S et al. 2016, ‘Microwave aqueous synthesis of hydroxyapatite bilayer coating on magnesium alloy for orthopedic application’, Chemical Engineering Journal, 309, pp. 278-287, doi:
  10. Shen, S et al. 2018, ‘Biomimetic fluoridated hydroxyapatite coating with micron/nano-topography on magnesium alloy for orthopaedic application’, Chemical Engineering Journal, vol 339, pp. 7-13, doi:
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 Demographic information – The present case is on the eating disorder of the patient named Lizzie who is a 24 years old woman. Description of the case – The patient is diagnosed with acute mental health and eating disorder. She also has a medical history of anorexia nervosa for the last 10 years. Moreover, the patient is also unable to gain weight for past 5 years. Setting of treatment – Lizzie has been admitted to the acute mental health unit as an inpatient for the third time in 18 months.
Over the next 3 monthsBiological, psychological, social intervention proposed and rationaleExpected outcome and evaluation approach
Nursing diagnoses identified and goalsImbalance of Nutrition Goal: To provide balanced diet to the patient so that body weight increases by 0.5 kg per weekBiological The intervention for the Biological factors are as follows: According to Clark (2017), supervising the patient at mealtimes and that also for a specific period of time. The observation also needs to be done after the meal on an average of one hour.In case of hospitalized patients suffering from anorexia, food is only considered as a medication as it will only lead to increment of the health condition.Liquids are more prescribed to this kind of patients rather than solid foods. Expectation for gaining weight of about 0.5 kg per week. The rationale is to follow effectiveness of the treatment regimen which is going on the patient.  Acquiring of edema or the bloating just after completion of meal then it is needed to make sure that these consequences are only temporary.The patient may fear becoming fat and hence she might stop following the treatment plan. This case generally uses to faces this inconsistency of the following the accurate treatment plan.Expected outcome and evaluation tools Expected outcomes for the patient suffering from anorexia and an imbalance of nutrition are improving in the desire to consume appropriate food. This outcome can be seen in the hospital as the patient stays under a regular observation. In hospitals, the observation is done during and after mealtime, thus it might result in growing intention to act according to the treatment plan. As per Drossman (2016), the evaluation tool for this observation is regular tracking of the Diet of the patient and Nutritional status.As Silberschmidt et al. (2015) had said, increment of the liquid intake will be the expected outcome and tool for that expected result motivate the patient in such a way that she will tend to take it by herself. It will further help in reducing edema or the bloating of patient.
Nursing diagnoses identified and goalsRisk of Deficiency in Fluid Volume Goal: To ensure regular food intakes and food habits of the patientPsychologicalAs per Thienpont et al. (2015), the patient should be urged to intake prescribed amount of fluid as she will try to reject to intake it. The oral fluid should be replaced by mild fluid which is also a cost-effective method. The old and experienced patients will try to stick with the ongoing drink but that is needed to be changed with a creative method. For example, a frozen juice bar flavored health drink and many more.As Vassos et al. (2016) have mentioned, the patient should be insisted with her family for feeding as that will affect the patient psychology. In case of refusal to intake of the food by herself the patient will suffer from dehydration and become very weak. According to the tolerance of patient, oral intake of liquid can be increased. The fluids can be intake with the help of straw which will be helpful for patient. Generally aged patient has the reduction of thirst feeling.Expected outcome and evaluation tools  The expected outcome for the deficiency in fluid volume in patient’s body will be reduced along with the passing of time under proper treatment plan of the hospital. The patient might shift to the cost-effective method which will be offered to her (Katona, Cooper & Robertson, 2015). Although by being a regular patient of the hospital she might take a forward step towards her own healing process.  The role of for patient’s family will also increase as along with the treatment plan family also need to support patient for the intake of fluid (Viola & Moncrieff, 2016). The evaluation tool for this stage will be to keep on checking the body fluid of patient by watching hydration level of patient.
Nursing diagnoses identified and goalsImpaired Parenting Goal: To provide parental support to the patient so that mental health can be improvedSocial Identifying the patterns of interaction between parents and patients which is between Lizzie and her parents. Encouraging the parents of Lizzie to get a good interaction with her and not to allow any other third participants.The parents need to take the responsibility for their words and action during the conversation with the patient.Discouraging the family member for taking approval of each other while conversation in front of the patient. Also, acknowledge is competent for the action of patient.Every individual of the patient family needs to develop internal senses for self-esteem (Elder, Evans & Nizette, 2011). The individuals need to admit and accept themselves in a positive way.   Listening to the patient with full regards while she speaks.The family needs to increase the self-worth feeling inpatient so that she can gain interest to express her feelings.Expected outcome and evaluation toolsThe expected outcome for impaired parenting will be that both the mother and father including the whole family of Lizzie will make sure that she is getting proper attention. Along with that her parents and family will keep a good interaction with her and they will also learn the way to talk to her and not to answer all of her questions. The family will increase their self-esteem which will also lead to increment of patient’s self-esteem.The evaluation tool for this case will be evaluating the words and temper used by Lizzie while speaking about self.
Rationale for biological intervention Rationale for the intervention for supervising the mealtimes of patients is to ensure the compliance with her dietary treatment. According to Morrison (2017), rationale for providing liquid food to the patient is that the liquid food helps to eliminate the choice of patient but in case of solid food, the patient gets a chance to select from the varieties of food which is not appropriate for the treatment. Rationale for psychological intervention The rationale for psychological intervention is that depression emerging from malnutrition should be avoided as it affects decision-making capabilities and cognitive functions. Thus, psychological intervention will be important for Lizzie in order to improve her ability to think. This would also allow her to initiate various psychological tasks. Rationale for social intervention The rationale for social intervention is that support from parents and family members would increase trust of the patient. Thus, the rebellion attitude of the patient to reject food intake would decrease. Hence, Lizzie would be able to regularise her food habit. In this way, her body weight would also rise. Reference list Clark, L. A., Cuthbert, B., Lewis-Fernández, R., Narrow, W. E., & Reed, G. M. (2017). Three approaches to understanding and classifying mental disorder: ICD-11, DSM-5, and the National Institute of Mental Health’s Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 18(2), 72-145. Retrieved from: [Retrieve on 28th August 2018] Drossman, D. A. (2016). Functional gastrointestinal disorders: history, pathophysiology, clinical features, and Rome IV. Gastroenterology, 150(6), 1262-1279. Retrieved from: [Retrieve on 28th August 2018] Elder, R., Evans, K., & Nizette, D. (2011). Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing-E-Book. Amsterdam: Elsevier Health Sciences. Retrieved from: [Retrieved on 28th August, 2018] Katona, C., Cooper, C., & Robertson, M. (2015). Psychiatry at a Glance. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved from:,+personality+disorder,+somatoform+disorder,+++dual+diagnosis+or+dual+disability.&ots=baz47tERcK&sig=PXb05_mOE3yhhSTXh6m_A6xTFo8#v=onepage&q&f=false [Retrieve on 28th August 2018] Morrison, J. (2017). DSM-5 made easy: The clinician’s guide to diagnosis. New York: Guilford Publications. Retrieved from:,+personality+disorder,+somatoform+disorder,+++dual+diagnosis+or+dual+disability.&ots=JVPhZzogVx&sig=iYy2gfownwcS2vZcT6BQFS-KVSA#v=onepage&q&f=false [Retrieve on 28th August 2018] Silberschmidt, A., Lee, S., Zanarini, M., & Schulz, S. C. (2015). Gender differences in borderline personality disorder: results from a multinational, clinical trial sample. Journal of personality disorders, 29(6), 828-838. Retrieved from: [Retrieve on 28th August 2018] Thienpont, L., Verhofstadt, M., Van Loon, T., Distelmans, W., Audenaert, K., & De Deyn, P. P. (2015). Euthanasia requests, procedures and outcomes for 100 Belgian patients suffering from psychiatric disorders: a retrospective, descriptive study. BMJ open, 5(7), 1-8. Retrieved from:  [Retrieve on 28th August 2018] Vassos, E., Agerbo, E., Mors, O., & Pedersen, C. B. (2016). Urban–rural differences in incidence rates of psychiatric disorders in Denmark. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 208(5), 435-440. Retrieved from: [Retrieve on 28th August 2018] Viola, S., & Moncrieff, J. (2016). Claims for sickness and disability benefits owing to mental disorders in the UK: trends from 1995 to 2014. BJPsych open, 2(1), 18-24. Retrieved from: [Retrieve on 28th August 2018] For any queries please email: [email protected] Show us some love & like us on Facebook: For new assignment please visit: Linkedin:
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Information Research Assignment-Answer

