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Precarious Employment at Australia: Causes and the Effects

Employment problems are the most rampant and common challenging issue affecting quite a good number of countries worldwide. More so in the developing countries and partly low in the third world countries. Due to this, a high number of workers are underemployed as well as being unemployed by government agencies, thus aiming at self-employment. Nonetheless, self-employment is faced with top capitation problems, including the acquisition of the government permits for a legal business transaction van (Kooy, and Bowman, 2019).  Thus, a high number of citizens seeks alternatives, mainly through casual laboring, where the payment is just a mere small figure. This brings on a high number of citizens, particularly Australia living under the poverty line. This is due to their idea to seek employment on the already mining fields. The type of jobs found on these sites can thus be confirmed to be presented at the Precarious Work.  

Precarious employment is the term which has been tasked to critique the globalization description on the non-standard type of jobs which are generally paid poorly, unsecured with any insurance policy, unprotected by any workers union thus failing o support the household demands and basic requirements (Mayhew, 2018). Therefore, the term precarious is often associated with part-time employment, fixed termly work, self-employment, telecommuting, and temporary work. Thus, the essay shall address the causes as well as the effects the precarious employment in the Australian land, based on the 21st century.

Causes of precarious employment

Precarious employment as a term can be denoted as having received a broader application for several decades. The argument has been based and discussed in various field of economics, sociology as well as political science. Thus, in terms of economic advancement, the name is more related and concerned on the health sector, more so concerning the position of women in the employment line up. Furthermore, the name has gained high popularity in the 21st century. This is seen through the published articles, where four items only were found online as the only published papers (Mayhew, 2018).

Considerably, precarious employment gained high interest, and from mid-1991 up to date, there are more than thirty already published articles. Moreover, there are several causes of dangerous work as dictated by the piece.

Lack of the Workers Union

In the first place, the nature of the conditions upon employment, which has thoroughly taken another direction from the middle 1970s. This includes the lack of more oriented union, which should take charge of various artistry roles and seek more lucrative offers for its citizens as a country.  Moreover, the case has been catalyzed by the higher number of workers who require employment opportunities. Thus, the action brings it more robust since the Australian investors saw the presence of all the casual laborers as one of the threats to the permanent employees (Mayhew, 2018). Thus, the high numbers of the organizations fought for the abolishment of the casual laborers and limiting them, wherein return they fought to increase the services retrieved by the informal workers. The action is seen to bear fruits through the advancement as well as the inception of  The Australian Council of the trade union, to cater for all the casual worker’s problem. Thus this is a sign that indicates the causes of these problems. They, therefore, had to launch the campaign on the enhancement of the job security for all workers regardless of their background.

Lack of Social Movements In Place

In the second place, there is what might be presented as the comparative lack of social movements, which in reality represents the growing number of the casuals. This indicates that the workers fail to enjoy the lucrative offers similar to their permanently employed colleagues. Therefore, as a truth of the matter, failure for this kind of employment to be supported by all stakeholders, gives the organization high chances of utilizing their presence in a more filthy subjective (Mayhew, 2018).

Lack of Permanent Employment

Moreover, the nature of the unemployment cases has led to the rise of precarious employment. In the past decades, the most current schedule of jobs was on a full-time basis, where one was subjected to secure the work as well as ensuring a good salary and the wages, including other motivational payments such as bonuses and tips. This has since ceased due to tot the emergence of the predominant structure on employment van (Kooy, and  Bowman, 2019).  This includes the evolution of temporary, part-time, and casual as types of unemployment. This is due to the tremendous increment of unemployment in Australia, where the number of graduates is low in comparison to the employment opportunities created annually.

Technological advancement through high innovations has also caused a hike on precarious employment. Technology, more so in the mining industries in Australia, has taken a new dimension. This includes the position of computing, where there is the presence of self-driven trucks, tasked with ferrying the raw materials from the mines to the industries. Thus, this is another issue steering on the rise of precarious employment.

The Overall Effects of Precarious Employment

The most disgusting sentiments upon the effects of precarious employment are the denotation of the studies which have consistently indicated that mental and adverse physical outcomes are linked to dangerous work. However, there are other effects as outlined and discussed in the essay.

Health and the Safety Risks

First, precarious employment is highly linked with health as well as safety risks. More so for the non-natives of Australia. The risk rises due to the lack of training and the experience required in the anticipated field. Additionally, lack of occupational health rights on the mines has led to the negativity of one’s safety rights as well as health.  In some instances, where the foreigners are employed, face the risk of being back in their country with the high level of toxic in their body which affects their health (Borland, and Coelli, 2016).

Primary Catalyst of Stress and the Depression

Secondly, precarious employment poses a threat to issues related to depression.  This is catalyzed by the stress caused by failure to secure a permanent job, more so the graduates who leave institutions with high expectations of getting high paying jobs (Landstedt et al., 2017). Also, the action is triggered by working overloading, which in return leads to mental anxiety, accompanied by long working hours and finally lack of the legal rights protections by the Australian government through the labor department.

Lack of Reliable Medical Attention

Third, the expectant women, who might be engaged in precarious employment, fail to receive the required medical care, which includes paid maternity leave and its allowances. Thus, with the insufficient time allocation, both mother and the infant might lack ample time upon the early developmental stages and the healing process of the woman. Additionally, due to the limited services offered to the woman, she might fail to access the best medical facilities as well as the prescribed drugs in case of any negative problem development in health (Landstedt et al., 2017).

Lack of Educational Upgrade

Last but not least, precarious employment does not give room for education upgrading. The employees are believed to have minimal chances and opportunities to go back to school and attain relevant skills. This is required in mining industries due to the technological advancement and the daily innovations being made on the technical side. Thus, to move with the current trend in the industrial world, the workers should at least attend workshops annually to be briefed with innovations. Moreover, with furthering their education, the workers are also in the position of securing jobs to other organizations which in return leads to the economic growth of both the company and Australia accordingly (Borland, and Coelli, 2016).


In a nutshell, the study has discussed all the causes and the effects of precarious employment in the industrialized Australian country. Thus, the report has indicated there is dire need of the Australian government to come up with collective measures set to aid with the issue of unemployment which is the key to all the effects and causes of the precarious employment. Moreover, the essay is more relevant to the various industries as well as the government departments dealing with labor problems, to aid in the alignment and presentation of functional outcomes in terms of offering reliable employment opportunities to the Australian citizens.


Borland, J., & Coelli, M., (2016). Labour market inequality in Australia. Economic Record92(299), 517-547.

Landstedt, E., Coffey, J., Wyn, J., Cuervo, H., & Woodman, D. (2017). The complicated relationship between mental health and social conditions in the lives of young Australians mixing work and study. Young25(4), 339-358.

Mayhew, C., (2018). Exploration of the links between workplace stress and precarious employment. Work Stress: Studies of the Context, Content, and Outcomes of Stress: A Book of Readings.

Van Kooy, J., & Bowman, D. (2019). ‘Surrounded with so much uncertainty’: asylum seekers and manufactured precarity in Australia. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies45(5), 693-710.

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Baudrillard, Real Events and Implosion Assignment Help

Baudrillard terms hyper reality as a special social reality which not code for a prior social reality. A reality generated through ideas or through a special kind of social reality through model simulations is referred to as the hyper reality. The term signifies overflow or too much of the reality which can be unhealthy. It is considered more real as it brings down the reality between real and imagination. It’s a reality to which one finds it hard to connect. 

The line between imaginary and reality disappears, which is the core of hyperrealist. It becomes a cybernetic game as though at a certain point in time, one has been left behind and never took a note of that change. It’s hard for one to tell the difference between the former reality and hyperreality and there is no way to tell if reality ever has returned. Though, one can deduce when the loss of reality happens, it’s not known by Baudrillard himself. His work suggests that the loss of reality begin after the 1960’s. starting from the time of neoliberalism, which is between 1973 to 1979, one can set the timeline. 

Hyperreality also mean the disappearance of intense energy – something that has been stripped of its power of symbolism and fantasy. Example, the important commitment to labor is replaced with cool execution tasks. Baudrillard doesn’t use the term cool as though it’s describing something as enjoyable. He uses the term to refer to the loss of heat, where heat is a metaphor for intensity. To be cool means to be disillusioned or uncommitted (Best, Steven and Douglas, 1991)

In terms of hyperreality, the simulator seeks to make reality work with the model of stimulation which results in the real being no longer real. For example, production is virtual and is the unreal circulation of values, whereas cinema is getting close to the absolute reality which is the obviousness. The greatest correspondence is created by functional arrangements. The changes of expressions by attitude, are defined by Baudrillard as paranoid, puritan and terrorist. Immense social effects are created with the destructions of the gap between signs and their referents. Rather than a linear sequence, time is considered to be an eternal present without end (The Postmodern Turn, 1997).

Baudrillard does not conclude with a smooth function in totality in his accounts of functionally obsessed codes. The system depends on the results of constant regimen of control. A regiment of this type is vulnerable and open to collapsing anytime. Power is unpinned from its obviousness when it becomes obvious and continuous. It interferes with functioning and appears arbitrary. When the empty place is occupied by power it becomes obscene, impure and ridiculous and eventually collapses (Debord, 1970). This instability has been referred to by Baudrillard as implosion. This means that he saw the system collapsing from within and it’s no longer expanding, therefore, the interference instead of war called the involution which is turning unto itself. For Baudrillard, the system has reached its end by reaching its limit, which we know today as implosion. Implosion is said to be cause by the rowing density of simulations which swallows all the energy of the real. The idea is a close to the of internal contradictions in Marxism which refers to the tendency to collapse from the systems own dynamics. 

Implosion is said to come the destruction of the meaning and from the reality effect as the precession of simulacra. The function in gaps is there as the problem for the system is that the signs need a separate reality to refer to something. Social realities are generated from signs and models in the current regime. The real, the medium and the message are all produced at once. Reality which is created separately from the norm is either destroyed or incorporated which results in the sings topping to refer to anything. Though in the same moment, a system of meaning is created which is meaningless. All references come together and form a vicious circle. Without clarity and focus of intensity, the reality breaks down.

This system is based on unction and yet in hypermarkets and modern universities, it is indeterminate, thus cities disintegrate as they lose their unique purpose or value. They become like polyfunctional black boxes without any input or output. Usefulness relies on the simulation of shortage or creation of artificial scarcity which is a moral convention and not a fact of nature. Today, even supermarkets, like insurance companies, banks, pharmacists and govern information dispensaries incorporate research subcontractors, vocational trainers fall under hyper-functionalism which renders them functionless or without a core function. A means without end or an operation without basic function. All these functions become simultaneous without a past, future or distinction. All the mental, temporal, spatial and signaled coordinates become interchangeable in the simulated world. Therefore, institutions do not relate to specific functions and do not seem believable as guarantors having meaning.

As institutes stop relating to specific functions and stop believing as sponsors, thus causing social effects like power ceasing to exist as a belief in universities, degrees losing their original values. Just like work, degrees last as long as you have references as a simulation. These institutes exist to exist as preventions. The hyperreality to nullify the surrounding territory. It’s difficult for people to notice that education has disappeared because of the presence of world class universities which exist next door. If they do exist, people feel like they can’t compete with such a monument. 

There is a constant sense of crisis which is haunting the system as per Baudrillard. And this crisis is not the last stop but it’s on-going and ever present which is presented like a spectacle. It places in proximity the ideal situation towards a crisis such as news disaster movies, crime dramas etc. instead of exploding, it is constantly drip-fed to us and the world loses any independence as there are no signs. Once meaning is lost, we are easily manipulated and panic. Explosions are thought of and remembered. Though the death of the cybernetic combinatory is thought of as constantly being at threat.

Certain social situations collapse quicker than other and law is considered a crisis of the second order. It is considered to be undermined by parody and is submissive and of transgressive nature. Simulations are taken for reality and it is preferred by the social order to opt for the real. Power loses its value because of the slip in significance and lack of preference. It’s just a simulation of power which is empty and is at a risk of being dissolved in a game of signs.  Baudrillard at a point states that power cannot produce anything but signs of resemblance which is an appearance of power or show of power.

The crisis for law is its transition to a particular place which is replaced by the norm. instead of explosions which break free from the law, the current time deals with an anomaly which forms the average. People are unidentifiable and so are there situations. Populations can be wiped out as they are not important figuratively. Power tries to keep itself from collapsing by re-growing itself into its preferred state. People are always in the state of being convinced that the social world is real and it prefers to talk about crises, then admit it’s demise. In the past, it fought the treat created by the reality by jumping back and now it fights of the same by playing at crisis. Theories of ideology are embraced and radical critiques as well, so that an appearance of truth can be maintained. 

There is a similar situation of crises even for the person who is responsible. The system is seen to rest on responsibility but when based on bureaucratic, people who simply obey orders are required. The system puts everyone in a constant of being used as mere conductors of social powers by putting them in a state of unconsciousness. Without some fixed agenda, everything seems like it’s being transferred. People think that since there is some change in the idea, there must be a new meaning to the event. People don’t care about causes anymore but the effects matter, for example when a disaster in a local area causes a global outrage.

When a responsible person is no longer part of that circle, people are always looking in desperation for the next leader. There is an excessive platform of people who can be taken as scapegoats or thought of as guilty parties, waiting to be invested in an event. For example, the Katrina or Christchurch disasters were said to be done by ‘looters’, the Chilean forest fires were done by so called ‘terrorists’, and any social insecurity is put on Muslims, immigrants, and minorities. 

When there is discrepancy, moderation and innocence are set aside to look for someone to place the blame on. On the other hand, people seem to be repeatedly subjected to lashing tongues telling them to take responsibility for issues which experts know quite well to not be caused by the person himself. People are subjected to blackmail and condemned for being labelled as code and not for what the people really are.

Baudrillard thought that this is a result of disappearance in causes and effect of power. It shows something deeper where the world is being held in a state of accepting its mistakes. If this system is changed, the world will know it’s demise. Or this could be a form of manipulation where we are psychologically trained to hurt ourselves, in case something happened to the system. This could be thought of as an event where the ‘code’ is blackmailing the reality. Even though the code is redundant and doesn’t depend solely on reality. It thinks that reality is responsible for itself and therefore can be collapsed or crashed. 

The flow of responsibility can be looked back as a loss of symbolic exchange. Generally, limitless form of responsibility happens when there is no exchange anymore or when the terms are exchanged among themselves. There is a production of excitement and loss of balance. Generalized responsibility becomes the same as generalized irresponsibility and there is a fall in social relations. Moral value become a simulation which are followed by the state which becomes fatal in the scene of politics. 

Similarly, there is a theory about unearthing, filming and rediscovering the real from the reality TV events up to the preservation of historical artefacts which is considered by Baudrillard to simply reinforce the process by destroying and then simulating it. The thing that is preserved is due to the intervention measures taken against it. We constantly see a continuous simulation of the past and the present which are then relived by us in this way. The idea of real has become a dream or utopia for us that we consider it as a lost object in which an entire culture labors itself as counterweighted. 

This further worsens the problem as inertia gets worse and simulations of past events, stuck in time, keep growing and overgrowing. Remaking and reproducing, and then forming meanings are replaced by the idea of simulations. The ‘code’ exists to reproduce the masses and devour its contents by upgrading the real to the hyperreal. 

In the contemporary world, Baudrillard created a term called the theory fiction or what he would also call the simulation theory. These theories intended to simulate, hold unto and make once anticipate historical events which he believed were continually leaving behind contemporary theory. He stated that the current situation is much better than wishful science fiction. Therefore, theory can only hold unto the present and try to figure out the future. Though Baudrillard had a particularly as a social and political analyst. He mentioned in an essay, called the Anorexic ruins, published in 1989, that the Berlin wall was actually frozen and in a state of staginess between communism and capitalism. Interestingly, shortly after this statement, the wall went through Signiant change historically and opened up a new door to history. 

He also stated that the Cold was set up to be part of the frozen history where is no significant change now or even in the future. In his mid – 1970’s reflections, he even stated that the Vietnam war was simply a proof which will place countries like China, Russia and Vietnam in a rational and modernized manner (Baudrillard 1983) and in his book he also spoke about the Gulf Wars and that repeated the same sentiments he had for the aforementioned events and therefore failed to the see the politics at stake and its reason for the Vietnam war (Baudrillard Live, 1993). 

Baudrillard also stated that the twin towers of the World Trade Center were also part of the frozen history and was static between capitalism and communism. However, Baudrillard saw history as an unfolding of growing technological idea which was turning into its opposite form, which is a highly abstract analysis hinders specific historical ideas that can be analyzed of technological rationality and see for how and why it backfires. There is also a form of disorder which is created by things related to crises and restructuring of global capitalism with rise of fundamentalism, ethnic issues and global terrorism which is unleased by a response to a globally rational market system and also to the bipolar world order. 

Baudrillard spoke similarly about the Gulf War, considering it as an attempt by the New World Order to further expand its position in the world. He further argued that that Gulf War really served the Islamic Purpose by bringing the New World Order (1995: 19). Baudrillard’s first work was titled “The Gulf War will not take place” and it was published a few days before the actual events took place. Though, the Gulf War did take place, Baudrillard still published his work and claimed that the gulf war did not take place for real and argued that the media was simply making a spectacle. He was unable to explain the role of the media in contemporary politics and reduced complex events like war to simulations or hyperreality which illuminated the virtual and high tech dimensions. Interestingly, Baudrillard’s philosophy does help grasp one idea; in today’s world people like to immerse themselves in events vlogs and videos happening on the internet and the TV which are simulated events (Genokso and Mike, 1991)).

In his work titled, The End of the Illusion (1994), Baudrillard takes a jab at the current illusions set in history, politics and metaphysics and tries to explain his own idea of political propaganda which has made history frozen, static and stalemated between the East and the West, stating that nothing important or dramatic happened like the Gulf War and unleashed his oratorical tricks and analysis in an attempt to maintain his hypothesis and calls the events as weak events which are on strike and states that history has indeed gone (Jarry and Alfred, 1963)). He further goes on to state that modernity will not turn to history as that era is over due to the political upheavals and conflicts, the countless revolutions and innovations, the myth of projects and inertial implosions have become it’s defining feature.

Sometime after the 9/11 attacks, Baudrillard wrote papers ‘L’esprit du terrorism’ which he published in November 2, 2001, in Le Monde. He further stated that the attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon consisted of strong events and those attacks were the ultimate events which were the cause of the consecutive events. He called the 9/11 attacks the pure and real events and the attacks that followed suit as false events. He decaled that history was over after this and then continued to put his focus on dynamics and happenings of the contemporary history. 


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Applied Business Research: Impact of innovation in accounting

Executive Summary

As of the 1990s, the dissemination of computer use and software growth brought about severe changes in the processes of accounting companies. The effect of these developments has not been correctly evaluated from the accounting practitioners ‘ view. The overall goal of this research is therefore to evaluate the effects that technological development has created in Sydney’s accounting companies since 1990. The research is exploratory from the methodological point of view and the data was gathered via a questionnaire using a structured survey with a scale from zero to ten. The non-probabilistic survey included 408 participants and analyzes were carried out using “R” factor assessment based on these questionnaires. Among the outcomes is demonstrated the view of the participants that technological development enabled more flexible service delivery, as well as improved quality of data and providing executives with more helpful data. The aspect that affected the companies most was the Internet’s advent. These developments, however, reinforced the complexity of the duties of the companies and the need to attract the staff.


Society has undergone various technological developments in less than two centuries. Companies that required a broad variety of staff to perform administrative functions began to rely on embedded leadership structures that enable virtually real-time control of the primary business operations by using fewer staff for this purpose. This phenomenon has also occurred in accounting, leading to modifications in the inner procedures of the companies. It can be asserted that human beings were substituted in some operations by computers and software technologies. However, these modifications are accountable for increasing efficiency in the workplace and dislocating individuals to more vibrant operations that require the use of imagination and decision-making force, without worrying about repetitive assignments on a regular basis. 

Nowadays, an organisation is unlikely to remain competitive without the use of technological assets, as investments in technological facilities will promote the functioning of the present or future company of an organisation (Byrd & Turner, 2000). In this sense, Lunardi, Dolce and Maçada (2010) also affirm that IT-IT is viewed as an organization’s strategic need, capable of providing numerous competitive benefits to those who use it in their company, and generating competitive disadvantages for those who do not.

According to Scott (2009), innovation has involved in the accounting industry the need to expand schooling and the rise of accounting consultancy. However, there may be other impacts on accounting experts as a consequence of IT developments. However, these were not obviously assessed. The following issue is therefore posed: what were the effects of technological development in Sydney accounting companies since the 1990s?

In this research, the overall goal is to evaluate the effects that technological development has created in Sydney accounting companies since 1990. It gains significance by offering further knowledge of the effects of technological development in accounting companies to accounting learners and practitioners.

Research Objective

The general objective of this study is to assess the impacts of technological growth in Sydney accounting firms since 1990. It gains importance by providing accounting students and professionals further understanding of the impacts of technological growth in accounting firms. 

Literature Review

Hsu (2010) summarizes technological innovation as a single creative tool system, the use of available knowledge for an initial design and the creation of the instruments or returns that can be obtained. For this paper, technological innovation occurs when the organisation recognizes a idea, technique, service or object and confronts the contest effectively. Technological Innovation’s impact on implementation (both efficiency and growth) is primarily oblique and reinvigorated by information technology (Dibrell et al., 2008). Throughout the century of the 90’s, information technology has proven to be a predominantly important technological innovation means as it has supported the advancement of creative products and helped progressive trade techniques; however, awareness of innovative ingenious practices is a steady practice within a company and will result in a process, products and method improvement. This raises the following question: How to innovate in an enterprise with IT and Accounting Information System? How can the Accounting Information Systems attain a feasible reward? Thus, the desire for innovation of these companies should inculcate information technology competencies (Gordon and Tarafdar, 2007). 

The same investigator warns that information technology and the information system could shake off originality and technological innovation by homogenizing, computerizing, and institutionalizing available processes and job surges. Similarly, according to Fink (2011), in order for a company to retain its feasible lead, it is vital not to open its funds to reproduction or substitution. Similarly, the ability of an organization to innovate and attain feasible profit relies on many factors, i.e. business laws, human capital, R&D inventory, engagement (of products and residents) in worldwide business, and so on (Apergis et al., 2008). Technological innovation affects organizations ‘ ability to attempt to compete efficiently in an increasingly worldwide industry (Madrid-Guijarro et al., 2009), as technological innovation is essential to the conversion and make-up of companies (Feller et al., 2011). In this context, companies not only need to pay attention to expertise and output, but they also need to encourage technological innovation and its techniques of expanding it, which holds up manufacturing knowledge, handing out and integration (Albers and Brewer, 2003). These two scientists describe technological innovation as the use of data offering a new product desired by clients for usage or service. However, the concept of technological innovation is multifaceted; it needs money, time and dedication from the science and managerial point of perspective (Toledo and Zilber, 2012). In the course of the technological function or non-technological knowledge, Sala-I-Martin et al. (2013), Technological Innovation can come.

The developments in interaction and the data age have transformed into monuments for the accounting industry, as accounting stagnated for many years owing to its deficit situation or even due to the absence of exchange of data with its customers. The emergence of Internet use stands out among these developments, which allows surveillance of data and virtual transmission. Integrated use between network and Internet pcs has defined a fresh data era (Araújo, Cavalcante e Duarte, 2003).

Technological innovation is a mistake for the demands to be promoted within the institution, given the revenues already increased in the course of such technological innovation, the building of facilities, the reduction of macroeconomic volatility or the upgrading of the population’s natural assets, especially since all these causes seem to be diminishing. In this scenario, owing to the retardation of many worldwide markets, this has to be transformed into difficult to carry on. In addition, there is also a lack of understanding of the fantasy capacity to increase the company’s creative capacity; as a consequence, it is essential for companies to incorporate the strategy that technological innovation is essential to the organisation into their hierarchical culture (Toledo and Zilber, 2012). Technological innovation is undoubtedly a justification to think any kind of activity demands if they are to remain alive in these variable epochs. There is no exemption for Small and Medium Enterprises. This is particularly true when large amounts of information generated by the Accounting Information System are available that have not been used in the Small and Medium Enterprises for general products. Usually more merely or explicitly, it is also mandatory for Small and Medium Enterprises to produce the information in them, not just to struggle, but also to keep alive. The personality of the transformation into inventive of information technology and accounting information system in serving companies is not evident. However, due to the importance of technological innovation, many academics have examined their pedigree with the aim of influencing what an organisation should do to become more productive. There is a need for more exploration and enhancement without hesitation in order to understand and evaluate new types of technological innovation.

Another technology that brought several changes to the accounting companies is the Public Fiscal Bookkeeping System–SPED, founded on January 22, 2007 by Decree 6.022. The SPED’s goal is to standardize fiscal commitments. This fresh scenario has streamlined the extra commitments of taxpayers, making their data easier and more rational (Azevedo e Mariano, 2011). However, the SPED has not yet accomplished adequate outcomes in terms of agility and efficiency, according to research such as Faria, Finatelli, Geron and Romero (2010), as it requires elevated cost of implementation and execution.

Because of these technological modifications, accounting companies need to be heeded and ready for this enhancement, particularly with regard to SPED accounting. Digital bookkeeping (DBK) is “the SPED billing cornerstone,” according to Duarte (2009, p. 107). DBK can be recognized in a streamlined way as the manufacturing of billing ledgers in electronic format, using a uniform design file, and marked with a digital certificate.’

The emergence of social networks has brought fresh personal lifestyles and customs and effects on accounting companies. Duarte, Quant and Souza (2008) described social networks as organizations, using “particular technology that allows profile capturing, with overall and particular data and information, in a broad variety of sizes and kinds,” which can be accessed from many different environments by other individuals.

The social networks promote interaction between organisations, providing advantages to consumers, according to Lemos, Pastor and Oliveira (2012). On the other side, Mondini, Domingues, Correia and Mondini (2012) emphasize the difficulties of businesses in controlling their use by employees, decreasing the efficiency of their employees. The implementation of fresh techniques leads to structural modifications in organisations that affect the expenses of institutions and the restructuring of their productive procedures, always in order to make them more competitive (Mat, 2010).

However, not all scientists see the effects of technology as beneficial. Some think the effects are neutral. For example, technology has definitely changed the face of accounting over the years, according to Scott (2009), however it is not easy to determine whether its effects were negative or positive. Moreover, according to that writer, some of the technology’s effects are neither negative nor beneficial, but simple changes that increase professional requirements.

Alsharayri (2011) and Choe (2004) noted only favorable relationships between the stage of innovation and the quantity of data the data system manager generated in their research on the effects of innovation on data structures in certain kinds of financial organisation. Technology has created excellent effects, according to Alsarayreh, Jaradat and Alamro (2011), primarily in the agility and accuracy of the data technologies used in billing companies. According to Allahyarl and Ramazani (2011), the fundamental goal of accounting information is to help its users make decisions, taking into account that accounting is capable of producing relevant information for the formulation of strategic businesses and processes, for activity control and for an organization’s efficient use of resources.

The obvious benefit of innovation, according to Scott (2009), is the use of various instruments that allow accountants to perform their tasks in an efficient way. This worldwide innovation element adds to accounting and its competitiveness, as technological developments for accounting facilities constitute more pace and effectiveness.

According to Acevedo (2012), if interaction in accounting firms is quick, they can assist boost efficiency, enable stronger business decision-making and promote the company’s development into fresh regions or nations as the implementation of IT funds allows firms to maintain a competitive edge over their river. Accounting companies can use IT to produce fresh facilities or enhance the services provided to their customers.

One of the major disadvantages of computing, according to Scott (2009), is its reliance on human capital. Technology is a result of human development and thus repeats human mistakes. Human mistakes can be very costly when interlinked with technology. This shows that another limitation is the reliance on innovation by the profession.

In turn, Aribaba, Asaolut and Olaopa (2011) show the significance of IT for community, especially in small-scale service firms, leading to stronger results and higher corporate growth. According to Mat (2010), in an accounting firm, the basic goal of IT is to help users make decisions, generate information that can improve the performance of the firm and formulate strategies for business planning and control.

In this regard, Sarakolaei, Bishak and Rahimipoor (2012) claim that IT can influence the outcome of the choices of the executives, as it can increase barriers that hamper the knowledge and use of the accounts produced by the accounting schemes. These potential problems are linked to the information placed in the scheme and the potential distortions in the production records. The use of IT should therefore be focused on suitable and credible theoretical ideas and techniques of billing.

As far as accounting research is concerned, IT can play a key part both in the company’s leadership system and in the billing operations. In this context, Lehmkuhl, Veiga and Rado (2008) emphasize that IT promotes the information leadership method of the participants of the organization, promotes inner and external interaction, and provides support for information enhancement, whether through best job methods or information dissemination conversations.

According to Handel (2003), the most highlighted aspect of IT in the accounting context derives from its increase in the speed at which the accountants ‘ routines are carried out. According to Sarokolaei et al. (2012), the greater velocity in routine achievement in conjunction with accurate information handling are considerations that warrant the use of IT in the modern globe.

Implementing new IT technologies in organizations has not only boosted the process, control and routines of management, but has also revolutionized business methods and continually changed the nature of accounting and the role of accountants. In this context, the significance of investing in IT is emphasized by Sanchez and Albertin (2009), since this strategic intervention can give competitive benefits.

According to Simons (1987), by formulating a well-defined company approach, the social climate needs billing organisations to be able to create significance for their customers and distinguish themselves from their rivals. Organizational variables such as: efficient techniques, organisational layout and billing structures that provide helpful and accurate data should continuously support this approach (Jermias & Gani, 2004).

According to Grande, Estébanez and Colomina (2011), a well-defined approach centered on IT and personnel qualifying investments will provide the accounting companies with profitable benefits and beneficial adjustments relative to customers and their rivals.


Due to the contrast with exercise and evaluation using statistical methods, a descriptive and comparative structure will be taken for this research (Richardson, 1999). 

The population used to carry out this study will be the 9,260 Sydney-based accounting companies. Since it will not be possible to obtain the list of messages from the experts enrolled at CPA Australia, contact data from 9,079 companies will be gathered through sources, which would be contacted and served as the study community. Answers will be obtained from 408 sample accounting companies. As the letters are inviting legal officials to respond to the questionnaire, the scientists think they were most of the information collection instrument’s participants. A structured survey will be implemented to obtain the information, split into two sections. The first portion of the questionnaire will contain appropriate information about the structural information of the company and the profile of the individual in charge of the company.

The participants could be eligible in terms of company size, years of operation, etc. based on that data. The second section consists of thirty issues linked to IT effects, depending on the theoretical structure, divided as follows: issues 5, 6, 16, 24, 27, 28 and 29 were developed on the basis of Cadez and Guilding (2008); Grande, Estébanez and Colomina (2011), Questions 11, 14 and 15; Grande, Estébanez and Colomina (2011) and Sarokolaei et al. (2012), Questions 18; Jermias and Gani (2004), Questions 1, 2, 4, 7 and 9; Langfield-Smith (1997), Question 22; Langfield-Smith (1997) and Sarokolaei et al. (2012), Questions 26; Mcafee (2006), Questions 3, 8, 17, 23 and 25; Mcafee (2006) and Sarokolaei et al. (2012), Questions 26; Questions 10, 12 and 13 were formulated on the basis of their expectations.