Information Research Assignment semester 2_2018
Research Methods, School of Science

Program: [Hons, Grad. Dip., Masters by Coursework]
Supervisor / relevant discipline lecturer:

Assignment Due Date: Monday 20 August 2018
Add your answers in black font in the shaded boxes provided. Do not delete any of the text and images of the assignment. Save the assignment as : family name_your given name_InfoRes_2018_2.doc (not as .docx) and submit via Canvas.
School Liaison Librarians:
School of Science: [email protected]
School of Health & Biomedical Sciences: [email protected]
Please contact your Liaison Librarian if you need assistance at any stage of the library assignment. To allow for an adequate response be sure to make contact well before the due date of the assignment.

All questions must be completed satisfactorily to pass the library component of the course.
How long will it take?
Suggested schedule for off campus students based on face-to-face information research methods classes:
Week 1 – look through the Online Tutorial and find the Subject Guide relevant to your discipline. Check the Science Subject Guide list and the Biomedical, Health & Nursing list. If you are a Masters by Coursework student who is not currently working on a research project, ask a lecturer for advice on a realistic topic to use for this assignment. It is fine to re-use a topic from a previous course.
Week 2 – work through Q1, Q2 and Q4.3 (Staying Current)
Week 3 – Q3, Q4.1 and Q4.2.
Week 4 – Q5


1.1 Briefly explain your research topic (50-150 words)
If your project has several stages outline them briefly and indicate which stage you will be focusing on for the assignment.

Q1.1 The topic is to conduct a review on the analytical techniques coupled with
chemometrics in ascertaining the authentication and the toxicity level
(mycotoxins) of the herbs and spices. The review will be conducted using various evaluation tools that determine the toxic levels (mainly quantitative) of different herbs and spices, based on their origin and growing regions. The study will be essential for identifying effective tools that help in measuring toxic levels and the possibilities for edible and helpful qualities along with authentication of the constituents present in the herb and spices.

1.2 Identify the main aspects of your topic and list the keywords for each aspect. Include synonyms, alternative terms, plurals, and acronyms where appropriate. A preliminary search of a relevant journal article database can be helpful for identifying these. The Library’s Subject Guides also list useful dictionaries and encyclopaedias.

Quick guide to completing this question:
• Read through 1.Define Your Topic and 2. Identify Keywords in Developing a Search Statement in the Online Tutorial.

Aspects: Mycotoxins, Chemometrics, authentications of herbs, toxicity levels

Keywords: measuring mycotoxins of spices and herbs, evaluate the authentication of herbs, experimental tools for measuring toxicity levels, Chemometrics in mycotoxins

1.3 Convert your list of keywords into a search statement. Use the Boolean operators (AND and OR), the asterix * for truncation, and double quotes ” ” for phrases.