Accounting practitioners were anticipated to rank the framed issues between zero and 10, depending on their point of satisfaction with the effects IT has created in their billing company (0 = full disagreement and 10 = full consent). The persons accountable for the companies will be sent an e-mail demanding their involvement in the studies. The email will include a connection in Google Docs to access the questionnaire. These questionnaires will allow areas to be labeled, whereas Part II surveys contained a field below each issue showing the rating and restricted to responses between zero and 10. Research issues should be pre-tested for assessment reasons, according to Van der Stede, Young and Chen (2007), to verify whether the participants can properly comprehend and reply the questions readily. Thus, a university teacher pursuing a Ph.D. in Accountancy and another holding an M.Sc. will pre-analyze the questionnaire to gather the information for this study. In accounting, followed by a pre-test involving four accountants and two accounting engineers, all accountable for accounting companies. Through this method, issues in the elaboration of the issues could be presented and any contributions or recommendations were integrated into the questionnaire, adding to the modifications required for the sake of right comprehension of the participants.

Part 1
Region of Sydney where the firm is active
Eastern Suburbs ( ) Sydney CBD ( ) Northern Beaches ( ) Canterbury – Bankstown ( ) Hills District ( ) Northern Suburbs ( ) South Western Sydney ( ) South- Eastern Sydney ( ) Western Sydney ( )
Number of Clients
Up to 25 ( ) Between 26 and 50 ( ) Between 51 and 75 ( ) Between 76 and 100 ( ) more than 100 ( )
Length of Activity of the Firm
Upto 5 anos ( ) 6 to 10 ( ) 11 to 15 years ( ) 16 to 20 years ( ) d21 to 25 years ( ) 26 to 30 years ( ) 31 to 35 years ( ) 36 to 40 years ( ) more than 40 years ( )
Number of Employees
Upto 5 ( ) 6 to 10 ( ) 11 to 15  ( ) 16 to 20 ( ) 21 to 25 ( ) 26 to 30  ( ) 31 to 35 ( ) 36 to 40 ( ) more than 40 ( )
Legal Status of the Firm
Civil Society ( ) Individual Firm ( ) Buisnessman ( ) Other ( )
Qualification of the Responsible
Accountant ( ) Accounting Technician ( )
Degree of the Responsible
B. Sc ( ) Specialization/MBA ( ) M.Sc ( ) Ph.D ( )
How do you classify your firm in comparison with the competitors
Small ( ) Medium ( ) Large ( )
Part 2
1The company makes its database accessible for customers to get the data or records they need by distant access.
2The various data, as well as the billing SPED, the fiscal SPED, among others, resulted in an enhanced amount of customers requesting data about them.
3Technological technology has improved data inclusion between the company and its customers.
4IT required constant changes in the performance of the facilities provided by the company.
5IT has decreased the amount of physical conferences between the office manager and the customers.
6Technological technology supported the company’s customer development.
7With fresh technology, the company can give its customers fresh goods
8The services are now being conducted in a more flexible way with IT assistance.
9The facilities are now more securely executed with IT assistance.
10Technological development in accounting facilities has encouraged the establishment of a fresh company
11Using data technologies improved the company’s primary wage paid.
12The company required to employ external IT support counsel.
13IT created higher economic hazards owing to data delay by paying penalties.
14IT has assisted to reach fresh economies.
15IT has assisted participate in fresh operations.
16IT supported the loyalty of the customers to the company.
17Public agency facilities became agile as a consequence of IT use
18IT integration improved the need for staff to be trained to conduct billing services.
19As a consequence of IT use, the quality of the facilities supplied enhanced
20IT has increased the complexity of the facilities offered.
21IT introduced to the company more duties.
22As a consequence of IT use, the company’s leadership enhanced.
23As a consequence of IT use, internal or external communication became flexible and effective.
24Using IT has improved the company’s profitability.
25IT improved the agility of the supplied data
26The company had to employ more skilled experts to meet the fresh technology requirements.
27During working hours, staff use social networks.
28IT’s advent led to a decrease in the company’s amount of staff.
29The charges risen according to the percentage of expenses associated with IT.
30The company’s main technological development was Internet entry.

Data Analysis

Analysis of factor allows to analyze correlations between variables–in this situation the issues –to define a number of popular measurements called factors based on the matrix of correlation. The answered questionnaires will therefore be evaluated using R Factor Analysis, which generates factors grouping the answers, summarizing the amount of analytical variables (Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson & Tatham, 2009). Thus, the responses will be summarized in a few basic components–the variables–which explain a big portion of the variability in the responses to all the issues posed.

Cronbach’s alpha test, which according to Cronbach (1951) measures the relationship between the responses to a questionnaire by analyzing the response profile of the participants, will be used to assess the accuracy of the questionnaire implemented in the studies. This relates to an intermittent connection between issues. According to Freitas and Rodrigues (2005), the scores used for the dna reliability assessment of Cronbach are: α 0.30 (very small);0.30 < α α < 0.60 (deep); 0.60 < α 0.75 (mild); 0.75 <α 0.90 (high) and α > 0.90 (very high).

Applying the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test and Bartlett’s sphericity test will measure the legitimacy of the factor assessment. The KMO experiment shows the adequacy metric of the information in compliance with Pereira (2006) and examines the information adjustment by concurrently considering all factors. If the marginal correlations are low, the KMO’s score will be near to one, indicating the data’s ideal adequacy for factor assessment. The KMO experiment is viewed as follows, as proposed by Pereira (2006): if it is below 0.5, the sample is deemed unacceptable; between 0.5 and 0.6 bad; between 0.6 and 0.7 sensible; between 0.7 and 0.8 good; and between p.9 and 1 very good. Before the factor analysis, Bartlett’s sphericity test is stated to assess the connection between factors. Significance has been put at 0.05 for this research. Therefore, if the null theory is not verified at a trust rate of 95 %, the validity is dismissed.

The amount of parts used will be described by the latent base rule, i.e. based on the amount of difference represented by a certain variable. Values above one are important considerations for this criteria, that is, they constitute a big portion of the complete deviation (Cooper and Schindler, 2003). Therefore, scores greater than one for the latent root will be acquired for the variables adopted in this research. The statistical software used for the analysis was SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) and the factor extraction process was carried out by rotating factors whose effect, according to Hair et al. (2009, p. 116), is “to redistribute the variance from the first to the last factors in order to achieve a simpler and theoretically more important factor pattern.” Varimax, which is the standard technique in SPSS, was the rotation technique established for this research. 

According to Hair et al. (2009, p. 118), “the criterion of varimax is focused on simplifying the factor matrix rows. The varimax technique maximizes the amount of the load variances needed from the matrix of the variable.”


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Application for Ethics Approval

Student Details
Student Number:
Subject (Code/Name):

Supervisor Details

Proposed Research Details :
Topic: Impact of innovation in accounting and its effect on business organization
Summary of the proposed research project, including brief description of methodology (bullet points where applicable)To study the impact of technology on the future of accounting and it’s effect on the growing buisnesses. A non-probabilistic survey will be carried out by 408 participants and analysis will be carried out using “R” factor assessment based on these questionnaires.
Ethics Checlist (Participants)
How do you propose to select your participants ?Pariticipants will be taken from the list on CPA Australia. 
Will your research involve adults who might be identified by you or anyone else reading the research ? (Yes/No). If yes, how will you obtain their consent ?Yes. The adults will be sent a questionnaire which will require them to sign a consent form at the beginning of doing the proposed activity. They may chose to ignore the questionnaire if they do not wish to participate. 
Does your research involve children under eighteen years old ? (Yes/No)No

Ethics Checlist (Participants)
Will your research take place in an institution ? (Yes/No)Yes
Are in a position of power over participants ? (Yes/No), if yes, describe any ethical implication and how you deal with themNo
Describe any risk or harm to participants which might be associated with your research and how would you propose to minimise these risks The survey does not consist of any question which should harm the participants in any form. This research is purely based on opinions of the company which would be treated with strict confidentiallity. 
Privacy and Confidentiality
How will you protect the confidentiality and privacy of your participants ?Participants will be e-mailed the questionnaires and would therefore be asked to not mention their names on the form. The email correspondence will help the researchers identify the individual. Contact details of the participants will only include their email as a necessary component for contact. 
Will it be possible to identify participants from published data ? (Yes/No), if yes, is there any ethical issue which may arise from such identification.
Data Collection and Storage
Who will have access to the data ?The data will be accessible to the primary data collector. 
How will you store the data in order to ensure its securityThe data will not be stored online but on an external device which will be password encoded. 
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Literature Review on different culture-origin students studying MPA in Australia

Why do international students choose Australia as their destination for higher education?

According to Albyn, (2017), there has been a rapid growth of Australia being chosen by Indian students as a destination for educational purpose. Bret, (2016) stated that recently this country has caught the attention of the third biggest amount of global students in the English-speaking world coming after the United States and the United Kingdom. As per Britin. (2016), Knowledge as an educational destination, some countries choose Australia as the first priority. The study experience and offers provided by Australia is very different. The country offers a special sort of education and the method of learning motivates students to innovate, create and think out of the box. It is easier for graduates from Australia to find better jobs in eminent posts globally. In addition to that, well known international universities accept them cordially for postgraduate education.

Australia is capable of providing more than generally expected. According to ELIOT, (2017), the country is chosen as an education destination by many international students for its favorable, peaceful nature, splendid education system, and ideal lifestyle. At present, Australia is the third most well-known target place for international students among English-speaking countries, after the US and the UK (ELIOT, 2018). According to GEORGE, (2018), journal globally, many global students select to study in Australia for ethnic diversity, friendly relations, and the standard of education. Because of global recognition of the Australian education system, job sectors always seek for Australian school graduates highly. The government controls this system with great care for maintaining the good education standard of Australia (Albyn, 2017). The Australian lifestyle is considered one of the best in the whole world. Cost of living and educational expenses, comparing with other countries, are lesser than countries like the United States and the United Kingdom. International students are getting the opportunity to participate in part-time jobs during receiving an education which helps them to manage their living expenses. 

The opportunity of scholarships helps international students to receive education spending less money. As Hally, (2015) stated that Australian Institutions provide a big range of courses and degrees. As Happy. (2016) stated that, a result, it becomes easier for international students to find their preferable field of education. While selecting a degree program to attend, at first an international student must find out which school provides the best service according to their requirements and interests. They can select from varieties of universities, employment education, and training for the English language. According to necessity, students can easily shift from one stage of qualification and from one institution to another (Albyn, 2017). The focus on scientific research is one of the most attractive features of Australia for international students. The country is at the frontline of the latest technology and innovations. Australia’s mind-blowing technology and resources can be utilized by students studying there. Multinational students can work till 20 hours every week along with studies in Australia. It’s a big chance for the students who need to earn their living expenses during their stay and receiving an education. It is also an opportunity for those who want to have working experience during studies. Here are several significant aspects to remember for the working student in Oz (Albyn, 2017).

Why Australia?

1. Good quality 

According to Jhon. (2018) The Australian method for employment and technical study is now known as one of the best and most unconventional in the world. It celebrates a worldwide recognition for best quality in all fields of study and training. The universities of Australia are greatly known for high quality in many ways. The educational organizations offer real life and career-related training to form confident graduates who gain the experience and knowledge required by employers. This issue has a significant impact on the economy of Australia as it hugely increases the employee skills and helps to increase productivity and efficiency (Jhon. 2018). 

2. Innovation

Australia holds the position to adopt the latest technologies at a quicker speed than most other countries in the world. As Mandal, (2017) said that The country is invading the new era with the highest rates of access to the internet in the whole world. Provisions and offers in teaching, training and research sector are first-class and of high quality, as seen in art laboratories and classrooms, amazing libraries and latest technology.

3. Qualification recognition

Mandal, (2017) stated that managers and officers accept Australian qualifications and major study institutions in many countries in the world. Furthermore, the Australian Qualification Framework (AQF) has been covering most of the courses and training accepted by multinational students in Australia. It is a method of learning which is allowed by the government of Australia (Jhon. 2018). 

4. Assurance of Quality 

According to Pret. (2017), Australia provides the assurance of quality in a structure that is unique and diligent. The multinational and foreign students along with their guardians can appreciate the similar level of service and economic safety or protection. Australia promises to offer good quality of education to its students regardless of the nationality of the students. The government of the country set up an approach called The Australian Quality Training Framework which has made the quality assurance method of education stronger. Australia offers the most diligent safety for international students through ESOS worldwide (Pret, 2017).

5. Culturally Diverse society

Australia owns a very well protected, multicultural, favorable and melodious society (Yun. 2015). The multicultural and social elegance which currently exists in Australia brought by the international students in institutions and society is appreciated by the citizens. The people of Australia take good care of the international students while the students spend time adapting to the environment and lifestyle of the country that is new to them. As per Yun. (2015) opinion from their journal Australia provides safety to the citizens because the crime rate of the country is very low and it has uncompromising gun control laws. There is no chance that any political turbulence will ruin the study plans of any student. Citizens of almost 200 countries have made the transfer to Australia which makes the country culturally very diverse in the world. This cultural diversity of the society of Australia represents how welcome and grandly accepted the international students are by other people of Australian society. The trainers and teachers are very skilled and well experienced in teaching international students (Pret, 2017).

6. Visa red-tapism

According to Yun. (2015), Almost all of us are aware of the egotism of the United States and the United Kingdom visa administrators. Any day, a real visa application may get rejected for some reason understood better by them only. This is slowly becoming favorable of new academic goals. The United States and the United Kingdom visa application process takes a lot of time and money which frustrates the international students. Lately, a report has been published in The Guardian that claims that the United Kingdom visas should cover the troubles experienced by one-third of students who collect visas- 18 in every hundred states that it is a long and hard procedure through the first application was ultimately successful, 8 percent of the students primarily denied but accepted a visa on a second application and 5 percent got one after appealing primary rejection.

8. Job opportunities

Yun. (2015) states that the United Kingdom does not welcome doctors and The United States is interested to have more IT professionals, this is the reason international students are trying to shift to Australia during their education as it provides better job opportunities in several fields according to their interest. It could be farming or aeronautics, economics or actuaries, international students are given permission to work like none other.

9. Possibility of more scholarships

As per Yun. (2015) Comparatively, with The United States or the United Kingdom, Australia is a bit new at appealing foreign students by giving those offers of more and better scholarship chances. Nevertheless, it must be remembered that Australia does not have much population despite being a big country. This has led to having space and scope to provide job offers more than other countries in the world. 

10. More research opportunities

According to Yun. (2015), Australia provides chances for research to qualified individuals who would like to improve their career. The largest gain is the country offering research based on country continent-wise. Choosing this high-quality research scopes are according to intelligence and are very competitive, it proves path record of academic supremacy is required. Although the amount and ratio of student number have lessened, the UK and the US administrators look unwilling to record it even though university officials show the increase in profit. The cycle is gradually converting into a total circle. Many modifications will point towards the future of academic goals for foreign students- the figure at the moment firmly points towards the Australian region (Yun, 2015)

What is the purpose of choosing MPA for higher studies by international students?

According to Bowman, (2016), A Master’s in Public Administration (MPA) is similar to the government and public service of the general line of business. MPA programmes are structured for succeeding leaders in institutions as a part of the government (Tulip, 2017).

  1. Improving leadership and management skills

It is important to improve leadership and management capabilities for developing a career in public service (Bowman, 2016). A Master’s degree in Public Administration will greatly help in this regard. According to Bregg. (2017), the degree is for them who’d like to grow a career in public management, policy-making, and the nonprofit department. It is formed for the individuals wanting to get in management positions regarding these departments and this degree emphasizes leadership responsibilities such as making rules and management of public funding and people (Sos, 2015).

  1. Having a national and international network:

As per Bregg. (2017) knowledge learning Public Administration at the postgraduate level provides a huge chance to form a good network filled with different levels of experience. Students who come to be enrolled in an MPA programme will work for the public sector and they will be granted access to an amazing network of experts with various types of experience in the selected region (Bregg. 2017). Most MPA programmes emphasize on an international level, learning manners of different governments and how economies reply to public matters. Along with that, they are appealing to many foreign students worldwide (Sos, 2015). It gives us a special opportunity to enhance an international network. Practically, every main MPA schools provide the chance to receive education abroad during the programme (Pret, 2017).

  1. It’s easier than thought!

Bright, (2016) states that it may be scary thinking about the postgraduate study but it’s not that threatening. Studying for MPA at most top schools across Europe, many of those schools recommend adjustable course systems and usually even chance to teach online (Bright, 2016).

According to Elin. (2016), Many MPA programmes are really made for students who have little work experience for some years. It is understood by the universities that everyone will not leave their job to study full-time, so they will probably work as well as continue study at the same time. This system is great to apply what one learns into their work in the present position. If necessary, one may get some part-time MPA programmes (Elin. 2016). For example, the Executive MPA at the Hertie School of Governance in Berlin, Germany, is created for experts who are busy and needs just 43 days of attendance in campus, covered up to 4 years.

  1. Chance to become professional in public sector issues

According to Guoter. (2015), journal the postgraduate study time is the time to learn special knowledge, same goes for MPA programmes. At this point, one becomes a professional in this field. Several public sector issues which a student might specialize in are an international improvement, public and health management, nonprofit management, analyzing and forming policy. In case of someone being interested in being professional in forming policy especially, they should think of Master of Public Policy (MPP) degree as a substitute to an MPA. This degree emphasizes the evaluation and application of public policy (Guoter. 2015).

  1. Adaptation in the job market and earning more

As Johnson. (2015) stated that Studying MPA opens up the door to many better job opportunities since the students work on different government jobs, politics, education officials, healthcare, international development, urban planning, etc. regarding government and public service. Playing roles in leadership provides more salary (Pret, 2017). Most of the time, MPA graduates earn 30 – 50% more than other individuals without a Master’s degree.  But studying MPA does not limit oneself to work for the government only. Actually, MPAs are being hired by many private corporations for different roles (Johnson. 2015). For example, news and broadcasting centers like CNN or the BBC offer job to MPA graduates for policy assessment in research for political news. Tech giants such as Google hire MPAs for their global institutional management. Various healthcare organizations like hospitals and medical insurers usually give priority to MPA graduates who are expert in health policy and health management (Johnson. 2015). Obviously, main consulting organizations like McKinsey or EY accept graduates from MPA programmes to their public service sectors. The probabilities of getting a job are endless!

  1. Opportunity to get into an important government position:

According to Matei, (2017), Emphasizing on public sector and policy along with communication and people management, an MPA helps one to play major roles in government. One example of the area of MPA is: Former Secretary-General of the United Nations (UN) Ban Ki-moon learned abroad to study MPA degree and started leading one of the most significant organizations worldwide.  The skills and probably networks offered by the MPA, one will be ready to remake and put a remarkable impact on the local and international community (Matei, 2017).  Among almost 40 universities in Australia, most are public organizations, directed and sponsored by the Australian federal government. Some universities have several campuses, but most are situated in certain cities- mainly focusing on the eastern coast. According to Milan. (2017), if you fulfill their application and enrollment requirements, then you can get admitted to any Australian university. The number of fees to be paid will either is a little higher than or just as same as paid by local students (Milan, 2017). 

What are the goals that the international students want to achieve and how and why do they plan to accomplish the goals?

Long term intention of students to study in Australia:

A long term fundamental success is goal setting. Getting the desired destination is difficult without clarifying about the destination is. Students are focusing on achievement by the help of the goal (Abroad, 2015). That also means their resources allocation, effective time and accessing this motivation at the time when they feel to giving up.  According to Abroad, (2015) in a perspective of academic, Cadet failures and success meaning ensure with the help of improving performance of goals and also goals help to propel them in the small achievement of selection that designing for breaking a  larger purpose. Goal setting and achieving translation feel in success and the student’s confidence as well (Armyan, 2017). That also turned in the lead with confidence and productivity in a greater way.  

Permanent residency intentions to study in Australia  

The permanent residency people in Australia think about study on their own country because they are holding permanent visa. Permanent residence has the power to live, or work anywhere they want to and have power to study besides the study. On the other hand, the cost of the permanent residence while studying in Australia is low compare to the other residence.

Goals Keep Students Moving Forward

According to Armyan, (2017), Calendar or journal goal writing within a specific goal gives the student to working and planning something. In external representation inner desire is writing down a goal of getting a higher grade, supporting skills progress and new mark achievement. The student accomplish is constantly reminded by them (Bret, 2017). At the difficult period determination encourage that setting up ambition and confidence of goal and offer a pride since that time success arrives finally.

Students are floating in a different area in life without goal setting, accomplish achievement, and do their best. A clear sense is created with goal establishment and also the correction in hard working process and something significant accomplishment. For this, the motivation energy is accessing through cadets whom they used in working periods and beginning focuses on the win.

Goals Break Down Insurmountable Mountains

According to Clack, (2016), at first, most young adults dream seems impossible to accomplish. It is very discouraging that the future dreams seem large to achieve. Though setting proper goal it breaks larger and additional scary desires achievement down into step stones. The smaller goal planning is very easy for formation a plan that one accomplishment can prompt another (Clack, 2016). However, research suggests the contentment and motivation level offers great in smaller milestones achievement.

As per Faul. (2017), Short term and long term goal have interconnection towards the student to encourage their work, their energy and time spending given more focus. Thus the smaller goal cans pursuit. Cadet knows about their weakness, skills and their want is accomplished (Faul. 2017).

Goals Hold Students Accountable

Harvard Study, (2018) stated that the cadet actions are accountable for having a goal. Their effort, skill of time management, goal obligate set is an individual action take. Paying little heed is to the impediments that might be set up. That makes student encouraging to critical thinking development, techniques of problem-solving, and overcome any issue understands better (Harvard Study, 2018). 

According to Ilian. (2017), the goals set accountability encouraging student over the success and failures in the past, their improvement in area evaluation. In that capacity, it can urge understudies to create basic reasoning abilities, new critical thinking procedures, and a superior comprehension of how to beat issues techniques realize is helpful for cadets which are not working and that are why they seek alternative one for their achievement (Ilian, 2017).

Goals Make Students Want to Be Better

According to Jhony, (2015), Success increase in setting goals is showing in numerous experiment and correlation rate in every setting. Apart from this adults goal push to articulate about their want of life that they may lives consciously.

Default and natural action set for the student subject without goals that also make them feel comfortable and safe, that also not offer in a growth opportunity (Jhony, 2015). Cadet is discovering themselves and works in the best version with goals. In other sense set goal for student to inner potential giving targets to towards strive. For young adults, this target makes a new situation, context, and new challenge. In growth and development is that also place in the right position.

Goals Prepare Students for Adulthood

According to Kitty, (2016), the success key depends on goal setting that a student can learn the good habit and hard work. The determination and dedication level of respect with the achievement of further goals in life by this. Student academic experience more important not only at setting a goal but that means to continue use in future application job or achieve promotion (Kitty, 2016). The progress measurement through life, leadership skill, critical thinking, and determination is given by goal to the cadets and young adults.  

According to Shim, (2015), If young people are prepared in what happened in after high school, the first things are to help them with their futures. At the birth time, human beings are most dependent species on the planet and their independence level come out slowly over course with many years. The dependence reinforces +adult longer than their health. Other side young people measuring the body that shows about the thought which means very little maturity. Though they learn to build Lincoln Logs®, wood blocks, couch cushions, and LEGO® blocks, not learn how to lives. People depend on others for happiness, direction, purpose, values and also means. About goal setting they learn so little (Shim, 2015). They don’t know about the goal setting if they do have some knowledge turning objectives in something real. 

Follow a Plan – Set Goals

SNHU, (2016), In LEGO® blocks building put random bricks together that take shapes is much fun. That also true life. The seemingly random occurrences are building best of life. As erratic as this may appear, the developer of an astonishing life quite often begins in view of something when they begin assembling things (SNHU, 2016). The building instruction is followed by them to build a career and also opportunity, joy, and relationship. If children are learning about the importance of starting plan variable visual descriptions in intend building than they are more effective. When there is a clear picture in their head about their want and do and also have then the amazing life building is far better than the uncontrollable circumstances (Theater, 2017).

The research Gap: 

Under this literature review the research gap of the researcher is to face problem at the time of finding theoretical solutions and quantitative data. Another research gap that the literature review is being facing given below-

  • Time management
  • Resource to analyze the data
  • Lack of data to elaborate the study


Albyn, C., & Webb, L. (2017). Multicultural Cookbook for Students (10th ed., pp. 1-15). Melbourne: Oryx.

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ELIOT, G. (2017). MILL ON THE FLOSS (5th ed., pp. 2-25). [S.l.]: ALMA CLASSICS.

GEORGE. (2018). MILL ON THE FLOSS (6th ed., pp. 2-20). [S.l.]: ALMA CLASSICS.

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Happy. (2016). International students policy handbook (10th ed., pp. 1-13). Canberra: Australian Govt. Pub. Service.

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Mandal, P. (2017). Proceedings of the International Conference on Managing the Asian Century (10th ed., pp. 5-52). Singapore: Springer Singapore.

Pret. (2017). Why Australia decided to make all codeine products prescription only. Clinical Pharmacist, 140(12), 1-15. doi: 10.1211/cp.2017.20202178

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Bowman, J. (2016). Admission Practices in Master of Public Administration Programs: A Nationwide Study. Public Administration Review, 48(5), 867. doi: 10.2307/97690

Bregg. (2017). 5 Reasons Why I Chose to Pursue an MPA over an MBA … Retrieved from

Bright, L. (2016). Are individuals with high levels of public service motivation satisfied in MPA degree programs?. Teaching Public Administration, 35(2), 209-222. doi: 10.1177/0144739416650620

Elin. (2016). Study in the USA Guide for International Students. Retrieved from

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Matei, A., & Matei, L. (2017). Internationalization of Master Programmes in Public Administration. An EU-US Comparative Study. Procedia – Social And Behavioral Sciences, 83(140), 734-738. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.06.138

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Development of strategies to teach children in an effective way


The way in which the teachers teaches the children is the most important thing that has a great impact on them. The students learn and follow those things which the teachers tell them. The look of effective teaching is effortless. The effective way of teaching is inspiring and a memorable one. The students are always in active engagement with their thinking, brings creative ideas and find out the ways to solve the complex tasks. So, the teacher plays an important role to provide clear feedback that gives support and extend the learning of the student.

Literature Review:

Role of teachers to polish the children:

The teachers are the one who plays an important role in the life of children. The relationship between the student and teacher is so different and special. The teachers give shape to the ideas and thinking of their students. They put their efforts into illustrating, elaborating, modeling, guiding and assessing the students (Thielking, Sala, & Flatau, 2017). The effective teaching remains in the memory of the students who witness and experience it. In present times, the role of the teacher is considerably different than they used to be. In the past time, the teachers were assigned by a specific topic to teach and give a set of rules that how to teach them by the use of the same techniques for all the students. But in the present century, the role of the teacher is simply multilayered. Their task includes the counseling of the students, gives them assistance in guiding that how to make use of their knowledge in an effective way and implement in their lives in the best manner so that they become the valuable members of the society.

According to the Australian Professional Standards for Teacher today’s teaching profession is bringing out various rules to promote education. The teachers work with colleagues, politicians and the members of the community to bring clear and effective standards for their students. They make participation in the decision making which gives them assistance to deal with problems that have an impact on the learning of the students. There is some institution in Australia that mentor the new teachers to gives teaching to the students in a meaningful way (Forlin, 2010).

How to Overcome Individual Differences in Classroom:

There is a large number of ways in which a teacher would overcome the individual differences in personality development of the children and some of the ways are as under:

  • Consideration of each child’s need:

From a large number of ways, the consideration the needs of each individual are very important. The teacher must have to understand the interests of the child which means what the student is thinking and what they need for them. The children can only do their best in the field and the things in which they have a great interest.

  • Appreciation of Individual Child’s Advancement:

If the child does their best in the task and gives the best outcome then they expect some kind of appreciation in the response (Pezaro, 2016). So, every teacher should see the efforts of each child in an individual way and praise them for their work. In this way the confidence of the child boosts up an in the future they will do more work with the more improvement.

  • Division of tasks:

It is the responsibility of every teacher to observe their child and must know the abilities they are blessed with. After observing them the teachers have to assign those tasks to the students which they can do them in the perfect way and he has the ability to do it (Westwood, 2016). From this way, the students also make use of their skills and abilities in the best way to fulfill these tasks.

  • Assist children to learn at their own pace:

In the Australian Professional Standards for Teacher, this is also mentioned that the teachers should give assistance to their students so that they can learn at their own pace. The teachers should give time to the student individually so that they can easily ask questions and share their problems with you (Masters, 2015).

  • Extra Teaching to Slow Learners:

Every student in the class is different from the other. Some have a great mind that can easily pick up the things and shows the results in a very fast time. But others are slow who take some time to get the proper understanding of the things. So, in this the role of the teachers is very important and which is the assistance of the slow learners. The teachers should give some extra time and guidance so they can go with the other students in the class and gives the best results that the other students present. 

Skills for Engaging Students in Learning Activities:

In the engagement of the student in the learning activities it is very important to understand the engagement with an activity as being shows by the good behavior which is referred to as the behavioral engagement, positive feelings which is said to be emotional meeting and the most important one is the thinking of the students which is named as cognitive engagement. For all these engagements there are many skills required and some of them are as under:

  • Make it Meaningful:

Australian Professional Standards for Teacher mention this skill is one of the most important things that the students perceive the things in a meaningful way. The research has shown that if the students do not take the activity of learning important for Tehri time and effort they will not succeed in engaging in activity in a satisfactory way. To make sure that the actions are generally meaningful the teachers can connect the students with Tehri previous knowledge and experience and brings prominence in the value of an assigned action in personally related ways.

  • Provision of Autonomy Support:

The teachers have to understand the autonomy support in the means of encouraging the sense of control of the students over their behaviors and goals. When the teachers give up control to the students without losing their power instead of promoting compliance with commands so as a result of that the engagement of the students is likely to increase a great time. The implementation of the autonomy support by the different ways and these are as under:

  • Welcome the opinions and thinking of the students in the flow of action.
  • Make the use of informational and non-controlling language with the children.
  • Give some time to the students they need to get proper understanding and make the observance of the actions by themselves.
  • Development of the Positive Relation of Student and Teacher:

In every engagement, the relation of the student and teachers matters a lot. The quality of the relationship of the student and teacher is a vital factor in determining the engagement of the student especially in the case when the students are linked to the background of the socioeconomic. When the student builds a close and strong relationship with their teachers from this way, they are fulfilling their growth needs to make a connection with others. The relation of the student and teacher can be promoted in the following ways:

  • To take care of the social and emotional needs of the students.
  • Shows positive behavior and interest.
  • Spend more time with the students and understand their needs.
  • Treat every student in a fairway.
  • The teachers should bring avoidance in the breaking of the promise you made with the students.
  • Adopt a Sense of Competence:

The factor of competence is very important in the engagement of the students in the activities. There are many types of research which show that if we perform the activity in an effective way this has a positive impact on the engagement. For the development of the sense of competence related to the activities of learning in the student the activities are as follows:

  • This includes the feedback which is very important in the progress of the student.
  • Shows the various models of peer copying for the students who are in struggling in succeeding the activity.
  • Brings Collaborative Learning:

The style of collaborative learning is one of the important styles of engagement in the activity of learning. When the students complete their work in the efficient way their engagement in the task increase with the passage of time and they start to involve more and more in the task. There is a large number of strategies are implemented in the group to make them effective. In this way, the students get to know how to communicate and behave in that condition.