Quick guide:
• Read through 3. Search Operators and 4. The Search Statement

• Examples of how you might fill out Aspects 1-3 (below) for three different topics are provided below:

Example 1
Aspect 1

spider* or arachnid*
AND Aspect 2

web or silk or fiber* or fibre* or thread
AND Aspect 3

nmr or “nuclear magnetic resonance”

Example 2
Aspect 1

doping or drug*
AND Aspect 2

sport* or athlet*
AND Aspect 3

biomarker* or “biological marker*”
Example 3

Aspect 1

water or aquatic or aqueous
AND Aspect 2

“high performance liquid chromatography” or hplc
AND Aspect 3

triazin* or atrazine*

IMPORTANT: Only use phrases for terms in common use (eg. “biological marker*”). Do not search using sentences/phrases generally. A reminder from the Online Tutorial:

Aspect 1

“Analytical process” AND mycotoxins*

Aspect 2

“Analytical process” AND chemometrics*

Aspect 3 (if you have a third aspect to your search)
“authentication of plants”

Which operator/s would you use between Aspect 1-3 above? ie. To link each box (the question does not refer to operator/s within each box)

Select the appropriate Boolean operator using the Underline function in Word



2.1. List the two Library journal article databases most useful for this topic
Refer to the Subject Guide for your discipline for a list of relevant databases.
• Do not select LibrarySearch as this is not a journal article database listed in the Subject Guides.
• Although Web of Science is a valuable database, do not use it for Q2 of the assignment since it does not use Keywords for classification.

Quick guide:
• 1. What is a Database in Searching Databases


Your subject guide:

Biological and Agricultural Index
SciFinder Scholar
Your selected journal article databases:

1. SCOPUS (Elsevier)

2. PubMed

2.2 Search one or two of the databases to find two articles helpful to your topic.

Quick guide to 2.2:
• If you are new to database searching, view the tutorials that are relevant to you on 2. Getting Started.

Provide a screen capture of the database record for each article. Include title / author / abstract / subject terms. Ensure these are fully visible.

Subject terms are particularly important. These may be labelled Indexed Keywords / Index Terms / Descriptors / Controlled Terms / MeSH terms. (in PubMed click on MeSH terms to open the list).

The green box in the screen capture below is for your reference. There is no need to include a similar box in your image.
NOTE: Include Indexed Keywords if available, not just Author Keywords. Only Indexed Keywords are consistent across the database.

Indicate which database was used. Ensure the screen captures are from the journal article databases (Scopus, PubMed etc) not from the full text of the article.


1st Article

2nd article

2.3 Copy and paste (ie. not screen capture) the subject terms that appear in the database records of your two articles.

Subject terms may be labelled keywords / index terms / descriptors / controlled terms (eg. In the Scopus record in the example above they are labelled Indexed keywords). Author keywords may also be relevant. For SciFinder include CA Concept Headings.

Use Word highlight to identify subject terms worth trying in your search.


Article 1 –

Indexed keywords

GEOBASE Subject Index: agricultural land; catchment; cropping practice; ecosystem resilience; environmental impact; fertilizer application; herbicide; horticulture; livestock farming; marine pollution; nitrogen; pesticide; pollutant; pollutant transport; runoff; sustainable development; water quality

Regional Index: Auckland; Great Barrier Island; New Zealand; North Island

Article 2 –

Indexed keywords

GEOBASE Subject Index: agricultural practice; anthropogenic effect; catchment; coastal zone management; coral reef; habitat conservation; habitat fragmentation; human activity

Regional Index: Australia; Coral Sea; Great Barrier Reef; Pacific Ocean; Queensland

If you have problems pasting text into the box below, try File – Paste – Paste Special –
Formatted Text (RTF)
Article 1:
Author keywords
Alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) algorithmCerealLiquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)Multi-way calibration methodMycotoxin
Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: aflatoxinalpha zearalenolmycotoxinochratoxinsterigmatocystinT 2 toxinzearalanone
EMTREE medical terms: algorithmalternating trilinear decomposition algorithmanalytic methodArticlecalibrationcerealchemical structurechemometric analysiselliptical joint confidence region testextractionf igures of meritimmunoaffinity column purification stepinterference free analysislimit of detectionliquid chromatography-mass spectrometrymaizematrix effectmeasurement accuracymeasurement repeatabilitynonhumanphysical chemistryprocess optimizationquantitative analysisreliabilityreproducibilityricestatistical parameterstoxin analysis
Article 2:
Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: herbaceous agent
EMTREE medical terms: Articlecomparative studyconsensuscontrolled studyDNA barcodingDNA extractionDNA libraryDNA sequencedrug contaminationdrug marketingdrug puritydrug qualityGenBankherbal medicineherbal product authenticationIndiameasurement accuracymedicinal plantpolymerase chain reactionpriority journalsequence analysisspeciesDNA barcodingdrug contaminationgeneticshumanphytotherapyquality controlreference valuestandards
MeSH: DNA Barcoding, TaxonomicDrug ContaminationHumansIndiaPhytotherapyPlants, MedicinalQuality ControlReference Values

2.4 Using the results and keyword information (from Q2.3) that you have obtained so far, improve on your original search to get the best possible coverage of your topic. This means using the Q2.3 keywords in your search/s and adapting your search/s depending on whether you are getting too many results or too few results. You may adapt your search from Q.1 or, if necessary, break it down into more than one search.

IMPORTANT: If your best search only retrieves, for example, five references closely related to your topic, what other searching will you do to retrieve relevant references for your thesis bibliography?