Skills Required to Build a Strong Connection with Home Environment:

To make the students more confident and creative it is very important to make a perfect relationship with their environment of the home and the other persons involved in the environment. There are many skills and some of them are written below:

  • Brings a sense of security:

For the students to feel more confident and safer there should be the presence of a sense of security that they get from the environment of their home and the people from their surroundings. If the students feel some kind of security then they can think better and brings a large number of ideas. So, it is the role of the parents to make the environment of their home better so that a student can feel more confident.  

  • Students Transfer and Adapt What They Have Learned:

When students make an engagement with the learning and develop the various skills such as repeat, mirror and go through the doings of the others either at that or after some time make links between experiences, concepts and the procedures. The teachers play the most important role in this to promote the learning when they observe that children make the application of the learning in the new and creative ways, they talk about them in various ways that make the student more confident and brings some sense of growth in them. From this way, there is a sense of security and confidence develop in the student which pushes that to involve with the environment so in this way they get the success.

Legislative Requirements:

According to the Australian Professional Standards for Teacher there are many requirements which have to be fulfilled. They set many standards for teachers to follow so that the process of learning of the students goes in an effective way. Some of the standards are as under:

  • The teachers have to bring the various strategies in their style of learning which support the participation of the students with the absence of ability in the best way (Moore & Clarke, 2013).
  • The teachers have brought some variations in the style of teaching which fulfills the specific learnings of the students which pass through the full range of skills.
  • One of the most important things which the teachers have to follow is the knowledge that how students understand the things in an effective way. The teacher should observe the children and thinks that what thing is easy for them.


It concludes that in the development of the children the teacher plays the most important role who understands the students and brings the various ways so they the student can grab the various teachings in an easy manner. The teacher observes their student and then assign the task according to their mental capability. For the student who picks up the things in a slow manner, the teachers cooperate with them and give them some extra time and class so that specific students can go with the whole class. It is very important for the students to make a good relation with the home environment and the people in their surroundings. From this way, they feel more confident and make the use of their ideas to bring something new which show their mental capability too. The reaction of student and teacher is very important in all that journey.


Forlin, C. (2010). The role of the support teacher in Australia. European Journal of Special Needs Education , 121-131.

Masters, G. (2015, August). Big five’ challenges in school education. Retrieved from

Moore, A., & Clarke, M. (2013). Professional standards, teacher idenities and an ethics of singularity. Cambridge Journal of Education , 363.

Pezaro, C. (2016, November). The role of a teacher and the purpose of education. Retrieved from

Thielking, M., Sala, L. L., & Flatau, P. (2017). The Role of Teachers in Identifying and Supporting Homeless Secondary School Students: ImportantLessons for Teacher Education. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 95-107.

Westwood, P. (2016, April). Teaching Methods: Differentiated instruction. Retrieved from

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Pay n Carry – An Analysis of Under staffing Issues in Franchises.

Pay and carry is a business which operates using franchises. They deal with groceries and related products. The company provides these services to citizens of respective places within the country but their head office employs about 45 people. Considering that the head office sets the benchmarking standards for the rest of the franchises, the number of employees within the branches are expected to be less than that. Irrespective of the number of employees, the company strives to ensure that the customers get quality products and that in some stores, there is a large variety of products being advertised and sold. This makes it important for the employees to work continuously, especially in the event that the grocery outlet has a variety of products being sold. The continuous profit margin, which allows for the continued growth and opening of more branches, is, therefore, more likely to be a consequence of the work of the employees given the standards expected for each of the branches. 

The third largest number of businesses in Australia lies in the medium size companies. Medium sized companies employ between 20 and 199 people on average (Australian Small Business and Family Enterprise Ombudsman, 2016). They are among the two top businesses within the country with respect to their annual turnover as compared to the small and nano businesses. Pay n carry lies within the lower range of the medium businesses when evaluated using the number of employees in the head office. Giving 45 people the mandate to ensure efficiency in the more than thirty outlets results in the issue of understaffing. Understaffing develops from the case where minimum employees are expected to handle more work and with more efficiency. 

Considering that the company is growing, and it has not yet established quality roots within, the employment of employees on need basis is unavoidable. Some companies use the chance to employ freelancing employees under temporary terms thus avoiding the overhead for employing them (Muhammed, 2018). Employing a minimum number of permanent employees ensures that the employers can deliver minimum payments and benefits. This allows the employer to invest more money into expanding the business and into providing quality products for the customers. In the pay n carry case, this appears to be the situation. There is need to reassess the number of employees within the organization. The number should be evaluated using several factors including the minimum number of people required for the job, the peak sales periods for the franchises, the overall profit margin from the sales, and the optimum number of employees to work with considering the welfare of both employees and the employers. 

Understaffing issues. 

Most businesses face a short number of employees during specific times of the year. These periods include the time when the business is low and there is need for laying off some workers as a way of maintaining the economic relevance of the businesses. A temporary understaffing issue is manageable and it does not have a lot of issues, but when it is left to run for a long time, it can degenerate into a load of issues for the employees and the employer therein (Higuera, 2019). Continued understaffing demands too much from the employees present and this makes them to feel detached from the company. This could potentially impact the way in which the company reaches out to new clients and it therefore has an impact on the current and potential profit-making abilities of the company. 

One significant issue with understaffing is the need for the existing employees to accomplish their tasks and those of the missing employees. The employees in an understaffed business have more to handle as compared to the employees where the employment ratios are observed. This is due to the fact that irrespective of the number of employees, the business is only sustained when the full services required are rendered to the clients. The employees within are, therefore, tasked with ensuring that the work needed is done and delivered in a timely way. Considering that the work done is more than the standards set for the employees, understaffing often results in overworking of the existing group. 

Considering that the roles in the work place need to be met, the few employees present are given more pressure to make sure they finish the tasks needed on time. The pressure is given to make sure that the employees fulfil the duties within limited time spans even though they are understaffed. In the pay n carry case, the employees within the head office would be expected to ensure complete oversight of the branches even though they also need to strategically plan for the overall growth and development of the retailing chain. The head office is responsible for determining the underlying issues which affect the performance of the respective branches, while also determining the probable causes of enhanced profit making in the branches that perform well. That workload needs more employees to ensure efficiency considering that the decisions made there impact the welfare of the rest of the branches. Employing a minimum number of employees within the retail branches reduces the ability of the existing employees to efficiently serve a large number of clients. The outlets have multiple products and the products need respective workers who can assess their quality and assure the existing clientele of the same while convincing the potential clients about the quality of services accorded in the place.  

Having fewer employees within the work place makes the existing ones to have multiple roles within the retail. While the employees may successfully address all the concerns of the clients, their welfare appears to diminish as they develop exhaustion on the job due to being overworked (Balle, 2019). Overtiredness and physical exhaustion generate when the employees continuously perform duties which require more than one person to perfect over a long period of time. This reduces the ability and productivity of the employees over the consecutive time periods which follow. The morale of the employees to work when they are tired is also relatively low and this results in a drop in the competitiveness of the employees when providing their services in the workplace. 

Tired employees have a high potential to make errors in their line of duty. Exhausted employees have lower abilities to be innovative and this lowers their ability to focus on errors either in the pricing of the goods and services, or in the delivery of the same (5 Ways Being Understaffed At Work Can Hurt An Organization, 2019). Businesses with error prone employees risk making losses considering that the existing employees will need motivation to try and revive their working spirit while more money is also needed to research the potential errors which could negatively impact the economic and social situation of the company. Allowing the understaffing issues to continue risks the integrity of the company and the desire of future employees to work within the place in as much as the businesses generate short-term profits. 

Resolving the issues

While having some employees to handle general roles within the organization can ensure exposure and result in overall growth and development, hiring employees who have specialized in the roles often results into more efficiency and service delivery (Hutchinson, 2017). The people with specific knowledge about the way specific aspects of the business should be run enhance the ability of the wellbeing of the businesses and this facilitates better terms for the employers. Even though the employers have to pay more for the specialized employees, the returns favor the employer, the employee and the client. The employees benefit from working in the fields they are comfortable working in. this allows them time and the resources to be innovative. It also allows them to provide better services to the clients resulting in more prospective clients. Client satisfaction results in better payment terms to the employers and this compensates for the money spent in the hiring. 

Strategic planning is the next aspect when dealing with in understaffing. Planning ensures that the roles are clearly defined for the current and future branches of the business (Innesa, 2017). This means that at any moment, the expected number of employees is clear to the respective managers and they can easily identify the areas in which they need to optimize and add or reduce employees. With clear roles defined, the employers should find a way of integrating the incoming employees in the old stations as a way of imparting the culture of the company on them. Redeploying them later to the new branches ensures that they take the culture with them and this helps in the creation and maintenance of an identity for the company across all branches. The identity facilitates maintained client satisfaction especially for clients who travel to different towns with branches of the same. Strategic planning ensures that the employees only deliver the work required of them. This ensures that overworking issues are resolved while maintaining the innovativeness and creativity of the employees. With employee satisfaction, the employer has fewer budgets for recruitment and training of new employees given that the overall employee turnover is low. 


5 Ways Being Understaffed At Work Can Hurt An Organization. (2019). Retrieved from mitrefinch:

Australian Small Business and Family Enterprise Ombudsman. (2016). Small Business Counts: Small Business in the Australian Economy. 

Balle, L. (2019, April). Understaffing issues in the work place. Retrieved from Bizfluent:

Higuera, V. (2019). What Occurs When an Organization Is Understaffed for a Prolonged Period of Time? Retrieved from Chron:

Hutchinson, L. (2017, December 18). 6 Common Staffing Problems and Their Solutions. Retrieved from Liberty Staffing Services:

Innesa. (2017, September 16). 3 Common Staffing Problems and How to Fix Them. Retrieved from Boutique Recruiting:

Muhammed, A. (2018, July 31). Four Statistics Showing How Business Can Benefit From The Gig Economy. Retrieved from Forbes:

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Market Analysis Assignment Help in Australia


Physical interaction has lost its meaning, people today in this digital era, are using applications to connect with people such as Facebook, Instagram, snapchat and etc. They are becoming trendy due to the interest people are taking in these applications.This application named Moah-App is a social app which seeks to create the interaction between the people through games and chats. It implements the concept of connecting people with each other whilst being in a restaurant, transportation or wherever one can find a bunch of people. The goal of this application develops people’s interest with interesting games and completes its goal of increasing the interacting between the people. 

This application provides a bunch of activities such as game, chats, and profiles that maintain the avatar, scores, and statistics of a person. For instance, a person in a restaurant uses the Moah-App to play games, that person can find a bunch of other players using this same app within the radius of 10-50 meters. App uses GPS to find players near you and the idea is to connect with the strangers.This application targets the people of Australia. Any person who wants to interact with strangers in different places and wants to play the game can download this application. This application will be marketed on social media and people containing the age between 18-29. The application will be built to secure the information of the user and will use the advertisement on different platforms of social media with interactive advertisement letting people play games in advertisements and engaging them. 












References 8


People visit places, they travel alot, they eat in restaurants, all these places are full of people yet the communication seems to be missing between those people because everyone is busy in their mobile phones (Chen, 2016). Some people seem busy taking pictures, others put their air pods on and start listening to music while ignoring the interaction with a certain amount of people. The world is losing the power of social interaction and people today have come uninterested in the cause of communicating (Chen, 2016). We are a social being and we need ways to communicate with people one way or other and interaction is important for us to survive in this world. While the physical interaction has lost its meaning, people today, in this digital era, are using applications to connect with people such as Facebook, Instagram, snapchat and etc.They are becoming trendy due to the interest people are taking in these applications.

There should be a solution which can develop the people’s interest in communicating and maximize the interaction between them. This application named Moah-App is a social app which seeks to create the interaction between the people through games and chats. It implements the concept of connecting people with each other whilst being in a restaurant, transportation or wherever one can find a bunch of people. The goal of this application develops people’s interest with interesting games and completes its goal of increasing the interacting between the people.  


This application provides a bunch of activities such as game, chats, and profiles that maintain the avatar, scores, and statistics of a person. For instance, a person in a restaurant uses the Moah-App to play games, that person can find a bunch of other players using this same app within the radius of 10-50 meters. App uses GPS to find players near you and the idea is to connect with the strangers. Other than games, this application lets people chat and that chat between the people depends on the types of game that they playing. Some games allow chatting during the game while other games may generate session after the game has ended due to the cheating problems. 

Those sessions will stay active if at least one user is online and hence will become inactive due to unavailability of the users in that particular session. One can chat in a group or go for a personal chat with other players. A user of this application is also given the option to keep the chat or delete the chat. Moah-App also lets users maintain their profile that is also visible to the other users playing the game. A profile will contain the avatar of the user that he/she has uploaded, will show the scores of the game that he/she has gained after playing the different games. This app is unique and no app is currently offering these services. There are applications which connect people based on the radius of 10 – 50 meters and let them chat with each other i.e. Tinder and there are also the applications which let people play games with different strangers and let me chat with each other i.e. Ludo Star but there is not a single application which merges both the ideas and lead people to physical interaction.


This application targets the people of Australia. Any person who wants to interact with strangers in different places and wants to play the game can download this application. When the product or the services are to be sold to the consumers, there are certain things that are needed to be kept in mind. It is important to analyze where Noah-App application is going to use, who is going to use it and why people will use this certain application. There is theory named segmentation theory which divides the people into a different subgroup, known as segments, on the basis of demographics, geography, and psychographics and brings the potential consumers into the segment with common needs (Fuchs, 2019)Simkin, 2016. When an application is built, it provides the services according to the needs of the market (Jochen, 2016). 

But since people have a different choice when it comes to technology it’s important to divide the audience. The Moah-App is for the people going to different places, playing games and talking to different people hence this is a kind of social app. The demographics segmentation of the audience of this application is that the people who are between 18-29 years of age are more likely to use social media apps including both male and female which leads to the geographic segmentation. 

People who are between 18-29 are more likely to be in the schools, the colleges and job markets. The advertisement for this application will be done according to these factors. There are around 88% of people who are 18-29 years’ old which use social media (West, 2019) and there are 73% of people who mark online marketing as “somewhat effective” and “very effective” (Pick, 2018)hence the social media will be used of online marketing to attract the users to download this application. Since this application provides games, then the advertisement graphics will interactive and will ask users to play the game during the advertisement. This strategy of engaging users into advertisement will develop their interest in downloading this application (Dep, 2017).


As discussed, this product focuses on the social interaction between the people and aims to make a better relationship with the use of gaming and chatting, there are many other issues that are concerned with the implementation of this application which include analyzing the risk while launching the application, legal liability of it, issues concerned with privacy and politics and etc. These external factors effect on the growth of the technological business. Politics influence the socio-cultural environment of the country (Urmee, 2016) since this application provides interaction with total strangers. The people can share their personal information on it, they can expose their genders, religions, and beliefs due to which there are chances of bully and gender discrimination on this application. 