If SciFinder is relevant to your discipline, additionally indicate how you adapted your Boolean search statement for SciFinder (e.g. how did you break up the search, use Refine, Analyse, etc.)

Quick guide to 2.4:
• 3. Preliminary Searching, 4. Too Many Results and 5. Too Few Results in Searching Databases


Below are three examples of how to approach this question.

Example 1 from Scopus:

Treatment of brain tissue colonization by T. gondii

First attempts:

TITLE-ABS-KEY ( “toxoplasma gondii” ) AND TITLE-ABS-KEY ( “blood brain barrier” ) = 66 results

TITLE-ABS-KEY ( “toxoplasma gondii” ) AND TITLE-ABS-KEY ( “blood brain barrier” ) AND TITLE-ABS-KEY ( treatment ) = 18 results

After noting and including additional keywords:

TITLE-ABS-KEY ( “toxoplasma gondii” OR toxoplasmosis ) AND TITLE-ABS-KEY ( “blood brain barrier” or cerebral ) = 2,400 results

Limited two of the aspects to KEYWORD only from the drop down box in order to be more precise:

KEY ( “toxoplasma gondii” OR toxoplasmosis ) AND TITLE-ABS-KEY ( “blood brain barrier” OR cerebral ) AND KEY ( treatment ) = 265 results

Example 2 from Scopus:

Disease-related food contamination in the pork production chain and its detection

TITLE-ABS-KEY ( pig* OR swine OR porcine ) AND TITLE-ABS-KEY ( parasite* OR disease* ) AND TITLE-ABS-KEY ( “food contamination” ) = 1069 results

Limited to Document Type – Review = 161 results.

Returned to the 1000 results and opened up Keyword in the left hand column. After seeing the list of official Keywords, returned to the original search and changed all the search aspects to KEYWORD only.

KEY ( pig* OR swine OR porcine ) AND KEY ( parasite* OR disease* ) AND KEY ( “food contamination” ) = 878 results

Limited to Subject Area – Agricultural and Biological Sciences = 251 results

Limited to Document Type – Articles = 216 results. This is a manageable number to scan.

Additional search:
KEY ( pork ) AND KEY ( “food contamination” ) AND TITLE-ABS-KEY ( identification OR detection ) = 157 results

Example 3 – Searching in SciFinder: refer to the example given in the SciFinder box at Getting Started in the Online Tutorial.

NOTE: These are just examples. The necessary search strategies will vary according to the topic.

To answer this question, insert a database screen capture of your search history to confirm your steps and the number of results. In Scopus the search history will appear at the bottom of the search page. If necessary add an explanation of any decisions you made while searching. Add any explanation under the screen capture. Eg. of a Search History from Scopus (appears at the bottom of the search page):

Article 1:

Article 2:


3.1 Critically analyse one of your two articles. Use the same article for all parts of Q3.

Quick guide:

Use the following criteria to assign your evaluation scores below.

Relevancy – eg. How effective were the search statement keywords? Does the article completely cover the topic? How useful is it?
Currency – eg. How up-to-date is the article? Is there likely to be current information on this topic?
Authority – eg. Has the article undergone peer review by a group of subject experts prior to publication? (If in doubt about peer review – also called refereeing – check Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory). What is the Web of Science Journal Impact Factor for the journal? How many papers has the first author written in the subject area? What is their H-index?


Full author, title etc details of your article:
Liu, Z., Wu, H.L., Xie, L.X., Hu, Y., Fang, H., Sun, X.D., Wang, T., Xiao, R. and Yu, R.Q., 2017, Chemometrics-enhanced liquid chromatography-full scan-mass spectrometry for interference-free analysis of multi-class mycotoxins in complex cereal samples. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 160, pp.125-138.

Evaluation scores (Use the Underline function to select the number; 1=lowest, 5=highest):
Relevancy 1 2 3 4 5
Currency 1 2 3 4 5
Authority 1 2 3 4 5

What is the Journal Impact Factor of your journal?

What is your journal’s rank in the relevant Journal Citation Reports subject category?

Quick guide:
• What is a Journal Impact Factor? View the flash tutorial ‘The Impact Factor in Journal Citation Reports’ at Working With Your Search Results – Evaluation
• To look up your journal, select Web of Science. (This database will also appear in your Subject Guide or the Library Databases A-Z listing).
• Within Web of Science link to Journal Citation Reports from the top navigation bar.
• Enter a Journal Name
• The journal’s record now defaults to Current Year, change this to All Years to view the page shown in the class video.
• The Key Indicators box will display the Journal Impact Factor
• To view the journal’s rank in various disciplines, select Rank from the left hand menu

Journal Impact Factor in JCR Web of Science:

Insert screen capture from JCR, eg:

Journal Rank in relevant subject Category:

Insert screen capture from JCR, eg:

First Author H-index via Web of Science Core Collection:

List the steps you took to correctly identify your author – eg. Selecting Research Area/s, Organization/s, removing irrelevant articles above the H index number (In the example below, only articles above line 86 need to be by Elizabeth Blackburn).
Including this information is particularly important if the author has a common name.

Insert a screen capture from Web of Science which includes the search summary at the top of the page (ie.You searched for) as well as the top 5 or 6 articles (to demonstrate that they are from the same researcher), eg:

Quick guide:
• What is the H index?
View the flash tutorial ‘WEB OF SCIENCE: Citation Reports & H index’ at Working With Your Search Results – Evaluation

Step by Step instructions for Web of Science:
• Within Web of Science check that Web of Science Core Collection is selected.

• The Search default is Basic Search. Click on + More to select Author Search.

• Enter Author Name details

• If your Author name is an Asian name enter the full name eg. Shin, Jae-Sun in the Last Name / Family Name field and leave the Initial(s) field blank.

• You can then select Research Domain and further open up the Research Domain subject categories to select specific disciplines.

• There is also the option to limit to a particular Organization. You can leave this unspecified if you are not certain of the author’s affiliation history. There will be a broader option to limit to a specific country once the results are displaying (Select View All Options from the left hand side of the results list).

• Click on Finish Search then try clicking on the link at Author Search Results: XX Records XX Article Groups (top left hand side). This will often allow you to retrieve using the author’s given name. Select entries for your author (there may be more than one) and click on View Records.

• Select Create Citation Report (top right hand corner of the page) to view the H index.

• Note that only the papers appearing above the H index cut off point need to be by your author to generate a correct H index. (eg. H index of 5 means you only have to check the first 5 papers). To remove papers that do not appear to be by your author check the box next to the paper and select Go.

If you are still having problems due to a common name try Scopus:
• Within Scopus change the search default from Article Title, Abstract, Keywords to Article Title.
• Type in the title of your key article and use double quotes to treat the title as a phrase.
• In the article record follow the author name link for the first author of the article.
• The author’s Scopus record, with their Scopus H index will display.
• (Note that this simple method does not work in Web of Science. Sometimes there can also problems with Scopus).

3.2 Referring to the criteria explain why your article is a key reference for your work (100-200 words).
The article is essential in understanding the concept of Chemometrics, the assisted analytical strategy combining LC MS, another mass spectrometry detection procedure based on the ALTD algorithm, which is highly useful in determining class of mycotoxins. Rather this article makes it easier for using tools for quantifying of mycotoxins, the backbone of our current research. The various stages with the correct form of evaluation is well illustrated in this articles and the ways in which the toxin levels within cereals and plants can be analysed have been described with examples in this article.

3.3 Using either Web of Science, Scopus or SciFinder, check your key article for Citing References. How many times has your article been cited by other articles?

Insert a screen capture from your database

Eg from Web of Science:

Quick guide:
• What are Citing References? Read through Searching Databases: 6. Cited Reference Searching

4.1 Theses
Find one thesis relevant to your research that you can use as background information.

Quick guide:
• Searching Databases: 7. Other Sources of Information. There is a Thesis information box on this page.
• More in-depth information is available in the Theses guide.
• If you have difficulty finding something relevant remember to search more broadly and try Dissertations and Theses Global (Proquest) which is a large database of US theses.

IMPORTANT: Check that your thesis is a thesis. Not everything appearing in the RMIT Research Repository or Trove is a thesis.

IMPORTANT: The full text of the thesis has to be available in order for it to be a thesis that is helpful to you. See below for the required screen capture.

Author and Title details of postgraduate thesis:

Thesis database/catalogue used to locate the thesis:

Insert screen captures of the record for your thesis which display the Author, Title, Thesis type, University and pdf availability. If using Dissertations and Theses Full Text (Proquest) Two screen captures will be required. See examples below.

egs. from Proquest:

eg. from the RMIT Research Repository:

Explain how the thesis is relevant to your own research question. (50-100 words)
This thesis is essential in understanding one of the most commonly used methods for analysing chemical components of herbs, named as Thin layer chromatography (TLC). Rather this thesis presents the ways of conducting quantitative and qualitative analyses with scanning densitometric techniques of CAMAG and TLCQA method.

4.2 Books and Patents
Locate either a book or a patent relevant to your research in some way.

To locate a book use either LibrarySearch to search RMIT Library or use Libraries Australia

Quick guide:
• In some Subject Guides there is a list of book subject headings under the Books tab that may be useful.
• If there are no subject headings in your Subject Guide, or they are too broad, search LibrarySearch using keywords instead.

To find a patent relevant to your work use the Patents sources listed in your Subject Guide or check the Patents guide. (Note: if your Subject Guide does not have a Patents tab then patents may not be relevant to you).

Quick guide:
• When searching the United States Patent and Trademark Office, select Advanced Search and limit your keywords to the title and abstract of the patent by using this format:
ttl,abst/((tumor$ or anticancer) and (marine or sponge))

Note: In the US Patents Office database $ replaces *

Details (author, title etc) of book or patent:

Insert a screen capture of the Details view of your book, OR, insert a screen capture of your patent record.

Book eg. from LibrarySearch:
• To bring up the Details view, click on the correct book title from the matching hits list and when the title’s record is displaying, select Details from the left hand column.

Patent eg. from the US Patent and Trademark Office:

Explain how the content of the book or patent assists you with your research. (50-100 words)
The book helps in understanding the techniques widely used in mass spectrometry, which is essential to identify the toxic levels and chemical attributes, along with the quality of the food. Rather this book illustrates the technique for classifying the herbs and food plants.

4.3 Staying Current
Plan a current awareness strategy to keep your research up-to-date and to stay aware of developments in your field.

List at least three different options that you are using to stay current. Give details in terms of your own topic.

Shorten the keywords and mention exact phases to get relevant sources

Quick guide:
• The different options are listed at Working With Your Search Results: Staying Current

Additional information on setting up alerts (NOTE that setting up search alerts is only one option)

Step by Step instructions for saving a search and setting up an alert in Web of Science Core Collection:
• To save a search you have done in Web of Science as a search alert, select Search History – Save History/Create Alert. After registering, provide a Search History Name and tick Email Alerts, then make a selection at Alert type, E-mail format and E-mail frequency.
• To see what you have set up, select My Tools on the Search page. If it says Alerting Status: Off, click on the Activate tab. Note the expiry date of your alert.