If it is not handled by this application, then the government can take legal actions against it (Lloyd, 2017). Risks while launching this application can involve can be financial issues to develop and launch this application, development issues which require to be run on different applications and etc. This company will generate its revenue from the advertisement and payment from the people who pay for the subscription to remove advertisements hence the online transaction taking place on this application requires privacy and security. This application should be legalized to take payment and should contain the ‘terms and agreement’ format signed by the user to match its legal liabilities. People sharing their personal information, making online transactions, sharing their information such as picture, name, email addresses should be kept encrypted and secure (Ouaddah, 2016)


The brand promise of this application is that it connects people with lots of interesting gaming and chatting. It lets you connect with the different people at different places. A brand providing this application needs to build an image in the minds of people for the long term sustainability of the business. The brand creates trust between the company and its customers. To build this trust a company must satisfy the needs of the customer. The services that this application provides should maintain its qualities. A person using this application will share its information like location, pictures, names and etc. and users can chat which means the information they share can be confidential and personal. 

A company should never leak that information of its users for the sake of money. Since business today earn from the advertisement, it’s the duty of the brand to take of care that those advertisements do not contain any viruses when a user clicks on it and since this application is used by different age groups it means that the advertisements shown on application should be relevant and should not contain nudity to young users. All these factors related to security and satisfaction create the image of a brand and hence referred to as brand personality. The quality in this factor will increase the awareness in people about the brand along with positioning strategy. People get, what the company conveys (De Mooji, 2018). The strategy should contain the right use of logos, graphics, and information which provide the right concept of this application and aware people with a positive sense. The image, sell and presentation of these factors fall within the branding theory.


Considering all the factor mentioned above, the company first will maintain the quality of the application. Providing security features which provide the proper authentication of person, security of the information and encrypted data so the no third party will be able to interfere. It will be made sure that the company functional requirements are also complete and provide all the services that the brand claims to do. Once this application is ready to be launched, its marketing will be started with the targeted segmentations mentioned above, it will target the people having the age of 18-29 preferably which is around 60% of the Australian population using social media (Cowling, 2019). 

The graphics, logos, and information will portray the brand in the right manner and since the major part of the marketing on social media is an advertisement, the company will use the interactive advertisement which will let people play games on the ads to develop their interest. Once people download the application, they will not be charged, therefore, to generate the revenue, this application will contain the advertisements. If people do not want the advertisements to be shown on the application, then they will have to pay for it. This application will offer them monthly and yearly subscription ad-free plan.


This application is unique and hence are no competitors at the moment. But in this fast world, it will not take a long time for people to raise the competition. Facebook has launched games and it now allows people to find nearby people. This feature is used by this application. Hence the tinder which is missing the games and is a very popular application can develop its new service of gaming.

 If the tinder does it then it will not be much different from this application and give a competition. However, the tinder is used for dating purpose but this application is not limited to dating. It provides entertainment to different age group through gaming. This application will make sure to maintain the purpose and keep developing new services to be unique from its competitors such as other than gaming, this application provides users to share music with strangers. Another risk can be that This application will run on different devices If the application is made on a newer version and does not support the older version of mobile phones. This application will make sure that it is flexible enough to run on every version.


This application will let people review the application and will conduct a post-survey to measure the success of this application. Data will be maintained, such as how many people have downloaded the applications, which game is played most and how advertisements are affecting people. Traffic on this application will also be measured to track success. This data taken from the employees will measure the success of the application


People always look for innovation, therefore, this application will need to advance its features and functions. Considering the fact that not all people are interested in games, this application should have to feature to share music with each other. It should provide a channel where one user can share what he/she is listening to and the other user can also listen to that music. The marketing mix should welcome all the feedback coming from the people and try to improve the complaints.


This application aims to create interaction with people through gaming and chatting along with letting customers to maintain the profile. The target audience of this application is the people of Australia. This application will generate its revenue from the advertisements and the payment made by people and take care of the security, quality and brand image. This app will support different platforms and will keep being innovative to beat its competitors.


Chen, Y.R.R. and Schulz, P.J., 2016. The effect of information communication technology interventions on reducing social isolation in the elderly: a systematic review. Journal of medical Internet research18(1), p.e18.

Fuchs, C. and Golenhofen, F.J., 2019. Market Understanding. In Mastering Disruption and Innovation in Product Management (pp. 59-76). Springer, Cham.

Simkin, L., 2016. 11 Segmentation. The Marketing Book, p.271.

Jochen, W., 2016. Winning in Service Markets: Success through People, Technology and Strategy. World Scientific.

Deo, S.K., Rajshekar, M. and Kumar, G., 7 Customer Inc, 2017. Method and apparatus for increasing user engagement with video advertisements and content by summarization. U.S. Patent 9,554,184.

De Mooij, M., 2018. Global marketing and advertising: Understanding cultural paradoxes. SAGE Publications Limited.

Ouaddah, A., AbouElkalam, A. and AitOuahman, A., 2016. FairAccess: a new Blockchain‐based access control framework for the Internet of Things. Security and Communication Networks9(18), pp.5943-5964.

Cowling, D. (2019). Social Media Statistics Australia – January 2019. [online] Available at: [Accessed 21 May 2019].

West, C. (2019). Social media demographics to drive your brand’s online presence.

Pick, T. (2018). social media marketing statistics Archives | B2B Marketing Blog | Webbiquity. [online] B2B Marketing Blog | Webbiquity. Available at: [Accessed 21 May 2019].

Urmee, T. and Md, A., 2016. Social, cultural and political dimensions of off-grid renewable energy programs in developing countries. Renewable Energy93, pp.159-167.

Lloyd, I.J., 2017. Information technology law. Oxford University Press.

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Business Capstone: Critical Reflection of my Learning Contribution and Experience


The business capstone course has indeed been evinced to be of great profundity, more so owing to the divulgence it has provided on the areas of collaborative leadership and international leadership. The assiduous discussion of these two concepts based on the Australian Premium Solar (APS) case study has generated an in-depth understanding of the need to adopt a global perspective of key business practices/ undertakings such as marketing. According to Agarwal and Wu (2018), business entities are faced with a wide range of challenges as they seek to fulfill their quest of competing efficaciously in today’s rapidly evolving global business environment. This attribute makes it overly important for firms to adopt global perspectives in their operations bearing in mind the fact that doing this enhances the inordinately crucial recognition that globalization has dual effects on overall performance of different entities (Agarwal & Wu, 2018).  The business capstone course has thus inherently turned out to be a major eye opener in terms of highlighting the climacteric global forces that continuously impact and shape business processes and activities.   

This paper seeks to build on this background to critically reflect on the business capstone course. The rumination will be guided by the need to develop a more profound understanding of generating a global perspective of international marketing, in addition to reinforcing the general knowledge pertaining to collaborative leadership. The study will commence by providing a brief review of the key learning activities of the business capstone course, before proceeding to narrate major learning contributions and experiences while undertaking the course. The successful accomplishment of this study objective will depend largely on the completion of different independent goals such as the description of the challenges pertaining to this individual experience. Other cardinal minor tasks that will be completed in order to facilitate the achievement of the eclectic study objective include the articulation of the relatively easy aspects of the business capstone project and the analysis of the salient areas of interest that need to be researched further in order to bridge the existing knowledge gaps.     

Brief Overview of the Business Capstone Project

The business capstone project covered very many study areas, one of these being an articulation of the most suitable approach of developing global perspective of international marketing. The ensuing discussion in regards to this study facet pointed out that a concrete global perspective of international marketing can only be developed after gaining an in-depth understanding of the internal and external business environment that a firm operates in. This is largely due to the fact that an analysis of a firm’s business environment facilitates the identification of important factors that are pertinent to its operations and existence, and which subsequently must be put into consideration while trying to decipher the best of a company undertaking effective marketing practices at the global arena. There are many strategic analysis tools and/or techniques that can be relied on to fully dissect a firm’s operating environment. Examples of these include PESTEL, the Porter’s Five Forces Model and SWOT analysis. Firms should consider using at least two of these techniques when analyzing their internal and external business environments.   

The completion of the project also proved to be of great significance in terms of shedding more light about the collaborative leadership style. The effectiveness of this leadership approach lies in its ability to facilitate the making of better decisions considering all individuals and teams are actively involved during decision making exercises. Active engagement/ involvement of all employees under collaborative leadership also tends to go a long way in enhancing employee commitment, an aspect that further spurs improved individual performances. As per the project, Australia Premium Solar (APS) employs the collaborative leadership approach. Some of the benefits that the company has continued to harness from its use of this leadership style include enhanced clarity and transparency of communication information, fostering the making of more innovative and all inclusive decisions, as well as improved management-employees decisions. The underlying projection is that the collaborative leadership approach will prove handy as far as APS’s plans of going global are concerned, more so taking into account the fact that the style has the capacity to facilitate the making of far much superior international marketing strategies. 

International marketing was another key study area whose handling underlined the copious nature of the content of the business capstone project. Rao-Nicholson & Khan (2017) described international marketing as the set of activities that are geared towards fulfilling the diverse needs and preferences of customers from different countries. APS should incorporate successful international marketing practices in its operations bearing in mind the fact that the company is keen on expanding its operations to India. International marketing will particularly create a solid framework of better management of the global supply chain that APS will have to institute after venturing into the Indian market. Most importantly, a well-grounded international marketing approach that has a global perspective will pave for APS to set better prices for its products, with the key guideline being to set prices that are not only appealing to both domestic and global customers but also put the firm in a better position of attaining its profitability objectives. 

Lastly, the covering of the business capstone project facilitated the gaining of a better understanding of the key facets of academic research. A qualitative research was conducted in order to ascertain the best way of APS developing a global perspective of international marketing. The research was also geared towards ascertaining the role that the company’s collaborative leadership approach can play in boosting its global expansion plans. The choice of the qualitative research methodology over quantitative research was based on the fact that this study entailed questioning the validity and suitableness of existing theories and hypothesis. Moreover, the choice was also influenced by the fact that the research was secondary in nature considering the study data was collected from journal articles, previous empirical studies and textbooks.  Nevertheless, interviews with relevant staffs were also conducted in order to attain a first account, and hence acquire information that can be used to back the accuracy of the secondary data. 

Critical Reflection of my Learning Contribution and Experience

David Kolb’s experimental learning theory substantiated the importance of developing critical reflection of any learning experience. As per the theory, learning is a holistic practice that is continuous in nature, and whose outcome is generally assessed based on a wide range of aspects such as experiences and behaviors. The theory is further categorical that having a personal reflection after every learning practices makes it possible for the determination of the new skills, knowledge and experiences gained during this exercise. In addition to this, the reflection facilitates the abstract conceptualization of a learning experience, hence enabling the forging of new ideas as well as the ascertainment of the best way of putting the newly acquired knowledge and skills into practice. Therefore, the critical reflection of the APS business capstone project will assist in putting this learning experience into perspective in terms of the assessment of significant accomplishment, challenges faced during the completion of the course as well as the new set of skills and knowledge gained throughout the course of this learning experience. 

  1. The Easy Parts of the Project

The completion of the APS business capstone project entailed a lot of teamwork in as much as students were required to complete individual tasks and assignments. I have previously been a member of many class teams and therefore, I can confidently assert that I have truly mastered the art of collaborating with other students while working in class groups. My overall strength as far as the issue of teamwork is concerned lies in my individual recognition that diversity should be properly managed considering people have differing opinions and backgrounds. As a result of this, I must admit that I really didn’t break any sweat while working in various teams during this module. As a matter of fact the overall experience of working in groups was very enthralling and I really enjoyed it. I can thus conclude that the teamwork aspect of the business capstone project was indeed one of the easiest parts of this study module.

  Review of existing literature was also another part that I found relatively easy while completing this project. Literature review is overly important in any study work owing to the fact that it essentially generates a conceptual framework upon which a given research ought to be based. I have conducted a lot of research in the past while undertaking different modules, an aspect that has enabled me to review different sets of literatures on multiple occasions. Therefore, I didn’t have any problem while reviewing the existing literature pertaining to this project. The situation was to a very large extent aided by the fact that the fields of international marketing and collaborative leadership have continued to receive a lot of attention from scholars all over the work, with this ensuring that there exists plenty of theoretical and empirical researches on these two. The presence of huge literature load to choose from accorded me the privilege of selecting the studies are relatively easy to interpret, hence making my work even easier.  

The other learning activity that turned out to be very easy during the completion of this project is the analysis of the global solar industry. As pointed out earlier, developing an in-depth understanding of the global solar industry is imperative since this inherently serves as the foundation of developing global perspective of APS international marketing. There is plenty of information about the global solar industry online. Much of this can be attributed to the fact that solar power is one of the alternative sources of energy that are considered ecologically friendly. The renewable energy remains one of the most researched topic today due to the ongoing debates about global warming and climate change. Access to this huge pool of information made it relatively easy to analyze the global solar industry. I am equally well versed with use of the Porter’s Five Forces Model, which was relied on to ascertain the competitiveness of the global solar industry. 

  1. Key Challenges that made me lose sleep

It was very challenging to acquire adequate information about Australia Premium Solar. Even though the company has a fully functional website, it doesn’t provide much information about its business strategy and other key aspects of its operations. The situation is exacerbated by the fact there exists only a handful of scholarly articles pertaining to company. The inability to access plenty of information about APS contributed in making the completion of the project a tall order. I really had to dig deeper to ensure that I could gather as much details as possible about APS in order to put myself in a better position of analyzing its international marketing practices and its collaborative leadership approach. I am fully cognizant of the fact that this challenges would have been avoided through the selection of a larger and more well-known company with a great deal of readily available and accessible information. For instance, I should have based my research on an Australian multinational bank considering that information about financial institutions tends to be in plenty online.  

  Framing the actual research process and methodology was also a major challenge for me, largely because of the absence of adequate information about APS. The data for this research was majorly sourced from secondary sources and therefore, the existence of only a few coherently authored scholarly articles detailing the activities and operations of APS made the framing of the research process to be very difficult. In addition to this, I really struggled to come up with a solid research question that will capture the study’s core purpose of hypothesizing a global perspective of APS international marketing and collaborative leadership. International marketing and collaborative leadership are two totally different aspects and thus formulating a research question that denotes their unique variance and importance in equal measures was indeed very challenging. This problem ended up affecting my ability to come up with effective research objectives that will govern and shape the data collection, analysis and interpretation processes of the research.

  1. New Skills acquired during the Completion of The Project 

Completing the APS business capstone project in particular and the module in general created a concrete platform for me hone many valuable skills, which I am confident will come in handy during the undertaking of future academic and professional activities. For instance, this learning activity enabled me to sharpen my cognitive reasoning abilities. Developing a global perspective of APS international marketing made it mandatory for all students to think outside the box, more so in regards to gaining a holistic view of the global solar industry.  The completion of the project has thus enabled me to master the art of extensively dissecting a global phenomenon from different angles based on the existing theories and empirical evidence. The enhancement of my cognitive reasoning abilities has helped me to do away with my previous attitude of analyzing things shallowly. Thanks to this project, I now believe that every issue should not be taken at face value but should rather be accorded the seriousness it deserves.

The project has also enabled me to improve my communication and problem solving skills. The preparation and presentation of different group and individual tasks in the form of reports enhanced my ability to express my thoughts and opinions coherently in a written manner. Contributions in groups and class presentations on the other hand enabled me to become more adroit at expressing myself verbally. From a problem solving point of view, the project entailed identifying the complex challenges facing APS and subsequently researching on the most viable solutions to these problems. I must admit that completing the project introduced me to the overly important aspect of synthesizing real world challenges that business entities have to grapple with in the course of undertaking their day to day operations. It further reinforced the knowledge that I had about how such real world problems ought to be addressed.


The paper has provided a critical reflection of my learning contributions and experiences during the completion of the APS business capstone project. The study began by providing a brief overview of the key learning outcomes of the module, before proceeding to explore the relative easy points and key challenges that arose during the completion of the project. The last section of the study has focused on revisiting the most salient new skills and competencies that were honed during the course of completing this project. 