Step by Step instructions for saving a search and setting up an alert in Scopus:
• To save a search you have done in Scopus as a search alert, select Set Alert which appears at the top of the page when the search results are displaying, then, register with Scopus if you are not already registered.
• Select Set Alert again, select Frequency and click on Select Alert to confirm.
• Select Alerts from the top bar to view what you have set up, and to delete if necessary

Step by Step instructions for saving a search and setting up an alert in Inspec:
• To save a search you have done in Inspec as a search alert, select Create Alert then Register with Inspec.
• Select Alerts from the top to view what you have set up.


5.1 Compile a reference list using the two journal article references found in Q.2 and the thesis and book/patent reference from Q.4.

Beltrán, E., Ibáñez, M., Portolés, T., Ripollés, C., Sancho, J.V., Yusà, V., Marín, S. & Hernández, F. 2013, “Development of sensitive and rapid analytical methodology for food analysis of 18 mycotoxins included in a total diet study”, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 783, pp. 39-48.
Bräse, S., Encinas, A., Keck, J. & Nising, C.F. 2009, “Chemistry and biology of mycotoxins and related fungal metabolites”, Chemical reviews, vol. 109, no. 9, pp. 3903-3990.
Bro, R. & Kiers, H.A.L. 2003, “A new efficient method for determining the number of components in PARAFAC models”, Journal of Chemometrics, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 274-286.
Campone, L., Piccinelli, A.L., Celano, R. & Rastrelli, L. 2011, “Application of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of aflatoxins B 1, B 2, G 1 and G 2 in cereal products”, Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1218, no. 42, pp. 7648-7654.
Chen, Z.-., Liu, Z., Cao, Y.-. & Yu, R.-. 2001, “Efficient way to estimate the optimum number of factors for trilinear decomposition”, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 444, no. 2, pp. 295-307.
Desmarchelier, A., Tessiot, S., Bessaire, T., Racault, L., Fiorese, E., Urbani, A., Chan, W.-., Cheng, P. & Mottier, P. 2014, “Combining the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe approach and clean-up by immunoaffinity column for the analysis of 15 mycotoxins by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry”, Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1337, pp. 75-84.
Drejer Storm, I.M.L., Rasmussen, R.R. & Rasmussen, P.H. 2014, “Occurrence of Pre- and Post-Harvest Mycotoxins and Other Secondary Metabolites in Danish Maize Silage”, Toxins, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 2256-2269.
Dzuman, Z., Zachariasova, M., Lacina, O., Veprikova, Z., Slavikova, P. & Hajslova, J. 2014, “A rugged high-throughput analytical approach for the determination and quantification of multiple mycotoxins in complex feed matrices”, Talanta, vol. 121, pp. 263-272.
Ediage, E.N., Di Mavungu, J.D., Monbaliu, S., Van Peteghem, C. & De Saeger, S. 2011, “A validated multianalyte LC-MS/MS method for quantification of 25 mycotoxins in cassava flour, peanut cake and maize samples”, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 5173-5180.
González, A.G., Herrador, M.A. & Asuero, A.G. 1999, “Intra-laboratory testing of method accuracy from recovery assays”, Talanta, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 729-736.
Gu, H.-., Wu, H.-., Li, S.-., Yin, X.-., Hu, Y., Xia, H., Fang, H., Yu, R.-., Yang, P.-. & Lu, H.-. 2016, “Chemometrics-enhanced full scan mode of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of six co-eluted sulfonylurea-type oral antidiabetic agents in complex samples”, Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, vol. 155, pp. 62-72.
Gu, H.-., Wu, H.-., Yin, X.-., Li, Y., Liu, Y.-., Xia, H., Zhang, S.-., Jin, Y.-., Sun, X.-., Yu, R.-., Yang, P.-. & Lu, H.-. 2014, “Multi-targeted interference-free determination of ten β-blockers in human urine and plasma samples by alternating trilinear decomposition algorithm-assisted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in full scan mode: Comparison with multiple reaction monitoring”, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 848, pp. 10-24.
Gu, H.-., Wu, H.-., Yin, X.-., Li, Y., Liu, Y.-., Xia, H., Zhang, S.-., Jin, Y.-., Sun, X.-., Yu, R.-., Yang, P.-. & Lu, H.-. 2014, “Multi-targeted interference-free determination of ten β-blockers in human urine and plasma samples by alternating trilinear decomposition algorithm-assisted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in full scan mode: Comparison with multiple reaction monitoring”, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 848, pp. 10-24.
Hussein, H.S. & Brasel, J.M. 2001, “Toxicity, metabolism, and impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals”, Toxicology, vol. 167, no. 2, pp. 101-134.
Koesukwiwat, U., Sanguankaew, K. & Leepipatpiboon, N. 2014, “Evaluation of a modified QuEChERS method for analysis of mycotoxins in rice”, Food Chemistry, vol. 153, pp. 44-51.
Kong, W.-., Li, J.-., Qiu, F., Wei, J.-., Xiao, X.-., Zheng, Y. & Yang, M.-. 2013, “Development of a sensitive and reliable high performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection for high-throughput analysis of multi-class mycotoxins in Coix seed”, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 799, pp. 68-76.
Kong, W.-., Li, J.-., Qiu, F., Wei, J.-., Xiao, X.-., Zheng, Y. & Yang, M.-. 2013, “Development of a sensitive and reliable high performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection for high-throughput analysis of multi-class mycotoxins in Coix seed”, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 799, pp. 68-76.
Liu, Z., Wu, H.-., Gu, H.-., Yin, X.-., Xie, L.-., Hu, Y., Xia, H., Xiang, S.-. & Yu, R.-. 2016, “Interference-free analysis of aflatoxin B1 and G1 in various foodstuffs using trilinear component modeling of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence data enhanced through photochemical derivatization”, RSC Advances, vol. 6, no. 31, pp. 25850-25863.
Luna, A.S., Luiz, R.A., Lima, I.C.A., Março, P.H., Valderrama, P., Boqué, R. & Ferré, J. 2013, “Simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B2 and G2 in peanuts using spectrofluorescence coupled with parallel factor analysis”, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 778, pp. 9-14.
Olivieri, A.C. 2014, “Analytical figures of merit: From univariate to multiway calibration”, Chemical reviews, vol. 114, no. 10, pp. 5358-5378.
Pereira, V.L., Fernandes, J.O. & Cunha, S.C. 2014, “Mycotoxins in cereals and related foodstuffs: A review on occurrence and recent methods of analysis”, Trends in Food Science and Technology, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 96-136.
Pierce, K.M., Kehimkar, B., Marney, L.C., Hoggard, J.C. & Synovec, R.E. 2012, “Review of chemometric analysis techniques for comprehensive two dimensional separations data”, Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1255, pp. 3-11.
Ren, Y., Zhang, Y., Shao, S., Cai, Z., Feng, L., Pan, H. & Wang, Z. 2007, “Simultaneous determination of multi-component mycotoxin contaminants in foods and feeds by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry”, Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1143, no. 1-2, pp. 48-64.
Richard, J.L. 2007, “Some major mycotoxins and their mycotoxicoses-An overview”, International journal of food microbiology, vol. 119, no. 1-2, pp. 3-10.
Richard, J.L. 2007, “Some major mycotoxins and their mycotoxicoses-An overview”, International journal of food microbiology, vol. 119, no. 1-2, pp. 3-10.
Rodríguez, M.C., Sánchez, G.H., Sobrero, M.S., Schenone, A.V. & Marsili, N.R. 2013, “Determination of mycotoxins (aflatoxins and ochratoxin A) using fluorescence emission-excitation matrices and multivariate calibration”, Microchemical Journal, vol. 110, pp. 480-484.
Sulyok, M., Berthiller, F., Krska, R. & Schuhmacher, R. 2006, “Development and validation of a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of 39 mycotoxins in wheat and maize”, Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, vol. 20, no. 18, pp. 2649-2659.
Sun, W., Han, Z., Aerts, J., Nie, D., Jin, M., Shi, W., Zhao, Z., De Saeger, S., Zhao, Y. & Wu, A. 2015, “A reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of multiple mycotoxins in fresh fish and dried seafoods”, Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1387, pp. 42-48.
Sun, W., Han, Z., Aerts, J., Nie, D., Jin, M., Shi, W., Zhao, Z., De Saeger, S., Zhao, Y. & Wu, A. 2015, “A reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of multiple mycotoxins in fresh fish and dried seafoods”, Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1387, pp. 42-48.
Turner, N.W., Bramhmbhatt, H., Szabo-Vezse, M., Poma, A., Coker, R. & Piletsky, S.A. 2015, “Analytical methods for determination of mycotoxins: An update (2009-2014)”, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 901, pp. 12-33.
Turner, N.W., Subrahmanyam, S. & Piletsky, S.A. 2009, “Analytical methods for determination of mycotoxins: A review”, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 632, no. 2, pp. 168-180.
Vaclavikova, M., Macmahon, S., Zhang, K. & Begley, T.H. 2013, “Application of single immunoaffinity clean-up for simultaneous determination of regulated mycotoxins in cereals and nuts”, Talanta, vol. 117, pp. 345-351.
Van Egmond, H.P., Schothorst, R.C. & Jonker, M.A. 2007, “Regulations relating to mycotoxins in food : PPPPerspectives in a global and European context”, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 389, no. 1, pp. 147-157.
Van Egmond, H.P., Schothorst, R.C. & Jonker, M.A. 2007, “Regulations relating to mycotoxins in food : PPPPerspectives in a global and European context”, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 389, no. 1, pp. 147-157.
Vosough, M., Bayat, M. & Salemi, A. 2010, “Matrix-free analysis of aflatoxins in pistachio nuts using parallel factor modeling of liquid chromatography diode-array detection data”, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 663, no. 1, pp. 11-18.
Vosough, M. & Salemi, A. 2011, “Exploiting second-order advantage using PARAFAC2 for fast HPLC-DAD quantification of mixture of aflatoxins in pistachio nuts”, Food Chemistry, vol. 127, no. 2, pp. 827-833.
Wild, C.P. & Gong, Y.Y. 2009, “Mycotoxins and human disease: A largely ignored global health issue”, Carcinogenesis, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 71-82.
Wu, H.-., Shibukawa, M. & Oguma, K. 1998, “An alternating trilinear decomposition algorithm with application to calibration of HPLC-DAD for simultaneous determination of overlapped chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons”, Journal of Chemometrics, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1-26.
Yu, Y.-., Xia, Q.-., Wang, S., Wang, B., Xie, F.-., Zhang, X.-., Ma, Y.-. & Wu, H.-. 2014, “Chemometric strategy for automatic chromatographic peak detection and background drift correction in chromatographic data”, Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1359, pp. 262-270.
Yu, Y.-., Xia, Q.-., Wang, S., Wang, B., Xie, F.-., Zhang, X.-., Ma, Y.-. & Wu, H.-. 2014, “Chemometric strategy for automatic chromatographic peak detection and background drift correction in chromatographic data”, Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1359, pp. 262-270.
Zhang, Y., Wu, H.-., Xia, A.-., Hu, L.-., Zou, H.-. & Yu, R.-. 2007, “Trilinear decomposition method applied to removal of three-dimensional background drift in comprehensive two-dimensional separation data”, Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1167, no. 2, pp. 178-183.