Agarwal, J., & Wu, T. (2018). The Changing Nature of Global Marketing: A New Perspective. In Emerging Issues in Global Marketing (pp. 3-11). Champaign, IL: Springer.

Rao-Nicholson, R., & Khan, Z. (2017). Standardization versus adaptation of global marketing strategies in emerging market cross-border acquisitions. International Marketing Review, 34(1), 138-158.

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In this portion, we will take a gander at the utilization cycle sensibly in Bella studio. Using data stream diagrams (DFDs) as a guide, we will pursue the progression of activities through two of the systems that contain the utilization cycle for most retail, markdown, and gathering affiliations. These are occupied with getting ready and cash installment procedures. Money and fixed asset structures, which in like manner reinforce the utilization cycle. The sensible structure talk is proposed to be development unprejudiced. The errands delineated here may be performed physically or by PC. Presently our accentuation is on what (hypothetically) ought to be done, not how (physically) it is developed. At various stages in the systems, we will investigate express records, journals, and records as they are experienced. Afresh, this review is advancement unprejudiced. These records and reports may be physical (printed duplicate) or electronic.

System flowchart of purchases system 

The cost cycle of the smith’s market starts with evaluating the items to be reordered from the dealers. By then, the stockroom aide prints the purchase demand from the structure and sends them to the merchant. At the point when the product is gotten by the stockroom delegate from the vendor, the specialist overviews the squeezing slips and updates the stock records. By then, the stockroom agent will start setting up the printed duplicate of the purchase rundown from the structure. The purchase abstract is sent to the treasury right hand for posting in the general record accounts. By then, the appropriation focus associate sends the receipt to the accounting operator. The accounting colleague checks the receipt and reports it in an ephemeral record until the portion is done to the shipper. By then, the accounting agent looks for portion obligation and prints the check and records in the propelled cash register using the accounting structure. In the wake of account the receipt, the check is sent to the shipper. By then the accounting specialist prints the journal voucher that has cash installment outline from the structure and sends it to the treasurer partner for showing on the general record account. Finally, the treasury specialist will post the journal voucher data and outline of acquirement, cash installment to the general record, (Baraban, Regina, 2005).

Internal controls in purchases system 

The account stream relates to most of the exercises including fund taking care of and will regularly cover with a segment of your HR limits. Coming up next are key activities were having inside controls ensures oversight:

• Preparing and investigating timesheets: This is a key inside control for supporting all agents’ time. It is especially basic for hourly agents and for supporting the proportion of pay that is distributed to an assignment (this information may be required for financing purposes, for instance, IRAP or for SR&ED charge credit claims).

• Correctly registering specialist’s wages: This consolidates guaranteeing that the wages that are paid to a delegate agree with the total that was affirmed for that laborer. It moreover contacts ensure that the money discoveries are genuinely decided. While this method can be made easier by using a money provider, it is basic that the portions be properly investigated.

• Monitoring changes in money: It can be anything besides hard to assemble the accompanying fund as for the last, yet when there are changes, it is key that they be really granted to the individual responsible for account.

• Monitoring for non-agents: Employees who leave the association and are not ousted from the fund structure, or concocted people who are added to the financial system, is a huge peril to the account stream. It is important that the remuneration register is investigated reliably by someone other than the specialist commonly responsible for taking care of the account, and that that singular thinks about the present delegate rundown.

System flowchart of payroll system 

An account structure is a street through which you process your fund. You can’t process your account without a fund structure. The three sorts of fund system are manual, in-house motorized, and outside (redistributed). The manual structure expects you to process your money by hand; the in-house motorized usages account programming to process the fund; the external system infers you redistribute your money to a fund expert association. A money system stream plot exhibits the progression where you process your fund. It streamlines account getting ready and urges you to stay on track, (Douglas F. Roberts, 2007). 

Structure of the stream plot with an office suite program– this is the best course for a specialist look. You can draw the graph by hand. Make boxes and jolts, which shows the movement of your fund getting ready, for instance, where it starts and finishes. Model: Gather time cards, check time cards for consistency, contact boss concerning missing or crude time cards, and physically figure time cards. Make a gathering including the money taking care of commitments, for instance, physically finding out wages; statutory reasoning’s, for instance, account costs and remuneration garnishments; pay rates; intentional ends, for instance, retirement and medicinal points of interest; and making checks. Make another gathering demonstrating post-planning commitments, for instance, physically make and record the money register, make and post-journal areas, store laborers’ remuneration into the bank, and suitable checks, (Matthew A., 2005)

A record structure is a road through which you process your store. You can’t process your record without a store structure. The three sorts of store framework are manual, in-house mechanized, and outside (redistributed). The manual structure anticipates that you should process your cash by hand; the in-house mechanized utilizations account programming to process the store; the outer framework induces you redistribute your cash to a reserve master affiliation. A cash framework stream plot shows the movement where you process your reserve. It streamlines account preparing and asks you to remain on track, (Douglas F. Roberts, 2007). 

Structure of the stream plot with an office suite program– this is the best course for a pro look. You can draw the chart by hand. Make boxes and shocks, which demonstrates the development of your reserve preparing, for example, where it begins and wraps up. Model: Gather time cards, check time cards for consistency, contact manager concerning absent or unrefined time cards, and physically figure time cards. Make a social event including the cash dealing with duties, for example, physically discovering wages; statutory reasoning’s, for example, account expenses and compensation garnishments; pay rates; purposeful closures, for example, retirement and therapeutic focal points; and making checks. Make another social affair showing post-arranging duties, for example, physically make and record the cash register, make and post-diary territories, store workers’ compensation into the bank, and appropriate checks, (Matthew A., 200 A record structure is a road through which you process your reserve. You can’t process your record without a reserve structure. The three sorts of reserve framework are manual, in-house mechanized, and outside (redistributed). The manual structure anticipates that you should process your cash by hand; the in-house mechanized utilizations account programming to process the reserve; the outer framework deduces you redistribute your cash to a store master affiliation. A cash framework stream plot shows the movement where you process your reserve. It streamlines account preparing and asks you to remain on track, (Douglas F. Roberts, 2007). 

Structure of the stream plot with an office suite program– this is the best course for a pro look. You can draw the chart by hand. Make boxes and shocks, which demonstrates the development of your reserve preparing, for example, where it begins and wraps up. Model: Gather time cards, check time cards for consistency, contact supervisor concerning absent or unrefined time cards, and physically figure time cards. Make a social occasion including the cash dealing with duties, for example, physically discovering wages; statutory reasoning’s, for example, account expenses and compensation garnishments; pay rates; purposeful finishes, for example, retirement and restorative focal points; and making checks. Make another social occasion showing post-arranging duties, for example, physically make and record the cash register, make and post-diary territories, store workers’ compensation into the bank, and reasonable checks, (Matthew A., 200 A record structure is a road through which you process your reserve. You can’t process your record without a reserve structure. The three sorts of reserve framework are manual, in-house mechanized, and outside (redistributed). The manual structure anticipates that you should process your cash by hand; the in-house mechanized uses account programming to process the store; the outside framework induces you redistribute your cash to a reserve master affiliation. A cash framework stream plot displays the movement where you process your store. It streamlines account preparing and asks you to remain on track, (Douglas F. Roberts, 2007). 

Structure of the stream plot with an office suite program– this is the best course for an authority look. You can draw the chart by hand. Make boxes and shocks, which demonstrates the development of your reserve preparing, for example, where it begins and wraps up. Model: Gather time cards, check time cards for consistency, contact supervisor concerning absent or unrefined time cards, and physically figure time cards. Make a social affair including the cash dealing with duties, for example, physically discovering wages; statutory reasoning’s, for example, account expenses and compensation garnishments; pay rates; deliberate closures, for example, retirement and restorative focal points; and making checks. Make another social occasion exhibiting post-arranging duties, for example, physically make and record the cash register, make and post-diary territories, store workers’ compensation into the bank, and appropriate checks, (Matthew A., 200 A record structure is a road through which you process your reserve. You can’t process your record without a store structure. The three sorts of reserve framework are manual, in-house mechanized, and outside (redistributed). The manual structure anticipates that you should process your cash by hand; the in-house mechanized utilizations account programming to process the reserve; the outside framework derives you redistribute your cash to a store master affiliation. A cash framework stream plot displays the movement where you process your store. It streamlines account preparing and encourages you to remain on track, (Douglas F. Roberts, 2007). 

Structure of the stream plot with an office suite program– this is the best course for a master look. You can draw the chart by hand. Make boxes and shocks, which demonstrates the development of your reserve preparing, for example, where it begins and wraps up. Model: Gather time cards, check time cards for consistency, contact supervisor concerning absent or rough time cards, and physically figure time cards. Make a social affair including the cash dealing with duties, for example, physically discovering wages; statutory reasoning’s, for example, account expenses and compensation garnishments; pay rates; purposeful closures, for example, retirement and restorative focal points; and making checks. Make another social affair exhibiting post-arranging responsibilities, for example, physically make and record the cash register, make and post-diary zones, store workers’ compensation into the bank, and reasonable checks, (Matthew A., 2005)

System flowchart of cash disbursements system 

Cash installment is the methods by which a relationship, for instance, a business or government association, manages its use of benefits. Circulations are made to different zones of the business or particular records set up for agent points of interest and various occupations. Affiliations make inside controls, or independent precepts and rules, for apportioning money thusly. Such internal controls are ordinarily required for the relationship to work, in any case, they go with trademark inadequacies that the pioneers of the affiliation should note, (Gillian., 2006). 

Prepare Cash Disbursement. Thecashdisbursementsclerkreceivesthevoucherpacketandreviewsthedocumentsforcompletenessandclericalaccuracy for each installment, the associate prepares a check and records the check number, dollar aggregate, voucher number, and other applicable data in the check register, which is furthermore called the cash installment journal. 

Update AP Record. 

Interminable supply of the voucher group, the AP delegate removes the commitment by charging the AP reinforcement account or by annal the check number and portion date in the voucher register. 

Post to General Ledger. 

The general record work gets the journal voucher from cash installment and the record summation from AP. The voucher exhibits the total reductions in the organization’s responsibilities and cash account in view of portions to suppliers.

DFD of Cash Disbursements System

Weakness in Internal Control over Cash Disbursements


Obligation suggests the security of the inward controls and their ability to withstand terrible conduct and misuse. While overseeing immense cash appropriations, misappropriation and various types of burglary or deception are potential results. Internal controls that have broken after structures, (for instance, a nonappearance of log-ins to the system) or various issues have poor obligation limits. They make gaps that may cause an association to lose money through beguiling behavior.

Ceaseless Adaptation Issues 

Cash dispersions are only here and there made comparatively for the entire presence of an affiliation. Structures and methodology of support change with the condition of the affiliation and with the headway of new development. Security endeavors can change the channels through which cash moves. New government rules can incorporate more advances. Nonetheless, internal controls may not change as quickly, deserting an affiliation slacking as it tries to meet the new essentials with out of date strategies. 

Improper Controls 

Inside controls are made and settled on by the business, ordinarily by a directorate for an undertaking anyway by pioneers in a wide scope of affiliations. These decisions are not continually appropriate. Controls can be exorbitantly reckless in specific regions, causing security concerns, and unnecessarily extreme in others, provoking dreary and ill-advised sponsoring delays. This is one reason affiliations may survey expressly for inward controls, to get an outside end. 

Missing Controls and Specific Circumstances 

In case inside controls are not constrained by an outside power, there is similarly an open door that some fundamental controls may be skipped. For example, an affiliation may have point by point controls for cash installment for ordinary business adventures, yet may be at a mishap with respect to dissemination for another permit program just in light of the way that rules have not been made for that circumstance. Such helpless sides can provoke future issues with lacking controls.

Data flow diagram of payroll system 

Generally, it is looked for after to manage the specialists the delegate’s costs, Allowances, remuneration, Gross Salary, Deduction, Tax and significantly more for a specific timespan. The board and Accounting are two essential fundamental parts for money. Money is a region wherein you would lean toward not to put it all on the line since it prompts some fiscal and veritable legal results. Money is authentic stress for each SME. It is compulsory for all business to pay every specialist as indicated by the organization standards and rules. In addition, this assignment will deliver for the association the officials and improve the business in the market and keep up the regarded and reputation of the association. Others, this dare to urge the association to manage all the genuine system and agents utilized suitably and effectively, (Larry, 2005). 


The Internal Control Weaknesses of a Payroll System

The present automated account structures make uncovering time worked and dealing with other money works straightforward and customized. They give many money reports for assessing and documentation. They offer security through the hand, exceptional imprint and even eye affirmation time clock systems to dodge false work-time declaring. They can thus accumulate paid vacation and other agent points of interest reliant on time worked. They are in like manner exposed in the hands of misleading delegates who approach and administrative rights to those systems

Entering Payroll Time Data 

Money systems use particular agent codes or various methods for the affirmation to ensure that specialists report their own one of kind hours worked. Since codes can be shared, one agent could regardless mistakenly check in for another basically by using another laborer’s code. Specialist handbooks should unquestionably express the most ideal procedure for looking at it and the consequences for mistakenly entering money information. HR should develop a clear technique for referencing time off and changes to specialist pay rates. Imprints should be required for any trade impacting a delegate’s rate of pay or account taking care of.

Division of Payroll Processing 

HR is every now and again accountable for setting up new agents in the financial structure, dealing with money data and scattering checks. Entering fund data and taking care of checks should be part among HR and accounting to ensure that one individual or division can’t add up to the money cycle without examination. Without a unit of commitment, tricky delegates could set up a false laborer, record time worked or escape hours and possess the money to an individual record through the immediate store. There is less opportunity to divert appropriations when one office inputs data and various strategies the fund data and gets checks, (Goldfinger, 2004).

Absence of a Payroll Preview 

Going before taking care of checks, account systems will make a lot of reports that can be assessed for exactness before “live” checks are printed and direct stores instituted. The money audit should be done by a specialist or office other than those responsible for fund dealing with. Terminated delegates who are up ’til now tolerating checks, outrageous proportions of hours worked or escape hours posted can exhibit planning mix-ups or control of data. While authentic bungles can occur, intentional undertakings to possess resources could go unnoticed without an “opportunity” for a smart survey.

Absence of Systematic Internal Audits 

The accounting or record office should set up a delegate to lead an internal money survey at any rate quarterly. Most specialists who adequately take a great deal of money do in that capacity after some time. Discontinuous, advanced audits of the fund and accounting limits could help keep a misleading specialist from setting up an arrangement to hoodwink his chief and reduce the money related incident. 


Documentation instruments are program flowcharts and decision tables. Accountants ought not to be engineers to evaluate or structure an accounting information system, in any case, they should grasp when all is said in done terms how these mechanical assemblies work. A variety of programming instruments exists for chronicle AISs. These consolidate standard individual productivity devices, for instance, word dealing with and spreadsheet programming, specific CASE instruments, and programming packs proposed to enable associations to agree to SOX. End-customer preparing is basic because various specialists do it and besides in light of the way that such applications routinely contribute in a general sense to the capability of express workplaces or divisions. Various laborers don’t record their applications extraordinary, and this consistently costs time and money.


Baraban, Regina, (2005). ‘‘Look Out for SOX’’ Vol. 24, No. 2 pp. 23–24. 

Bradford, Marianne, Sandra B. Richtermeyer, & Douglas F. Roberts, (2007). ‘‘System Diagramming Techniques: An Analysis of Methods Used in Accounting Education and Practice,’’ Journal of Information Systems Vol. 21, Iss.1 pp. 173–213. 

Cozad, Matthew A., (2005). ‘‘Top 5 SOX Best Practices for Small Companies’’ Strategic Finance Vol. 87, No. 4 pp. 1–7. 

Campbell, Gillian. , (2006). ‘‘Flowing Through a Process’’ Quality Vol. 43, No. 6 (June 2004), pp. 50–52. Hoffman, Thomas. ‘‘Calibrating Toward Compliance’’ Computerworld Vol. 40, No. pp. 21–24. 

Hubbard, Larry, (2005). ‘‘Limits to Process Documentation’’ Internal Auditor Vol. 62, No. 3 pp. 26–27. 

Tuggle, Francis D., & Wendy E. Goldfinger, (2004). ‘‘A Methodology for Mining Embedded Knowledge from Process Maps’’ Human Systems Management Vol. 23, No. 1 pp. 1–13.

Vogt, Nancy, (2005). ‘‘Simplifying HIPAA for Staff is One Way to Ensure Good Decisions are Made about Patient Privacy’’ Journal of Health Care Compliance Vol. 7, No. 5 pp. 75–76.

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This report helps to develop a clear picture of the importance of managing information systems and the impact of IT technology system. In this context, therefore, most of the organizations are in the process of adopting these changes in their IT systems to maximize on quality production, meet customer expectations, to ease the workload of using the filing system and most importantly to have a competitive edge over its competitors. ANZ Bank is one of the leading banking organizations in Australia and New Zealand. It is one of the organizations that has adopted IT and IS support system that ensures smooth bank operations. Components of an Information system, strategically organized concepts of effective management of information systems provide a robust framework for understanding the roles, critiques, risks imposed by information systems and the dangers of using information systems according to Xu & Quaddus (2013).

Despite the many positive outcomes of adopting the IT technology information systems, there is a significant concern in cybersecurity that can quickly tarnish the image and reputation of an organization or even a loss of critical data. Therefore, as organizations are busy making considerations to use these information systems, they should ensure that there are efficient IT experts who can put up a reliable firewall to secure the interests of ANZ bank from individuals with evil intentions hence ensuring that the acceptable code of ethics is adopted and respected (Béranger, 2015).


In recent years, there is a divine purpose of keeping the bank’s information systems updated and at par with the competing companies. Not only do companies need to adopt this information system, but also it must keep it updated at all times because technological changes occur daily. Information system (IS) is defined as an integrated, coordinated network of components put together to convert data into information (Schirrmeister, 2013). Through IS, organizations can improve efficiency in data management, boosting productivity. In this context, ANZ (Australia and New Zealand) bank has made a substantial technological change in securing its information systems by using some of the best banking software. Being one among the largest banks in the continent, this is of considerable significance because control of data will be more natural hence having a competitive advantage in the market. The report focuses on the role of IS and IT systems and ways it assists in mitigating the risk in organizations basing the discussion on ANZ. It further reflects on the way companies benefit from the wide variety of IS and IT systems. 

Components of an Information System

A sound information system is primarily composed of five parts that include the hardware, software, database, network, and people, that come together to perform input, process output, feedback and control of data (Wang, 2014).

The hardware consists of the physical output or input devices, processor, the operating system, and the media devices. The software is a set of programs and procedures installed in the hardware. The database consists of organized data in the required design, and the network refers to the hubs, communication media, and other network devices. The people are the operators and network administrators of the information system.

In every organization, IS can be classified based on how the information is used and can be therefore divided into operations support systems or management support system.

Operations support system

The end user does input of data in an organization. It is processed to produce information like reports that can be utilized by internal or external users. At ANZ bank, this is critical because it is easier to perform audits determining what is working and what is not. The principal purpose of this operations support system is to facilitate and control business transactions, management of internal and external communication hence update the organization’s central database.

Transaction processing systems (TPS) – this is a component of the operations support system used by ANZ and other banks, where transactions involve different departments like accounts, sales, or finance. Its primary purpose is to categorize such transactions into batch transactions processing and real-time transaction processing.

Process control system – some errors may be made by computers without involving any human. Therefore, the relevant information is fed to this system on a real-time basis hence enabling more natural process control (Zeng, Qiu & Cui, 2015).

Enterprise collaboration system – this type of operations support system enables collaboration efforts through improving the sharing of data and communication. For instance, use of Navision software by ANZ bank provides end-to-end encryption of the bank’s operations. Besides, using the Enterprise Knowledge Portal (EKP), the bank workers and other users can share information more reliably.

Management support systems

 This strategy facilitates a more straightforward decision-making scheme for managers. They are classified into a management information system, decision support, expert support system, and accounting information systems.

Strategic information systems (SIS)

SIS systems are information systems that are developed to manage the corporate business initiative to give the organization a competitive advantage. They are used to deliver a product or service, which is at a significantly lower cost, differentiated, or one that targets a specific market segment. They majorly provide sufficient and dependable information that will keep the company’s operations smooth. SIS systems are, therefore, crucial in the profitability of the company hence opening new markets and businesses.

The role of SIS systems

 The purpose of SIS is to give an organization a competitive advantage in the market. 

It can be done by delivering a product or service at a lower cost at a fee that is related to the quality of the service or product that will yield high market returns on investment thus attractive in the market. ANZ bank can systematically store its data hence being influential in adhering to the customer needs and expectations in the best way possible. Moreover, the integrated information and IT system of ANZ is helpful in time management, especially minimizing the time spent to serve customers. It considers the overall cost of all corporate activities involved in the delivery of that particular product or service. The lower price will also result in the product or service penetration in the market (Daim et al., 2014).

Differentiated products – differentiation means the unique features added to a commodity or service that are competitive and at the same time attractive to the market. Addition of these unique features on the product or service may incur some additional expenses to the organization but will be very eye-catching in the market. It gives the customer the perception that they are getting extras/rewards, and they will be willing to pay.

Focusing on a specific market segment – IT products and services has helped ANZ bank to define, expand, and fill a particular section in the market that has not been adequately occupied by other banking institutions. For instance, the bank provides integrated banking options to its customers’ hence more convenient service. An organization may come up with a product or service that is specifically designed for a specific target market 

Innovation – SIS systems are of great significance in the development of a product or service through the use of computers. The bank’s cloud backup system enables its users who are logged on to the same, to have access to any information necessary from any corner of the world. These developments are unique; hence, a compliment of what existed before it, for example, ATMs and credit card handling when shopping. This provides convenience and less time wastage to the customer (Sousa & Oz, 2014).

Another significant role of these systems is actively supporting the senior management of an organization in decision-making. Through the IS system, managers can get a clear view of activities going on in the company, check reviews and ratings on what the customers think of the company’s product or service hence easy to determine sectors that need change.

Security concerns on information systems At ANZ Bank

As the IT sector is rapidly changing, the more security threats on IS are changing, and therefore, the compliance of organizations is becoming more complex. Information security (infosec) is the steps taken to prevent unauthorized access, use, disclosure, and inspection of information. To ensure that the system’s security is secure, the organization should ensure that the IS security should be to end encrypted. ANZ communication through the integrated systems is highly encrypted, thus safety in sharing and receiving information all over its network in Australia. This information security policy should allow revision and updates of the set down security procedures to ensure the system is fully protected at all times, hence a good back up plan. It is also supposed to consider the risk assessment of the organization to analyze possible future risks likely to be faced by the organizations IS like fraudsters and hackers.

Information security’s policy objectives aim at maintaining confidentiality, integrity, and ensuring the availability of resources to the authorized personnel. It is supposed to elaborate the terms used in the policy, explaining the meaning of licensed personnel in the organization’s context, still focusing on efficient policy implementation. This is mainly achieved through the process of multi-risk management that is responsible for identifying assets, threats, and their sources, vulnerabilities, possible effects, and measures; thus, assessment of the risk management plan. To handle these issues, professionals and academics have collaborated hence seek to set specific guidelines and policy standards on passkeys, antivirus software and firewall, encryption software, the legal user and liability, and the administrator.

Issues like theft, natural disasters, or malfunction of the server or computer are some of the crucial aspects that come up when setting up an information security system (Moore, 2017). Identity theft, on the other hand, refers to the attempt of acting like another person to obtain that person’s private data or information. Nowadays, theft of equipment like cell phones, tablets, and computers has increased at a high rate hence the risk of losing personal data stored in these devices. Institutions like the government, hospitals, and security facilities are some of the institutions with highly sensitive information that requires to be handled in a very confidential manner. From a business point of view, information security is critical and therefore, must be well balanced against the cost. 

Measures that can reduce information security risk at ANZ

Some of the steps necessary to handle the risks posed by information systems include reducing and implementing countermeasures that will eliminate vulnerabilities, thus block potential threats. This should be achieved through ensuring the information security systems updated regularly and setting up of well-coded firewalls that are not easy to breach. For example, in 2017, Facebook suffered a significant hack because an unknown party with malicious intentions breached its system firewall.

The organizations should contract or transfer the cost of information threats to a third party, for instance, outsourcing or buying insurance. An insurance company will assess the risk or threat posed on the information system hence evaluate that risk and compensate the organization accordingly. This helps the organization to avoid unnecessary losses that may be incurred as a result of a security breach on its information security system.

The organizations should evaluate whether the cost of the countermeasures required is higher than the probability cost of loss as a result of a breach in its information security system. It is a necessary measure because the organization can decide whether to do away with the whole system that has a risk of breach and set up a new one or set countermeasures to help in the management of possible threats.

Business continuity planning

Despite the many threats that are imposed by information systems, business operations must go on whatsoever. Therefore, the management of an organization should formulate a business continuity plan that creates a guideline for commencing the healthy business practices despite the foreseen risks. Business continuity planning (BCP) is a plan that identifies an organization’s risk of exposure to potential threats thus brings together fixed and current assets to provide adequate prevention methods and recovery for the organization, still maintaining value system integrity and its competitive advantage according to Lemberger & Morel (2012). Precisely, risk management and disaster management is vital during business continuity planning. 

Business continuity planning phases

In earlier years, a BCP would only protect the data, but that has changed lately because the process includes recovering from the threat, continuation of operations, and preservation of the whole business operations. Therefore, it is supposed to cover the contingency plans that aim at securing every resource of the ANZ bank. In recent years, the bank has taken substantial investment risks to innovate new products and improve on the existing ones. BCP has five continuity faces that include project management and initiation, business impact analysis (BIA), recovery strategies, plan design and development, testing, maintenance, awareness, and training. 

Project management and initiation phase

This phase includes risk analysis where it is easy to determine a possible risk, how it will happen, impacts of the risk, and measures that can be used to avoid the from affecting ANZ bank operations. It also advocates for getting the management support, the establishment of a fully functional BCP team, and creation of a work plan with an initial report to the management hence obtain the management’s approval to commence. This phase describes the identification of risk and the measures that should be followed to ensure the continuity of the bank’s business operations (Felker, Jomo & Rasiah, 2013).

Business impact analysis 

In this phase, the formal agreement with the top management is carried out for each time crucial business report. Business impact analysis is necessary when deciding the maximum town outage. It explains the quantity loss incurred because of the incurred cost of recovery without having an estimate of possible kinds of threats since it only considers the consequences.

In this face, the business experts in the organization should identify information-gathering methods necessary, for instance, interviews, questionnaires, or software tools. Selection of interviewees, customization of inquiries, information analysis, and identification of business functions that are time critical, is done in this phase of business continuity planning.

Recovery phase

In this phase, the development of recovery strategies is based on predefined MTDs and management approval. Therefore, this phased strategy addresses the recovery of business operations. This is the necessary steps that should be followed to resume the regular business operations and the facilities and supplies required for the same. It also puts into consideration the customers as well as the workers who critically oversee the entire process, network, and technical recovery of information, including backups.

Business continuity process development phase

In this phase, the ANZ bank should formulate a detailed business and service plan for data recovery. This helps in the maintenance plan whereby the management has to develop an idea on how to keep the BCP development updated. This can be done by the creation of awareness strategies and training of members of staff on how to effectively implement the plan. The sample of the project is classified into the initial disaster response, resuming dangerous and non-serious business operations after the disaster, restoration of the system to the leading site and interaction with external forces that have a direct or indirect influence to the organization. 

The final phase

The final phase is a dynamic process that involves the testing, maintenance, and training of the business continuity planning strategy. Support, in this case, means fixing the issues discovered during testing. Therefore, it should involve the implementation of change management, auditing and addressing the findings of audit hence a critical annual review of the plan to check how consistent and effective it is. Since training is an ongoing process that never ends, it is, therefore, necessary to make it part of the corporate culture and standards.

The ethical and legal implications of information systems 

Information systems have brought an enormous impact on the daily operations of the ANZ bank through the development of new technology with unique features and designs. Ethics refers to the acceptable principles necessary in governing an individual or a group of people. Introduction of these new technological changes can have a considerable influence on the human character by giving humans the privileges and capabilities that were not initially there. For example, digital technology has given humans the power to compile data from different sources to create a person’s profile that was very hard in the past years (Iannone, 2017).

Every member of the Association for Computing (ACM) is expected to portray ethical professional behavior. This code identifies 24 formulated imperatives such as commitment, and most of the issues likely to be faced by professionals. 

According to ACM’s code of organizational ethics, every member of staff is required to use their computer software and system. This means that every employee must have an appropriate login credential before making use of system resources like file space, communication ports, among others.

Implementation of systems that intentionally demean and distress individuals or groups is unethical and unacceptable. Organizations should adopt a familiar and easy to use IS that does not adherently demean other people.

The top management of an organization in charge of computer systems should take responsibility for ensuring that the system does not degrade, but enhance the work of an employee or user of the system for that matter. Personal and professional development, physical safety, and dignity of employees should be put into consideration during the implementation of a computer system. Therefore, appropriate and acceptable human-computer relations should be highly considered during system designing as well as in the work area. 

Advantages of the ethical and legal implications of information systems 

A major significance of creating a code of ethics that is acceptable is the clarification it brings out about the acceptable behavior and standards for a particular group of professionals. The variety of experiences and diversified backgrounds of the members of a group brings about diversified ideologies in regards to ethical standards. At the workplace, the acceptable code of ethics should be written down and shared/ communicated to the employees in a clear and precise manner (Dicks, 2017).

 These systems provide a fair and just system that functions efficiently to help motivate the worker instead of degrading them. This is a compliment of the effort, time and resources employees and the management invest in the organization.

However, a few disadvantages related to the adherence of professionals to the code of ethics. Concerning ACM, a code of ethics is a voluntary thing because and some members of staff may choose not to observe that code. If this happens at the workplace, the specific worker/ workers may face termination of their responsibilities in the organization.

Another setback is the fact that the code of ethics is not legally binding. This means that no legal authority says people who do not adhere to the law of ethics will be prosecuted since it is not a criminal offense. Therefore, violation of this code may cause harm to some people who violate the code in the case where they interact with ‘unforgiving’ persons.

Another demerit of a code of ethics is always a room that allows important matters to arise, and these matters may not necessarily be addressed in the acceptable code of ethics. For instance, technology develops very fast; hence, changes occur rapidly. Therefore, a system of ethics may not make changes as frequent as technology does; thus, it is hard to keep up with speed. 


In conclusion, managing information systems in the banking sector today is not an optional thing. IS and IT systems are an essential fragment of the daily business transactions of an ANZ bank to ensure product development, customer satisfaction hence a positive perception by every stakeholder (Blyler, 2013). The top management is obliged to ensure adequate safety on information and IT systems to safeguard the interests of the organization. Moreover, ANZ bank’s management should ensure effective communication of the code of ethics that should be observed in the workplace and in managing information systems. Therefore, every stakeholder has to ensure that acceptable business practices are adhered to for efficiency at the workplace.


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