Present your four references in the Harvarded6v9 style / RMIT Harvard (not EndNote’s Harvard) OR the APA 6th style.

Indicate whether you have selected the Harvarded6v9 style or the APA 6th style.

Only these two styles will be checked so you will be marked down if you use a different style.

Follow the range of examples given in the example reference lists below.

Quick guide:
• It is not necessary to use EndNote referencing software to complete this question. A Library Guide to the Harvarded6v9 style (referred to simply as Harvard) is available at the Referencing guides page and an example bibliography is also provided below.
• However EndNote software is extremely valuable to Honours, Masters by Research and PhD students as it automatically generates bibliographies. Check with your supervisor if you are not sure of its value to you.
• To get started with EndNote if you haven’t attended a class go to Working With Your Search Results: EndNote.
• Watch the training videos listed in the Online Tutorials box.
• Download the EndNote software to your computer via the link in the Download EndNote box.
• Via the same link, download the Harvarded6v9 EndNote style (EndNote X7 Exercise 2 –see below – provides instructions on where to save the file).
• Do not use the version of Harvard that comes with the EndNote software. EndNote’s Harvard presents author names in capitals which is not the style you require.
• Download and work through EndNote X7 Exercise 1.doc and EndNote X7 Exercise 2.doc available in the EndNote Help: Handouts box.
• For further assistance, contact your Liaison Librarian.

NOTE: It is not necessary to distinguish electronic versions from print versions of books or articles.


• Have you included all necessary screen captures? Answers will not be considered if they are not confirmed by the requested screen captures.

• Have you answered all parts of each question? Omissions will result in a low mark for the entire question.

• Does your reference list look like one of the examples given below (ie. APA or Harvarded6v9)? Only these two styles will be checked so you will be automatically marked down if you use a different style.
NOTE: All four references need to be in one style. Don’t switch between styles in the one reference list.
NOTE: The reference list needs to be arranged in alphabetical order (this also means – don’t number 1 – 4)

A range of examples in the Harvarded6v9 style:

Adams, MJ 2004, Chemometrics in analytical spectroscopy, 2nd edn, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, England.
Barnard, AS, Russo, SP & Snook, IK 2006, ‘Modeling of stability and phase transformations in zero- and one- dimensional nanocarbon systems ‘, in M Rieth & W Schommers (eds), Handbook of theoretical and computational nanotechnology, American Scientific Publishers, Stevenson Ranch, Calif., vol. 9, pp. 573-622.
Bhargava, SK, Akolekar, DB & Foran, G 2007, ‘Investigations on gold nanoparticles supported on rare earth oxide catalytic materials’, Journal of Molecular Catalysis a-Chemical, vol. 267, no. 1-2, pp. 57-64.
Daivis, PJ, Matin, ML & Todd, BD 2007, ‘Nonlinear shear and elongational rheology of model polymer melts at low strain rates’, Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics, vol. 147, no. 1-2, pp. 35-44.
Davy, JL 2004, ‘Insulating buildings against transportation noise’, in DJ Mee, RJ Hooker & IDM Hillock (eds), Acoustics 2004 : transportation noise and vibration: the new millennium: proceedings of the annual conference of the Australian Acoustical Society, Australian Acoustical Society, Surfers Paradise, Australia.
Gupta, BB & Kasapis, S 1997, Water-continuous spread, US Patent 5,614,245.
Porter, N 1994, ‘The simultaneous determination of heavy metals using pH gradient FIA with fluorescence detection’, Ph.D. thesis, Monash University, Clayton, Australia.
Spencer, MJS & Morishita, T (eds) 2016, Silicene : structure, properties and applications, Springer, Switzerland.

A range of examples in the APA 6th style:

Adams, M. J. (2004). Chemometrics in analytical spectroscopy (2nd ed.). Cambridge, England: Royal Society of Chemistry.
Barnard, A. S., Russo, S. P., & Snook, I. K. (2006). Modeling of stability and phase transformations in zero- and one- dimensional nanocarbon systems In M. Rieth & W. Schommers (Eds.), Handbook of theoretical and computational nanotechnology (Vol. 9, pp. 573-622). Stevenson Ranch, CA: American Scientific Publishers.
Bhargava, S. K., Akolekar, D. B., & Foran, G. (2007). Investigations on gold nanoparticles supported on rare earth oxide catalytic materials. Journal of Molecular Catalysis a-Chemical, 267(1-2), 57-64. doi: 10.1016/j.molcata.2006.11.018
Daivis, P. J., Matin, M. L., & Todd, B. D. (2007). Nonlinear shear and elongational rheology of model polymer melts at low strain rates. Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics, 147(1-2), 35-44. doi: 10.1016/j.jnnfm.2007.06.005
Davy, J. L. (2004). Insulating buildings against transportation noise. In D. J. Mee, R. J. Hooker & I. D. M. Hillock (Eds.), Acoustics 2004 : transportation noise and vibration: the new millennium: proceedings of the annual conference of the Australian Acoustical Society. Surfers Paradise, Australia: Australian Acoustical Society.
Gupta, B. B., & Kasapis, S. (1997). U.S. Patent No. 5,614,245. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Mclean, J. E., & Bledsoe, B. E. (1992). Behavior of metals in soils (Vol. 2006). Washington, DC: United States Environmental Protection Agency.
Porter, N. (1994). The simultaneous determination of heavy metals using pH gradient FIA with fluorescence detection (Doctoral dissertation). Monash University, Clayton, Australia.
Spencer, M. J. S., & Morishita, T. (Eds.). (2016). Silicene : structure, properties and applications. Basel, Switzerland: Springer.

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